Report of the Expert Group on Cultural Landscapes
          La Petite Pierre (France) 24-26 October 1992

I. Introduction

1.   The meeting was organized jointly by the UNESCO World Heritage
     Centre and ICOMOS at the request of the World Heritage

2.   The object of the meeting was to study the criteria necessary
     for the inclusion of cultural landscapes on the World Heritage
     List and to prepare recommendations for submission to the
     Committee at its sixteenth session, to be held at Santa Fé
     (USA) on 7 - 14 December 1992.

3.   The meeting was held in the house of the Parc Naturel Régional
     des Vosges du Nord, La Petite Pierre, by invitation of the
     French Government (Ministry of the Environment), State Party
     to the Convention.

4.   The meeting was attended by experts from eight States Parties
     (Australia, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, New Zealand, Sri
     Lanka and the United Kingdom) selected for their expertise in
     the fields covered by the term "cultural landscape", including
     archaeology, history, landscape ecology, geography, landscape
     architecture and planning. Representatives of the UNESCO World
     Heritage Centre and the two relevant nongovernmental
     organizations (ICOMOS and IUCN) also took part in the meeting
     as well as representatives of IFLA. The full list of
     participants is annexed to this report.

5.   The expert group studied the operational guidelines in detail
     and considered that only slight changes of the six cultural
     criteria were needed to accommodate the inclusion of cultural
     landscapes on the World Heritage List. This report consists of
     two main sections. The first contains proposed amendments to
     the six existing criteria for cultural properties (Guidelines,
     paragraph 24 (a)) with supporting explanatory notes.
     The second section contains recommendations for interpretative
     paragraphs relating to cultural landscapes, to replace the
     existing paragraph 34.
     (Note: The substance of this paragraph will have to be in part
     retained in a new paragraph, since guidelines for traditional
     villages and contemporary architecture (and also industrial
     heritage) remain to be prepared).


II.  Revision of the criteria for cultural properties in the
     Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 24. (a)

(i)       represent a unique artistic achievement, a masterpiece of
          the creative genius; or
(ii)      have exerted great influence, over a span of time or
          within a cultural area of the world, on developments in
          architecture, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape
          design; or
(iii)     bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a
          civilization or cultural tradition which has disappeared;
(iv)      be an outstanding example of a type of building or
          architectural ensemble or landscape which illustrates
          significant stages in human history; or
(v)       be an outstanding example of traditional human settlement
          or land use which is representative of a culture (or
          cultures), especially when it has become vulnerable under
          the impact of irreversible change; or
(vi)      be directly and tangibly associated with events or living
          traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic
          and literary works of outstanding universal significance
          (the Committee considers that this criterion should
          justify inclusion on the List only in exceptional
          circumstance or in conjunction with other criteria);

Paragraph 24. (b)

(i)       meet the test of authenticity in design, material,
          workmanship or setting and in the case of cultural
          landscapes their distinctive character and components
          (the Committee stressed that reconstruction is only
          acceptable if it is carried out on the basis of complete
          and detailed documentation on the original and to no
          extent on conjecture).
(ii)      have adequate legal and/or traditional protection and
          management mechanisms to ensure the conservation of the
          nominated cultural property. The existence of protective
          legislation at the national, provincial or municipal
          level or well-established traditional protection is
          therefore essential and must be stated clearly on the
          nomination form. Assurances of the effective
          implementation of these laws are also expected.
          Furthermore, in order to preserve the integrity of
          cultural sites, particularly those open to large numbers
          of visitors, the State Party concerned should be able to
          provide evidence of suitable administrative arrangements
          to cover the management of the property, its conservation
          and its accessibility to the public.


          Explanatory notes for the revised criteria

(i)       For all six criteria the expert group recommended the
          deletion of the underlining as it serves no particular
(ii)      The expert group preferred to use the term "landscape
          design". In the French version this is correctly
          translated as "construction des paysages".
(iii)     The phrase "a cultural tradition" was added as this
          criterion is culturally more neutral. It was considered
          that a group of people can disappear but that their
          cultural tradition can be assimilated by the dominant
          civilization which survives.
(iv)      It was considered that this modification would avoid the
          adoption of a linear view of history.
(v)       By adding "or cultures" the expert group emphasized the
          existence at times of multi-layered landscapes where
          several cultures are superimposed.
(vi)      The group emphasized cultural continuity and the survival
          of traditions. The concept of associative values was

III.      Paragraph 34 will be exchanged for the following new

(34)      With respect to cultural landscapes, the Committee has
          furthermore adopted the following guidelines concerning
          their inclusion on the World Heritage List.
(35)      Cultural landscapes represent the "combined works of
          nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the
          Convention. They are illustrative of the evolution of
          human society and settlement over time, under the
          influence of the physical constraints and/or
          opportunities presented by their natural environment and
          of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both
          external and internal. They should be selected on the
          basis both of their outstanding universal value and of
          their representativity in terms of a clearly defined geo-
          cultural region and also for their capacity to illustrate
          the essential and distinct cultural elements of such
(36)      The term "cultural landscape" embraces a diversity of
          manifestations of the interaction between humankind and
          its natural environment.
(37)      The most easily identifiable is the clearly defined
          landscape designed and created intentionally by man.
          This embraces garden and parkland landscapes constructed
          for aesthetic reasons which are often (but not always)
          associated with religious or other monumental buildings
          and ensembles.
(38)      The second category is the organically evolved
          landscape. This results from an initial social,
          economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and
          has developed its present form by association with and in
          response to its natural environment. Such landscapes
          reflect that process of evolution in their form and
          component features. They fall into two subcategories.


(39)      A relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an
          evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the
          past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant
          distinguishing features are, however, still visible in
          material form.
(40)      A continuing landscape is one which retains an
          active social role in contemporary society closely
          associated with the traditional way of life, and in which
          the evolutionary process is still in progress. At the
          same time it exhibits significant material evidence of
          its evolution over time.
(41)      The final category is the associative cultural
          landscape. The inclusion of such landscapes on the
          World Heritage List is justifiable by virtue of the
          powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of
          the natural element rather than material cultural
          evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent.
(42)      The extent of a cultural landscape for inclusion on the
          World Heritage List is relative to its functionality and
          intelligibility. In any case, the sample selected must be
          substantial enough adequately to represent the totality
          of the cultural landscape that it illustrates. The
          possibility of designating long linear areas which
          represent culturally significant transport and
          communication networks should not be excluded.
(43)      The general criteria for conservation and management laid
          down in paragraph 24.(b). ii above are equally applicable
          to cultural landscapes. It is important that due weight
          be paid to the full range of values represented in the
          landscape, both cultural and natural. The nominations
          should be prepared in collaboration with and the full
          approval of local communities.
(44)      The existence of a category of "cultural landscape",
          included on the World Heritage List on the basis of the
          criteria set out in paragraph 24 above, does not exclude
          the possibility of sites of exceptional importance in
          relation to both cultural and natural criteria continuing
          to be included. In such cases, their outstanding
          universal significance must be justified under both sets
          of criteria.

                                                       October 1992


List of participants: Expert Meeting on Cultural Landscapes (23 -26
October 1992) ( La Petite Pierre)


Prof. Haber
Lehrstuhl für Landschaftsökologie
TU München
8050 Freising
Tel: 8161-713495
Fax: 49-8161-714427

M. Hans Dorn (IFLA)
Holbainstr. 17
6000 Frankfurt
Fax. 49-69 61 64 49

Prof. David Jaques (ICOMOS landscapes group, GB)
16 Kenyon Mansions
Queens Club Gardens
London W14
Fax: 19-44-71 973 36 70

Prof. P.J. Fowler
Department of Archeology
Newcastle upon Tyne

Dr. Henry Cleere (ICOMOS, GB)
Acres Rise
Lower Platts
TN57DD, England
Tel & Fax: 0580-200752

M. Lucien Chabasson
Président du Parc des Cévennes
31, rue Gazan
75014 Paris

M. Pierre-Marie Tricaut (French delegate to IFLA) 
Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme 
de la région Ile de France 
251 rue de Vaugirard 
75015 Paris 
Tel: 40 43 01 02

*[ANNEX I/2]

     America and Canada

Hs Susan Buggey
Direction de l'histoire de l'architecture
Environnement Canada, Service des Parcs
Les Terrasses de la Chaudière
Hull, Quebec
K1A OH3 Canada
Fax: 819-953-4909

     Australia, New Zealand, Oceania

M. Bing Lucas (IUCN)
President of the National Parc Commission
1/268 Main Road
New Zealand
Tel: 64.4.232 6681
Fax: 64.4.232 9129

Prof. Isabel McBryde
Department of Archeology and Anthropology
The Faculty
Australian National University
GPO Box 4
Canberra 2601, Australia
Tel: 62-6-2494395
Fax: 62-6-2492711

Hs Sarah Titchen
Department of Prehistory
The Faculty
Australian National University
GPO Box 4
Canberra 2601, Australia
Tel: 62-6-2494395
Fax: 62-6-2492711


Prof. Senaka Bandaransyake
Institut of Archeology, PGIAR
P.O. Box 1531
212/1 Bauddhaloka Mawathe
Colombo 7
Sri Lanka
Fax: 94-1-500731

*[ANNEX I/3]

Host and local organizers:

M. François Letourneux
M. Alain Megret
M, Jean-Louis Pons
M. Regis Ambroises
Ministère de l'environnement
Direction de la nature et des paysages
14, bd du Général Leclerc
92524 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex

UNESCO World Heritage Centre

H. Saïd Zulficar
Hs Mechtild Rössler
7, place de Fontenoy
75700 Paris
Fax: (1)

Ms Regina Durighello
75, rue du Temple
75003 Paris