Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika

Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika

Founded in 315 B.C., the provincial capital and sea port of Thessalonika was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity. Among its Christian monuments are fine churches, some built on the Greek cross plan and others on the three-nave basilica plan. Constructed over a long period, from the 4th to the 15th century, they constitute a diachronic typological series, which had considerable influence in the Byzantine world. The mosaics of the rotunda, St Demetrius and St David are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art.

Monuments paléochrétiens et byzantins de Thessalonique

Fondée en 315 av. J.-C., Thessalonique, capitale provinciale et ville portuaire, fut l'un des premiers foyers de diffusion du christianisme. Ses monuments chrétiens offrent des exemples éminents d'églises de plan central, de plan basilical ou de plan intermédiaire au cours d'une période allant du IVe au XVe siècle, constituant ainsi une série typologique diachronique dont l'influence fut considérable dans le monde byzantin. Les mosaïques de la Rotonde, de Saint-Démétrios et de Saint-David sont au nombre des grands chefs-d'œuvre de l'art paléochrétien.

النصب التذكارية المسيحية القديمة والبيزنطية في عاصمة تسالونيكا

كانت العاصمة المحلية والمدينة المرفئية تسالونيكا التي تأسست عام 315 قبل الميلاد إحدى أماكن انتشار المسيحية. وتوفّر النصب المسيحية فيها أمثلةً بارزة على الكنائس ذات التصميم المركزي والبازيليكي والمتوسط في خلال فترة تمتدّ من القرن الرابع حتى القرن الخامس عشر. وقد شكّلت مجموعةً تصنّفية تعاقبية متطورة كان تأثيرها بالغاً على العالم البيزنطي. وتندرج فسيفساء كنائس لا "روتوند" والقديس ديمتريوس والقديس دافيد في عداد المأثورات الكبرى في الفن المسيحي القديم.

source: UNESCO/ERI

塞萨洛尼基古建筑

塞萨洛尼基州首府和海港建于公元前315年,是最早的基督教传播地之一。基督教建筑包括宏伟的教堂,有的按照希腊人的十字形设计,有的为包括三座中殿的长方形教堂。从4世纪到15世纪,教堂的修建历经了漫长工期,也因此反映了同一类型的教堂在不同历史时期的特点,这对拜占庭世界产生了相当大的影响。圆形建筑、圣德米特里和圣戴维兹教堂的马赛克艺术是早期基督教艺术中的伟大杰作。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Раннехристианские и византийские памятники в городе Салоники

Основанный в 315 г. до н.э. как столица провинции и морской порт, город Салоники был одним из первых центров распространения христианства. Среди его раннехристианских памятников – прекрасные церкви. Одни из них имеют в плане форму греческого креста, другие – трехнефной базилики. Строившиеся в течение долгого времени – с IV до XV вв., они оказали большое влияние на изменение архитектуры всего византийского мира. Мозаики Ротонды, храмов Св. Димитрия и Св. Давида входят в число великих шедевров раннехристианского искусства.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos paleocristianos y bizantinos de Tesalónica

Fundada en el año 315 a.C., la ciudad portuaria de Tesalónica fue capital provincial romana y uno de los primeros focos de propagación del cristianismo. Entre sus monumentos cristianos figuran ejemplos notables de iglesias de planta central, planta basilical y planta intermedia que, al haber sido construidas entre los siglos IV y XV, constituyen una serie tipológica diacrónica de influencia considerable en el mundo bizantino. Los mosaicos de la Iglesia Rotonda, San Demetrio y San David figuran entre las grandes obras maestras del arte paleocristiano.

source: UNESCO/ERI

テッサロニーキの初期キリスト教とビザンチン様式の建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Vroegchristelijke en Byzantijnse monumenten van Thessaloniki

De provinciale hoofdstad en zeehaven Thessaloniki werd in 315 voor Christus gesticht. Het was een van de eerste bases voor de verspreiding van het christendom. Er zijn prachtige christelijke monumenten te bewonderen, waaronder kerken. Sommige zijn gebouwd naar het patroon van het Griekse kruis, andere als een basiliek met drie schepen. Gebouwd gedurende een lange periode, vanaf de 4e tot de 15e eeuw, vormen ze een diachronische typologische serie, die grote invloed had in de Byzantijnse wereld. De mozaïeken van de rotonde - Sint Demetrius en Sint David - behoren tot de grote meesterwerken van de vroege christelijke kunst.

Source: unesco.nl

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Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika © UNESCO
Long Description

The Christian monuments of Thessalonika are outstanding examples of churches built according to central, basilical and intermediary plans from the 4th to the 15th centuries. For this reason, they constitute a series which is a typological point of reference. The influence of the Thessalonian churches on the development of the monumental arts was considerable, first in the Byzantine and later the Serbian world, whether in the early Christian period of the high Middle Ages or the Palaeologan Renaissance. The mosaics of the Rotunda, St Demetrius and St David's are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art.

Thessalonika was founded in 315 BC by Cassander, who named it after his wife Thessalonik, just a short time after the new cities of Alexander. Following the Roman conquest of Macedonia, it became one of the Empire's provincial capitals. A cosmopolitan and prosperous seaport, the city grew in commercial and strategic importance during the Roman period and was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity. St Paul first travelled there in AD 50, and he returned in 56 to visit the church he had founded and for which he exhibited great concern in his Epistles.

Imperial splendour and the changing fortunes of the Thessalonian church were inextricably linked during the early centuries of Christianity. It was during the period that the palatial complex of Galerius was being built (298-311) that St Demetrius was martyred (c. 303). Some time later the rotunda, which Galerius had probably planned as his mausoleum, was taken over by the Christians who converted it to a church dedicated to St George. North of the Forum, on the ruins of the thermae (baths) where tradition has it that St Demetrius was imprisoned and tortured, they built the Basilica of St Demetrius. Rebuilt in 412-13 by the eparch Leontius and enlarged in 629-34 according to a grandiose plan that included five naves, the church, despite having been ravaged by fire in 1917, remains one of the most notable monuments of the early Christian era.

Other churches of archaeological interest were built during the Byzantine period. These include the Basilica of the Virgin, called Acheiropoietos, after 448, St David's (late 5th or early 6th centuries), and particularly St Sophia (8th century), which is a harmonious blend of the Greek cross plan and a three-nave basilica plan. After the Latin conquest in 1205 it became the Cathedral of Thessalonika. When the city was returned to Byzantium in 1246, new churches were built, among which were St Panteleimon, the Holy Apostles, St Nicholas Orphanos, and the present St Catherine's.

When the Ottomans gained control of the city in 1430, most of the churches, new or old, were converted to mosques, and other Islamic sanctuaries were built (Hamza Bey Cami in 1467-68, Alaca Imaret in 1484). Under Ottoman rule (1430-1912), Thessalonika regained the status of major cosmopolitan city it had enjoyed during the early Christian era. This was particularly due to the arrival in 1492 of 20,000 Jews driven from Spain by the Edict of Alhambra. The multitude of cultural influences is reflected in the city's wealth of monuments, now sadly depleted, which were described by travellers such as Robert de Dreux (1665), Evliya Celebi (1668), Paul Lucas (1714), Félix de Beaujour (1797), and Abdul Mecid (1858).

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC