This document is a partial export of the World Heritage Policy Compendium
3 Policies Regarding CONSERVATION of World Heritage Properties
3.5 Factors affecting properties
3.5.9 Other human activities
Conservation of cultural and natural heritage is at the core of the Convention. Conservation includes effective and active measures that can be taken by States Parties to ensure the identification, protection, presentation and transmission of heritage.
There is no single definition of conservation in relation to both cultural and natural heritage. However, with regards to cultural heritage ‘all operations designed to understand a property, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard, and, if required, its restoration and enhancement’ could be part of its conservation (Nara Document on Authenticity). Conservation of natural heritage refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence (IUCN).
The Conservation theme includes policies related to protection, management, monitoring, impact assessments, factors affecting the properties, tourism and sustainable development.
Illegal activities (For example: Illegal extraction of biological resources (i.e. poaching), Blast fishing, cyanide fishing, Illegal extraction of geological resources (mining/fossils), Illegal trade, Illegal occupation of space, Illegal excavations, Illegal construction, Looting, Theft, Treasure hunting, Ghost nets (discarded fishing gear). Deliberate destruction of heritage (For example: Vandalism, Graffiti, Politically motivated acts, Arson). Military training. War. Terrorism. Civil unrest.
20. "[The World Heritage Committee] expresses its utmost concern about the impacts of conflicts causing an escalation of the already severe poaching crisis in central Africa, as armed groups are financing their activities through illegal wildlife trade, which is having a severe impact on wildlife populations, thereby degrading the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of natural World Heritage properties;"