15 November 2002
9h00 > 10h30
Panel chaired by Bonnie
Burnham, President of the World Monuments
NEW FORMS OF PARTNERSHIPS
FOR NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE CONSERVATION
|| This panel explored emerging partnerships
built on the realisation that in many cases, in Bonnie
Burnham’s words, “the community is better at managing
its own affairs than the government.”
| Neil Cossons,
Chairman of English Heritage, described the complex partnerships working
to rehabilitate Stonehenge, a World Heritage site which was described
in Parliamentary debate as a “national disgrace” because
of poor visitor facilities and a landscape criss-crossed by two major
roads. Now “Stonehenge is at a turning point, perhaps the most
important point in its 6,000-year history,” Cossons said, thanks
to a partnership joining English Heritage and the National Trust,
the Ministry of Defence, and district and local authorities as well
as residents. By diverting one of the roads, grassing over its route
and building new visitor facilities away from the site, not to mention
boring an underground road tunnel, the project, with a cost estimated
at more than 350 million euros, will restore “the dignity of
the land, the dignity of the stones,” Cossons said.
|| Karan Grover,
President of India’s Heritage Trust, recounted efforts to “disinter
time” at Champaner, an archaeological puzzle concealing layers
of history including the Rajput era of the 10th to 15th centuries
and the Islamic period from the 15th-17th centuries. The site has
attracted a wide array of initiatives, spawning partnerships with
six universities around the world, public interest litigation against
nearby quarries and the creation of a Heritage Club for Children.
Through such links, “we can band together, share information
and initiate improvement,” Grover said.
| Private-public partnerships were the subject of
Gianfranco Imperatori’s contribution.
The Secretary General of Italy’s Civita Association described
the work of managing 78 public sites and museums throughout the country.
“We are entrepreneurs looking at the questions of culture,”
he said, adding that the experience Civita has had over the past ten
years “augurs well for the future promotion and enhancement
of Italy’s historical legacy.” Civita’s projects
consider the entire context of a property, Imperatori said, to “give
added value and a more competitive edge to the monument itself."
|| Alvise Zorzi,
President of the Association of Private Committees for the Safeguarding
of Venice, discussed the still thriving work of an organisation that
arose from the world-famous UNESCO campaign to rescue the city of
Venice from the devastating floods of 1966. Another wellspring of
private-public partnerships, the association, under a UNESCO administrative
framework, has been involved in the restoration of almost 100 monuments
and 1,000 artworks. Its supervising architects direct projects “as
if they were using state funds,” Zorzi said, “to guarantee
that work is done according to standards. The private committees select
the projects they want to finance, and can offer donors cost-effectiveness,
tax exemption and the prestige of participating in a matter of public
| In the discussion that followed, Mounir
Bouchenaki, UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Culture,
said the Association’s private committees are an early example
of involving civil society in the protection of cultural heritage,
and urged its propagation as a “best practice”.
WORLD HERITAGE AS A
FLAGSHIP PROGRAMME FOR NATURE CONSERVATION
panel was chaired by Timothy Wirth,
President of United Nations Foundation (UNF) who explained that Ted
Turner established UNF five years ago to promote the work of the United
Nations. “Since then UNF has shown how the Convention could
be invigorated through partnerships and has given $32 million towards
UNESCO World Heritage sites,” said Wirth. He invited participants
to view a short film which highlighted UNF conservation partnerships
at natural heritage sites such as the Galapagos, and sites of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Suriname and Cambodia. Despite the
efforts for creating partnerships for conservation currently being
made in conjunction with World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International
and others, Wirth asserted that “we have only scratched the
surface of the Convention’s potential.”
| Eddy Boutmans,
Belgium's State Secretary for Development Cooperation, told the Congress: "When we decided to
partner with UNESCO, we first thought of cultural programmes and cultural heritage. But gradually
we discovered that finding ways to help developing countries protect their natural heritage was an
important and effective way to work with UNESCO." He stressed the close link between poverty and
environmental destruction. "Poverty is often a cause and a consequence of environmental damage,"
said Boutmans, noting that people in poor countries often must rely on activities such as hunting
and logging to survive. The solution, he said, lay in linking poverty reduction with heritage
conservation programmes, such as those currently under way in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
"Our partnership with UNESCO in the Congo should lead to more partnerships with local government,
experts and local communities," Boutmans said. Just two weeks later, on November 28, Belgium and
UNESCO signed a 750,000 euro cooperation agreement in Brussels under which space technology will
be used to assess and monitor the state of conservation at World Heritage sites in developing
countries, beginning with the five sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
|| President of Conservation
International (CI) Russell Mittermeir
began his presentation with the proclamation that “World Heritage
is not just a flagship program, but the most important mechanism available
to us for biodiversity conservation.” “Unfortunately,
he later said “World Heritage’s worth in biodiversity
protection is a well-kept secret!” He argued that there is a
need for World Heritage sites in “hotspots of outstanding biodiversity
value” and suggested increasing cluster sites or serial nominations
such as the Discovery Coast in Brazil as well as trans-boundary World
Heritage site nominations. Mittermeir announced that CI’s Global
Conservation Fund has pledged $100 million for biodiversity conservation
over the next five years, and told participants that matches are still
needed for the creation of trust funds. He also announced a three-year
World Heritage partnership in which CI will match dollar for dollar
with UNF for projects for long-term biodiversity conservation,
up to $7.5 million. Mittermeir pointed towards the World Parks Congress
in 2003 and the World Wilderness Congress in 2004 as landmark events
to measure and present achievements of the partnership.
| “Much of our work has included support for
and partnerships with UNESCO World Heritage Centre,” said Bill
Eichbaum, Vice-President of Endangered Spaces Program for the
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)-US. “However, in spite of many organizations
efforts in conjunction with UNESCO,” Eichbaum lamented “we
are losing the battle to preserve our world’s biodiversity.”
He said that “we need to identify critical places around the
world to protect.” Explaining that the WWF strategy for biodiversity
conservation is to operate on large scale projects and with a long-term
commitment of at least 50 years, Eichbaum said that we need to reverse
the trend in biodiversity loss during this decade and added that the
“World Heritage program can be a vital part of that effort.”
In his concluding remarks, Wirth referred to innovative multi-country
and multi-site initiatives to prepare World Heritage nominations
such as that being attempted for the Greater Rift Valley. He concluded by calling upon all to
“set our sights high” in making optimal use of the World
Heritage to conserve nature and biodiversity.”
Panel chaired by Tim
Whalen, Director of the Getty Conservation
IN WORLD HERITAGE CONSERVATION
Tim Whalen opened the panel with
the observation that non-governmental actors come in many shapes
and sizes, and that each “is good at something, but none is
good at everything.” He said NGOs often help to leverage other
resources, while they are often not equipped to handle certain tasks.
With NGOs’ ever-growing importance, the need is to “better
understand and coordinate our work.” He stressed the role
of NGOs in bringing complementary funding to the resources available
from the UNESCO World Heritage Fund.
| Paolo Savona,
President of the Consorzio Venezia Nuovo, made a special presentation
of efforts over the past 20 years to battle the causes, rather than
the symptoms, of Venice’s recurring malady of aqua alta, or
flooding. He showed interventions to the three main tidal inlets to
the city, the reinforcement of the coastline, the rebuilding of salt
marshes -- essential to the ecological equilibrium of the lagoon,
which is constantly eroded by the sea -- and the installation of mobile
barriers. The Consorzio, he said, “is not limited to doing business.
We also do culture. We have experience, but we also have passion:
we are emotionally involved in the protection of Venice.”.
|| Conservation projects
of the Aga Khan Trust, spanning the Muslim world from Zanzibar to
Samarkand, “create interactive synergies” between conservation,
rehabilitation and development, said Stefano
Bianca, who directs the Trust’s Historic Cities Support
Programme involving many actual and potential World Heritage sites.
He said the Trust was building a repertoire of exemplary projects
involving adaptive reuse by local communities in which rehabilitated
structures become symbols of pride and generate needed economic resources.
By operating directly at the grassroots level, the Trust’s projects
“have a clear overlap between beneficiaries and project goals,”
| Giulia Maria Crespi,
President of the Fondo Ambiente Italiano, described FAI’s evolution
from a foundation to an association with 52,000 members and 82 delegations
in Italy, the setting up of a select group of wealthy sponsors who
now number 560, and the newly formed American Friends of FAI. She
discussed the fund’s work with civil society, which she said
“is like yeast in the bread -- yeast isn’t seen but it
makes bread rise.” She described how conservation projects often
provide work in the communities surrounding the FAI’s properties
Finguerut of the Marinho Foundation of Brazil gave a spirited
demonstration of the use of television to promote cultural heritage.
“Some people are trying to sell cars and soap, and we sell culture,”
she said as she screened a sample television clip. “We offer
to our partners high visibility since we use the TV to promote their
projects” including the restoration of monuments and the rehabilitation
of historic districts, said Figuerut, who heads the Foundation’s
Cultural Heritage Department.
| The 7,000 professionals of the International Council
on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) are organised into scientific committees
involved in the conservation of cultural properties on the World Heritage
List. In the last few years, through an initiative known as Heritage
@ Risk, ICOMOS has become a veritable Amnesty International for monuments
and sites, signalling the dangers and threats they face, said President
Michael Petzet. One project involves
determining what to do with what is left of the destroyed Bamiyan
Buddhas in Afghanistan, which Petzet said “was a real chance
to do something with our NGO.”
|| Finally, Eduard
Sekler, Chairman Emeritus of the Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust described
examples of successful rehabilitation work in Patan undertaken in
cooperation with the UNESCO and the Nepalese Department of Archaeology.
“The most heartening aspect of the Trust’s work is its
demonstrative effect all over Patan. When the residents see the work,
they are all willing to do the same.” A building restored on
Patan’s Durbar Square is now a heritage education centre. The
Trust urges local communities to contribute to the conservation and
development process through voluntary work or small payments. “They
must feel that they have a stake,” Sekler said.
| The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest
and Natural Beauty, the largest private landowner in Britain, just
celebrated its three millionth membership and includes five World
Heritage sites, said Martyn Heighton,
who is its Territory Director for Wales and the West of England. “With
all that, it would be easy not to seek partnerships,” he joked.
Amid mixed results, he said, one of the most successful has been that
of Stonehenge, which involves the National Trust, English Heritage,
the highways and local authorities as well as members of local communities,
“some of whom don’t agree entirely but understand our
thinking,” he said. “To have a successful partnership
you have to recognise the needs of your stakeholders, members, donors
and the government.”
Panel Chaired by Henrik Lilius, Director-General of the National Board of Antiquities of Finland
THE UNIVERSE OF TECHNICAL SKILLS
FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE
The afternoon session addressed the diversity of World
Heritage thematic categories, which include archaeological sites and monuments,
cultural landscapes, cities, industrial structures and modern heritage.
This great variety of heritage types calls for an increasingly complex range
of skills. The panel focused on the current and future needs of technical
skills as well as the way the World Heritage advisory bodies and other partners
are coping with this task.
Professor of Zoology at University College of Dublin, was the first speaker
on the panel and took the occasion to recall one of the principle objectives
of the Budapest Declaration on World Heritage: to promote and develop effective
capacity-building measures. “This is especially important for World
Heritage site staff who need to be equipped with education and training,”
said O’Gorman. He went on to emphasize the importance of empowering
local communities through education so that they too can play a role in
conservation efforts. “World Heritage training must be multidisciplinary
and focused on the site,” said O’Gorman. “It needs to
be researched and implemented case by case,” he added.
The Rector of the Institute of Architecture of Venice Marino
Folin commented on how over the past few years,
the concept of heritage conservation has evolved from monuments to historical
sites to cultural landscapes. “There has been a diversification and
a change in the time span so that efforts to restore heritage are now part
of the process of the physical environment in which we live,” said
Folin. He spoke of the challenge to reconcile conservation and restoration
with new uses for World Heritage. “We need to evaluate how new skills
have diversified and will be different from past skills,” said Folin.
Pointing out how traditional skills are now specialized skills, Folin stressed
the need for technical courses and schools to train architects and those
involved in restoration of our cultural heritage.
Gaballa Ali Gaballa,
Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cairo in Egypt, reported that Egypt faces
great challenges not only to deal with the conservation
of culture but also with the management of culture. “Ironically, the
problem stems from the fact that Egypt has a very rich cultural heritage
which spans almost the whole life of humankind to the present day,”
said Gaballa. “With so many layers of civilizations, the whole land
of Egypt could be inscribed on the World Heritage List as a cultural landscape!”
he exclaimed. Gaballa informed the Congress that even with a staff of 14,000,
the Egyptian Department of Antiquities still does not have the capacity
to properly manage all of its cultural heritage sites. He emphasized that
the “moral support of UNESCO” was very important when negotiating
with the Egyptian Government concerning heritage issues; however, he said
that Egypt does not get enough support from NGOs.
Mario Augusto Lolli-Ghetti,
Director, Soprintendenza regionale per i Beni Culturali della Toscana,called
for more specialized-skills training, stating that it is becoming more and
more difficult to find people with the technical skills and tools for restoration
activities. “Traditional skills are now lost and only specialized
people possess them,” said Lolli-Ghetti. He said that the problem
is compounded by artisans retiring without apprentices to replace them—so
there is a lack of teachers and thus education. Lolli-Ghetti encouraged
the establishment of more specialized schools for restorers such as the
School of applied arts, Opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD) in Florence and
Tuscany as well as the need for a recognized degree for the training received
from such universities.
Heritage Settlements Unit Director, ICCROM, reported on the results of the
Vicenza workshop on “Monitoring World Heritage” which brought
together 24 experts from all regions of the world working with both cultural
and natural heritage. According to Stovel, “the workshop concluded
that it was important to strengthen capacity at site level to carry-out
effective monitoring in the context of long-term provisions for site management.”
He went on to say that, “the results of the Vicenza meeting will be
published and I hope they will constitute a substantial contribution to
efforts to demonstrate the relevance of heritage within our planet’s
social and economic development processes.”
Head of World Heritage and International Policy for English Heritage, presented
the conclusions from the Padova workshop on World Heritage Site Management,
highlighting the need to widen the range of technical and management skills
in order for site managers to become more multidisciplinary and thus more
capable of managing the sites to protect their World Heritage values. He
emphasized the importance of customizing management styles to the needs
of the site as well as studying and evaluating the current management system.
Young also stressed the necessity of involving stakeholders in the management
of sites: “The need to monitor and review is essential to the conservation
of sites not just for people with the title ‘site manager’ but
for all those involved with the sites.”
Panel chaired by Nicholas Stanley-Price, Director-General of ICCROM
RAISING AWARENESS AND BUILDING CAPACITY FOR WORLD HERITAGE CONSERVATION
The panel began with a special presentation by William L. Allen, Editor-in-Chief of National Geographic magazine, who admitted that, until recently, he knew very little about the World Heritage concept. "We need people not only to be aware but also to act on this awareness responsibly," Allen said. Offering advice on getting the message out, he said: "Put yourself in the role of a journalist. What would make you write about World Heritage, beyond new designations or emergencies? Make people care." He suggested inviting journalists to visit sites. "Make it easy for the media -- give them an offer they can't refuse." National Geographic's October issue features a roundup of the entire World Heritage List and a letter from Allen inviting readers to count the sites they have seen and dream of the ones they would like to see. "Then imagine a world where these places weren't protected and preserved forever."
Christoph Hauser, Head
of the Culture Programming Department of Suedwestrundfunk (SWR), in Germany,
screened a forceful audiovisual sequence on Florida's endangered Everglades
to "give an idea of how we try to fascinate and attract." He said today's
viewers are used to cinema, and expect cinema quality, with 35mm film and
state of the art techniques. "Films should be entertainment and information,
not education," he said. SWR is a media partner of the UNESCO World Heritage
Tor Hundloe, Chair of Australia's Wet Tropics Management Authority, discussed the challenges of raising awareness among communities living near natural World Heritage sites. "They don't necessarily believe in the economic benefits" and need to be convinced that ecotourism, over time, will be far more beneficial both for people and for biodiversity than mining, logging and other economic activities, Hundloe said, adding that half of the budget of his authority is devoted to involving local Aboriginal people. He also showed a video clip from a World Heritage Youth Forum for high school students from around the Pacific held in 2000.
Thanks to Katya Gonzalez, Heritage Management and Education Expert, and
the Vigia programme, thousands of volunteers are lining up to participate
in building restoration projects in Colombia, and the idea is catching on
across Latin America. Her high-energy audio-visual display conveyed the
power of an idea originating and disseminated at the grassroots level.
Rassool Vatandoost, Director of the International Cooperation Division of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation, discussed capacity-building in Iran, where he said cultural heritage used to be seen as an obstacle to development, but a new approach is emerging to "use whatever means possible to overcome the problems of conservation," bringing all stakeholders into the equation.
Margareta Musilova, an archaeologist at the Foundation for Cultural Heritage Preservation in Slovakia, described a recent meeting in Bratislava following up on a Youth Forum that included a "World Heritage caravan" down the Danube visiting World Heritage sites along the historic river valley. "World Heritage sites are not just showcase sites, they are a source of knowledge for the younger generation," she said.
Farea Hassan Soliman of Cairo's Ain Shams University discussed efforts to integrate World Heritage education in the curriculum in Egypt, through workshops for teachers, visits to World Heritage sites, and the inclusion of World Heritage values in textbooks. She said materials available from the UNESCO World Heritage Centre including the kit "World Heritage in Young Hands", and from the Internet, had been invaluable in preparing teacher's manuals in Egypt.
In the discussion following the session, Stanley-Price asked Allen, "What would a journalist write about World Heritage if it was not about an imminent threat, or a nomination?" The National Geographic editor-in-chief replied that: "Obviously, preservation is going to be one of the 'hooks', but it has to be presented very forcefully."
Panel chaired by Claude Martin, Director-General of WWF International
MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMMES AS VEHICLES FOR RAISING AWARENESS
Claude Martin launched the panel on public awareness by noting that membership schemes, once the mainstay of organisational support and a principal outreach vehicle, are beginning to stagnate or even decline as television and the Internet change the parameters of information exchange. "Membership has lost its exclusiveness. You don't get your information from membership magazines anymore," Martin said, inviting the panellists to discuss how they are confronting this new reality.
Simon Molesworth, Chairman of the four million-strong Australian Council of National Trusts, said the "greater imperative" of the organisation is the political dimension, the need to influence decision-makers and the "money providers". He discussed the pros and cons of communication vehicles including publications and videos, travelling exhibitions, workshops, membership tours to heritage sites, and the Internet. For all of these, he urged a two-pronged approach aimed at young people and adults. But, he said, "the most fundamentally important and successful" area is public campaigning because it gives members a sense of involvement and ownership of the issues. "Whenever we want a major membership drive, we endeavour to identify the aspect that deserves real focus in the media," Molesworth said.
John Fanshawe Head of Policy and Advocacy of Birdlife International, which has partnerships with 107 countries and a membership of about 2.5 million, agreed that "membership has a huge role to play in influence" but said it "needs to be rooted at site level". He said local support groups were crucial in important bird areas (IBAs), sites of international importance for migration and biodiversity designated in 1988. "We have a huge amount to achieve by establishing memberships at local level that will lead to influence," he said.
In contrast to large organisations such as WWF and Birdlife, the Venice International Foundation, with its high membership fees, is "based on a niche of excellence," said its President, Franca Coin. She said Venice International had been "flexible in adopting new means of communicating" through its publications and involvement in private-public partnerships. "Members feel very proud that their patronage brings people around shared ideas."