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Sítio Roberto Burle Marx

Sítio Roberto Burle Marx

Situated west of Rio de Janeiro, the site embodies a successful project developed over more than 40 years by landscape architect and artist Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994) to create a “living work of art” and a “landscape laboratory” using native plants and drawing on Modernist ideas. Began in 1949, the garden features the key characteristics that came to define Burle Marx’s landscape gardens and influenced the development of modern gardens internationally. The garden is characterized by sinuous forms, exuberant mass planting, architectural plant arrangements, dramatic colour contrasts, use of tropical plants, and the incorporation of elements of traditional folk culture. By the end of the 1960s, the site housed the most representative collection of Brazilian plants, alongside other rare tropical species. In the site, 3,500 cultivated species of tropical and subtropical flora grow in harmony with the native vegetation of the region, notably mangrove swamp, restinga (a distinct type of coastal tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest) and the Atlantic Forest. Sítio Roberto Burle Marx exhibits an ecological conception of form as a process, including social collaboration which is the basis for environmental and cultural preservation. It is the first modern tropical garden to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sítio Roberto Burle Marx

Situé à l’ouest de Rio de Janeiro, ce site incarne la réussite d’un projet élaboré pendant plus de 40 ans par l’architecte paysagiste et artiste Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994) pour créer une « œuvre d’art vivante » et un « laboratoire paysager » utilisant des plantes indigènes et s’inspirant des idées modernistes. Créé en 1949, ce jardin présente les principales caractéristiques qui ont défini les jardins paysagers de Burle Marx et influencé le développement des jardins modernes au niveau international. Le jardin est caractérisé par des formes sinueuses, des plantations en masses exubérantes, des agencements architecturaux de plantes, des contrastes de couleurs spectaculaires, l’utilisation de plantes tropicales et l’intégration d’éléments de la culture populaire traditionnelle. À la fin des années 1960, le site abritait la collection la plus représentative de plantes brésiliennes, ainsi que des espèces tropicales rares. Au sein du site, les 3 500 espèces de flore tropicale et subtropicale cultivées vivent en harmonie avec la végétation indigène de la région, notamment celle de la mangrove, de la restinga (un type particulier de forêt côtière tropicale et subtropicale humide de feuillus) et de la forêt atlantique. Sítio Roberto Burle Marx révèle une conception écologique de la forme incluant une collaboration sociale qui est à la base de la préservation de l’environnement et de la culture. C’est le premier jardin tropical moderne à être inscrit sur la Liste du patrimoine mondial.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

موقع روبرتو بورل ماركس

يمثّل الموقع، الكائن غرب ريو دي جانيرو، مشروعاً ناجحاً طوّره مهندس المناظر الطبيعية والفنان روبرتو بورل ماركس (1909-1994، على مدار أكثر من 40 عاماً، لإنشاء "عمل فنيّ حيّ" و"مختبر مناظر طبيعية" يستخدم النباتات المستوطنة ويستقي الإلهام من الأفكار المعاصرة. تتميّز الحديقة، التي أُنشئت في عام 1949، بالسمات الجوهريّة التي باتت عنواناً لحدائق بورل ماركس ذات المناظر الطبيعية، وتركت بصمتها الخاصة في إنشاء وتطوير الحدائق المعاصرة على الصعيد الدولي. وتتميز الحديقة بالأشكال المتعرّجة، والزراعة على مساحات شاسعة كثيفة وبأشكال هندسية، فضلاً عن التباين الغني في الألوان، واستخدام نباتات استوائية، ودمج عناصر من الثقافة الشعبية التقليديّة. وكان الموقع في أواخر الستينيات يضم المجموعة الأكثر تمثيلاً للنباتات البرازيلية، إلى جانب مجموعة أخرى من الأصناف الاستوائية النادرة. وينمو في الموقع 3500 نوع من النباتات الاستوائية وشبه الاستوائية المزروعة في تناغم مع النباتات المحلية في المنطقة، ولا سيما المانغروف والريستينجاس (وهي نوع مميز من الغابات الاستوائية وشبه الاستوائية الساحلية ذات الأوراق العريضة)، والغابات الأطلسية. يوضّح موقع روبرتو بورل ماركس المفهوم الإيكولوجي للبنية، والتعاون الاجتماعي الذي هو أساس الحفاظ على البيئة والثقافة وصونهما. ويُعتبر الموقع أول حديقة استوائية معاصرة تُدرج في قائمة التراث العالمي.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

罗伯托·布雷·马克思庄园

该遗产地位于里约热内卢以西,主体为巴西景观设计大师、艺术家罗伯托·布雷·马克思(Roberto Burle Marx,1909-1994)历时40多年开发的一个成功项目。他运用本土植物,借鉴现代主义思潮,打造了一个“活的艺术作品”兼“景观实验室”。自1949年起,该庄园就拥有日后界定马克思园林的关键特征,并影响了现代园林的国际化发展。其特点包括弯曲的造型、多且茂盛的植被、符合建筑学规范的植物配置、强烈的色彩对比、热带植物的运用,以及传统民俗文化元素的融入。到20世纪60年代末,庄园已收集最具代表性的巴西植物,以及其它稀有热带物种。3500种热带和亚热带植物栽培品种与本土原生植被在这里和谐共生,多见原生植被有红树林沼泽、雷斯廷加(一种独特的热带和亚热带海岸湿润阔叶林)和大西洋森林。庄园展示了形式即过程的生态概念,包括作为环境和文化保护基础的社会协作。它是第一个被列入世界遗产名录的现代热带园林。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Сад Роберто Бурле-Маркса

Расположенный к западу от Рио-де-Жанейро объект воплощает успешный проект, который более 40 лет разрабатывал ландшафтный архитектор и художник Роберто Бурле-Маркс (1909–1994 гг.), с целью создать «живое произведение искусства» и «ландшафтную лабораторию» с использованием местных растений и на основе идей модернизма. Созданный в 1949 году сад имеет ключевые характеристики, которые стали определять ландшафтные сады Бурле-Маркса и повлияли на развитие современных садов во всем мире. Для сада характерны извилистые формы, обильная массовая посадка растений, архитектурные композиции растений, резкие цветовые контрасты, использование тропических растений и включение элементов традиционной народной культуры. К концу 1960-х годов на территории объекта, наряду с другими редкими тропическими видами, находилась самая репрезентативная коллекция бразильских растений. На территории сада в гармонии с местной растительностью региона произрастают 3500 культивируемых видов тропической и субтропической флоры, в частности мангровые заросли, рестинга (особый тип прибрежных тропических и субтропических влажных широколиственных лесов) и Атлантический лес. Cад Роберто Бурле-Маркса демонстрирует экологическую концепцию формы как процесса, включая социальное сотрудничество, являющееся основой для сохранения окружающей среды и культуры. Это первый современный тропический сад, внесенный в Список всемирного наследия.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sitio Roberto Burle Marx

Situado al oeste de Río de Janeiro, este sitio muestra el logrado proyecto llevado a cabo durante más de 40 años por el artista y arquitecto paisajista Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994), que pretendió crear una “obra de arte viviente” y un “laboratorio del paisaje” recurriendo a la vegetación nativa e inspirándose en las ideas del movimiento modernista. Comenzado en 1949, este jardín paisajístico es representativo de los elementos esenciales de lo que llegó a ser con el tiempo el estilo singular de Burle Marx, cuya influencia ha sido notoria en la creación de numerosos jardines modernos en todo el mundo. El jardín se caracteriza por sus formas sinuosas, la exuberancia de sus plantaciones masivas, la disposición arquitectónica de su vegetación, la utilización de especies botánicas tropicales y la incorporación de elementos artísticos propios del folclore popular. A finales del decenio de 1960, este sitio albergaba la colección más representativa de plantas brasileñas nativas, junto con numerosos especímenes raros de flora tropical. Las 3.500 especies vegetales plantadas en el jardín crecen en armonía con la vegetación autóctona de la región, compuesta esencialmente por manglares, bosques húmedos de hoja ancha (“restingas”, en portugués) y bosques atlánticos. El sitio es una viva muestra del proceso de plasmación en los hechos de una concepción ecológica de la estética, que ha integrado además la cooperación social en su realización por ser ésta el elemento básico fundamental de la preservación del patrimonio medioambiental y cultural. Es el primer jardín tropical moderno que se inscribe en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

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Sítio Roberto Burle Marx © Iphan/SRBM
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Sítio Roberto Burle Marx, located in the west zone of the City of Rio de Janeiro, comprises extensive landscape gardens and buildings set between mangroves and native Atlantic forest in a mountainous area of the district of Barra de Guaratiba. The property was a ‘landscape laboratory’ for landscape architect and artist Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994). Over a period of more than forty years, he experimented with fusing artistic Modernist ideas and native tropical plants to create garden designs as living works of art.

Burle Marx introduced the aesthetics of painting to landscape design. Drawing inspiration from the key founders of the Modern Art movement, he created abstract paintings that included modernist images based on abstractions of Portuguese/ Brazilian folk culture, and used these as a basis of garden designs in which plants became components of three dimensional living works of art. Burle Marx popularised the use of native tropical plants, many of which he collected and cultivated. The Sítio is thus important as a physical manifestation of Burle Marx’s approaches, his principles and his plants, as well as for the way it allows an understanding of the key design characteristics that he used again and again in his designs such as sinuous forms, exuberant mass planting, architectural arrangements of plants, dramatic colour contrasts, a focus on tropical plants, and the incorporation of elements of traditional Portuguese-Brazilian folk culture.

The Sítio is a remarkable survival as a landscape laboratory that illuminates the way one of the great landscape designers of the 20th century evolved his influential designs. That led to the development of what became known as the Modern tropical garden, an important expression of the Modern Movement in the field of landscape design and one that has largely influenced the shaping of parks and gardens since the mid-20th century in Brazil and throughout the world.

Criterion (ii): Sítio Roberto Burle Marx demonstrates an important interchange of ideas on landscape design related to the importation of ideas of the Modernist art movement from Europe, their shaping and adaptation through experimentation to a landscape form based on the use of native tropical flora, and their use in a huge number of parks and gardens around the world, which together have had a profound impact on the development of what is now known as Modernist Tropical garden design.

Criterion (iv): Sítio Roberto Burle Marx is an outstanding example of a landscape that demonstrates the development of a new type of landscape design that fused creative ideas of the Modern art movement with local typologies and tropical plants to create a style that ultimately became known as the modern tropical garden.

Integrity

The property contains all the attributes that are central to the Outstanding Universal Value. The boundaries enclose all the land acquired by Roberto Burle Marx for his landscaping activities, and the property is of an adequate size. Although none of the attributes are under threat, they are vulnerable to incremental change in the absence of Conservation Plan, based on clear documentation of the property and on a detailed delineation of the attributes.

Authenticity

The authenticity of the property is related to its form, design, and materials, including living plant materials, the interaction between all of these to create artistic works, and the ideas that they convey. The documentation related to the attributes needs to be greatly improved to guide conservation to ensure there is no gradual erosion over time.  The historical role the property had as a laboratory for the development of design ideas has ended and it is therefore essential that there is a clearer understanding of full scope of the attributes and how they will be sustained.

Protection and management requirements

The property is legally protected at all available levels. At the national level it is protected by the National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN). At the state level it has protection under the State Institute of Cultural Heritage (INEPAC). At the local level the property and buffer zone are integrated into the Rio de Janeiro State Conservation Strategy. These protective measures will be supplemented by a municipal law on urban development, and regulations to address urban pressure around the property. There are effective management structures and processes in place for the property and buffer zone at the three levels of government, with offices and personnel experienced with heritage properties and urban planning. A proposed new management plan will update and improve the existing Strategic Plan (2012-2018), which is operationalised through annual Action Plans. The new plan, scheduled for completion in 2020, is intended to embody World Heritage principles and concepts. It is proposed to create a management committee involving IPHAN (National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage) and a range of relevant institutions for the property and buffer zone, including those from the non-governmental sector, civil society and external experts. The property is adequately resourced, including with appropriate staff. To address the vulnerability of the attributes to incremental change over time, there is a need to develop a Conservation Plan.

Activities (1)