This document is a partial export of the World Heritage Policy Compendium


3    Policies Regarding CONSERVATION of World Heritage Properties

Conservation of cultural and natural heritage is at the core of the Convention. Conservation includes effective and active measures that can be taken by States Parties to ensure the identification, protection, presentation and transmission of heritage.

There is no single definition of conservation in relation to both cultural and natural heritage. However, with regards to cultural heritage ‘all operations designed to understand a property, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard, and, if required, its restoration and enhancement’ could be part of its conservation (Nara Document on Authenticity). Conservation of natural heritage refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence (IUCN).

The Conservation theme includes policies related to protection, management, monitoring, impact assessments, factors affecting the properties, tourism and sustainable development.

3.5    Factors affecting properties

3.5.5    Biological resource use/modification

The collecting/harvesting of wild plants and animals (forestry, fishing, hunting, gathering) and harvesting domesticated species (silviculture, agriculture, aquaculture).
Fishing/collecting aquatic resources (For example: Trawling, Netting, Line fishing, Game fishing, Collection/harvest fisheries, Spearfishing, By-catch/incidental take issues). Aquaculture (For example: Marine, Freshwater aquaculture). Land conversion (For example: Agriculture (crops and livestock), Rural, Forestry). Livestock farming/grazing of domesticated animals (For example: Grazing on farms or by pastoral groups). Crop production (For example: Deep ploughing, New crops, Intensification of planted agriculture, Traditional crops, Traditional systems, Gardening). Commercial wild plant collection (For example: Pharmaceutical trade, Medicinal plant, Fodder collection, Thatching, Mushrooms, Bulbs etc). Subsistence wild plant collection -Indigenous subsistence hunting, gathering and collecting, i.e. not for economic benefit, for example: Food plants, Medicinal plants, Fodder collection, Thatching, Mushrooms, Bulbs etc). Commercial hunting (For example:  Bushmeat trade, Guided game hunting, Subsistence hunting). Subsistence, i.e. not for economic benefit, hunting. Forestry /wood production (For example: Logging, Pulp production, All silvicultural operations, Restoration/regeneration, Sustainable wood harvesting).

Case Law - Ecological connectivity

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee considers it is crucial to ensure the maintenance of ecological connectivity between the property’s component parts, by strengthening and improving measures to ensure consistency and greater functional linkages between component sites of a property and its surrounding, and to develop appropriate measures to minimize the effects of any activity on ecological connectivity and/or ensure its restoration (based on case law on decisions on State of Conservation and Nomination). [1]

ANNEX I. List of documents and texts

Decision 35 COM 8B.9

Decision 41 COM 7B.37

Decision 43 COM 8B.10

Decision 43 COM 7A.8

Decision 44 COM 7B.114

Decision 44 COM 7B.174

Decision 44 COM 7B.175





[1] See for example Decisions 35 COM 8B.9 , 41 COM 7B.37 , 43 COM 7A.8 , 43 COM 8B.10 , 44 COM 7B.114 , 44 COM 7B.174 , 44 COM 7B.175 .