Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns

Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns

The archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns are the imposing ruins of the two greatest cities of the Mycenaean civilization, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean world from the 15th to the 12th century B.C. and played a vital role in the development of classical Greek culture. These two cities are indissolubly linked to the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , which have influenced European art and literature for more than three millennia.

Sites archéologiques de Mycènes et de Tirynthe

À Mycènes et à Tirynthe subsistent les ruines imposantes des deux plus grandes cités de la civilisation mycénienne, qui domina le monde de la Méditerranée orientale du XVe au XIIe siècle avant J.-C. et qui joua un rôle essentiel dans le développement de la culture de la Grèce classique. Ces deux cités sont indissolublement liées aux épopées homériques de l'Iliade et de l'Odyssée dont la profonde influence sur la littérature et les arts persiste depuis plus de trois millénaires.

مواقع ميسناي و تيرينز الأثرية

تتوافر في كلي ميسناي وتيرينز الآثار البارزة لإحدى أكبر مدينتين في الحضارة الموكينية التي سيطرت على عالم المتوسط الشرقي من القرن الخامس عشر حتى القرن الثاني عشر قبل الميلاد، والتي لعبت دوراً أساسياً في تطور ثقافة اليونان الكلاسيكية. إنّ هاتين المدينتين هما دائماً متصلتان اتصالاً وثيقاً في الحقبات الهوميرية التي تجسدها ملحمتا الإلياذة والأوديسيه صاحبتا الأثر العميق على الأدب العالمي منذ أكثر من ثلاثة آلاف سنة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

迈锡尼和提那雅恩斯的考古遗址

迈锡尼和提那雅恩斯是迈锡尼文明两座最伟大的城市,其遗址也十分壮观。公元前15世纪至公元前12世纪,迈锡尼文明盛行于地中海东部,在古希腊文化的发展中发挥了重要作用。这两座城市还与荷马史诗《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》有着密切的关联,而这两部史诗对欧洲艺术和文学的影响则持续了3000多年。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Археологические памятники Микен и Тиринфа

Археологические памятники Микен и Тиринфа – это величественные руины двух наиболее значительных городов Микенской цивилизации, которая доминировала в Восточном Средиземноморье в ХV-ХII вв. до н.э., и сыграла жизненно важную роль в развитии классической древнегреческой культуры. Эти два города, бесспорно, связаны с эпосами Гомера «Илиадой» и «Одиссеей», оказывавшими влияние на искусство и литературу Европы на протяжении более трех тысячелетий.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Sitios arqueológicos de Micenas y Tirinto

En estos sitios arqueológicos se hallan las impresionantes ruinas de dos de las ciudades más importantes de la civilización micénica, que dominó la región del Mediterráneo oriental entre los siglos XV y XII a.C. y desempeñó un papel esencial en el desarrollo de la cultura de la Grecia clásica. Las ciudades de Micenas y Tirinto están indisolublemente unidas a las dos epopeyas homéricas, la Ilíada y la Odisea, cuya influencia en la literatura y las artes europeas perdura desde hace tres milenios.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ミケーネとティリンスの古代遺跡群

source: NFUAJ

Archeologische steden Mycene en Tiryns

De Myceense beschaving heeft zich ontwikkeld op het Griekse vasteland in de late bronstijd (16e eeuw voor Christus). De archeologische plaatsen van Mycene en Tiryns bestaan uit de indrukwekkende ruïnes van de twee grootste steden van de Myceense beschaving. Deze domineerden het oostelijk Middellandse Zeegebied van de 15e tot de 12e eeuw voor Christus en speelden een belangrijke rol in de ontwikkeling van de klassieke Griekse cultuur. De twee steden zijn onlosmakelijk verbonden met de Homerische epen, de Ilias en de Odyssee, die van invloed waren op de Europese kunst en literatuur gedurende meer dan drie millennia.

Source: unesco.nl

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© B. Doucin & L. Lalait
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The architecture and design of Mycenae and Tiryns, such as the Lion Gate and the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae and the walls of Tiryns, are outstanding examples of human creative genius.

Criterion (ii): The Mycenaean civilization, as exemplified by Mycenae and Tiryns, had a profound effect on the development of classical Greek architecture and urban design, and consequently also on contemporary cultural forms.

Criteria (iii) and (iv): Mycenae and Tiryns represent the apogee of the Mycenaean civilization, which laid the foundations for the evolution of later European cultures.

Criterion (vi): Mycenae and Tiryns are indissolubly linked with the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the influence of which upon European literature and the arts has been profound for more than three millennia.

Long Description

Mycenae and Tiryns represent the apogee of the Mycenaean civilization, which laid the foundations for the evolution of later European cultures, including classical Greek architecture and urban design, and consequently also on contemporary cultural forms. Moreover, the two sites are indissolubly linked with the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the influence of which upon European literature and the arts has been profound for more than three millennia.

The Mycenaean civilization developed on the Greek mainland in the late Bronze Age (16th century BC). It was essentially a continuation of the Middle Helladic culture, transformed by Minoan influences from Crete. Knowledge of its two earlier periods I (c . 1580-1500 BC) and II (c . 1500-1400 BC) comes mainly from burials, notably the shaft graves at Mycenae. Towards the end of Period II more elaborate tomb types developed - large chamber tombs for families and beehive-shaped (tholos) tombs for royalty. The apogee of the Mycenaean civilization came in Period III (c . 1400-1120 BC), when strong citadels and elaborate palaces were built. Towards the end of this period a script, known as Linear B, came into use; the language used has been shown to be an early form of Greek, confirming that the Mycenaeans were Greek speakers of Indo-European origin. The political structure was that of an autocratic monarchy, the ruler of which was known as the wanax, who administered his territory by means of a hierarchical structure of officials. There was a special class of priests and priestesses. The people were organized in an elaborate class system, and slavery was widely practised.

The site of Mycenae is known from excavations to have been occupied from the Neolithic period (c . 4000 BC). During the Middle Helladic period a cemetery was established on the southern slopes of the natural hill which included Grave Circle B (dated to the 17th century BC) and Grave Circle A (16th century BC). The Palace was constructed on the summit of the hill and surrounded by massive cyclopean walls in three stages (c . 1350, 1250 and 1225 BC respectively). In the final stage the underground reservoir was also fortified. A series of tholos tombs were built on the southern and south-western slopes of the hill during the Mycenaean period: the so-called Tomb of Aegisthos (c. 1500 BC), the Lion Tholos Tomb (c. 1350 BC), the Tomb of Clytemnestra (c. 1220 BC), culminating in the Treasury of Atreus, at some distance from the others. Four large buildings, believed to have been royal workshops, were built in the 13th century BC in the vicinity of Grave Circle B. The palace was abandoned at the end of the 12th century BC and a number of buildings were damaged by fire. However, the site continued to be occupied until 498 BC, when it was conquered by Argos and its inhabitants were expelled. The top of the hill was levelled at this time for the construction of an Archaic temple. The site was reoccupied briefly in the Hellenistic period, when another temple was built and a theatre constructed over the Tomb of Clytemnestra. By the time the Greek traveller Pausanias visited Mycenae in the 2nd century AD it had been completely abandoned for many years.

As at Mycenae, the earliest human occupation known at Tiryns is from the Neolithic period. The oldest architectural remains, on the Upper Citadel, are from the early Bronze Age (c . 3000 BC). The level of this area was built up in the middle Bronze Age (1900-1600 BC) to accommodate new buildings. Tiryns flourished during the Mycenaean period. A new fortified palace complex was constructed in the 14th century BC. The defences were extended in the early 13th century BC, and the Lower Citadel was also fortified. Following earthquake and fire damage, the site was reconstructed, the new defences enclosing an area of 20 ha; the extra-mural settlement covered more than 25 ha. The fate of Tiryns with the decline of the Mycenaean civilization paralleled that of Mycenae. It was not finally abandoned until the deportation of the 5th century BC, by which time it had lost its power and influence.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Mycenaean civilization developed on the Greek mainland in the Late Bronze Age (16th century BC). It was essentially a continuation of the Middle Helladic culture, transformed by Minoan influences from Crete. Knowledge of its two earlier periods I (c 1580-1500 BC) and II (c 1500-1400 BC ) comes mainly from burials, notably the shaft graves at Mycenae. Towards the end of Period II more elaborate tomb types developed - large chamber tombs for families and beehive-shaped (tholos) tombs for royalty. The apogee of the Mycenaean civilization came in Period III (c 1400-1120 BC), when strong citadels and elaborate palaces were built. Towards the end of this period a script, known as Linear B, came into use; the language used has been shown to be an early form of Greek, confirming that the Mycenaeans were Greek speakers of Indo-European origin.

The political structure was that of an autocratic monarchy, the ruler of which was known as the wanax, who administered his territory by means of an hierarchical structure of officials. There was a special class of priests and priestesses. The people were organized in an elaborate class system, and slavery was widely practised.

The site of Mycenae is known from excavations to have been occupied from the Neolithic period (c 4000 BC). During the Middle Helladic Period a cemetery was established on the southern slopes of the natural hill which included Grave Circle B (dated to the 17th century BC) and Grave Circle A (16th century BC). The Palace was constructed on the summit of the hill and surrounded by massive cyclopean walls in three stages (c 1350, 1250, and 1225 BC respectively). In the final stage the underground reservoir was also fortified. A series of tholos tombs were built on the southern and south-western slopes of the hill during the Mycenaean Period - the so-called Tomb of Aegisthos (c 1500 BC), the Lion Tholos Tomb (c 1350 BC), the Tomb of Clytemnestra (c 1220 BC), culminating in the Treasury of Atreus, at some distance from the others. Four large buildings, believed to have been royal workshops, were built in the 13th century BC in the vicinity of Grave Circle B.

The Palace was abandoned at the end of the 12th century BC and a number of buildings were damaged by fire. However, the site continued to be occupied until 498 BC, when it was conquered by Argos and its inhabitants were expelled. The top of the hill was levelled at this time for the construction of an Archaic temple. The site was re-occupied briefly in the Hellenistic period, when another temple was built and a theatre constructed over the Tomb of Clytemnestra. By the time the Greek traveller Pausanias visited Mycenae in the 2nd century AD it had been completely abandoned for many years.

As at Mycenae, the earliest human occupation known at Tiryns is from the Neolithic period. The oldest architectural remains, on the Upper Citadel, are from the early Bronze Age (c 3000 BC). The level of this area was built up in the Middle Bronze Age (1900-1600 BC) to accommodate new buildings.

Tiryns flourished during the Mycenaean period. A new fortified palace complex was constructed in the 14th century BC. The defences were extended in the early 13th century BC, and the Lower Citadel was also fortified. Following earthquake and fire damage, the site was reconstructed, the new defences enclosing an area of 20ha; the extra-mural settlement covered more than 25ha.

The fate of Tiryns with the decline of the Mycenaean civilization paralleled that of Mycenae. It was not finally abandoned until the deportation of the 5th century BC, by which time it had lost its power and influence.

 

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation