Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar

Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar

The city of Oporto, built along the hillsides overlooking the mouth of the Douro river, is an outstanding urban landscape with a 2,000-year history. Its continuous growth, linked to the sea (the Romans gave it the name Portus, or port), can be seen in the many and varied monuments, from the cathedral with its Romanesque choir, to the neoclassical Stock Exchange and the typically Portuguese Manueline-style Church of Santa Clara.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Centre historique de Porto, Pont Luiz I et Monastère de Serra do Pilar

À l’embouchure du Douro, la ville de Porto, s’étageant sur les collines dominant le fleuve, forme un paysage urbain exceptionnel qui témoigne d’une histoire de deux millénaires. Sa croissance continue, liée à l’activité maritime – ce sont les Romains qui la baptisèrent Portus, le port –, se lit dans la profusion des monuments qui s’y côtoient, de la cathédrale au chœur roman à la Bourse néoclassique en passant par l’église Santa Clara de style manuélin typique du Portugal.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

وسط بورتو التاريخي

تمثل مدينة بورتو الواقعة عند مصب نهر دورو والمتدرجة على الهضاب المطلة على النهر منظراً مدنياً استثنائياً يشهد على تاريخ ألفي سنة. ويبرز نموّها المتواصل المرتبط بالنشاط البحري – الذي دفع الرومان الى تسميتها بورتوس أي المرفأ - في وفرة المباني المتجاورة، ابتداء من الكاتدرائية ذات الخورس الروماني ووصولاً الى مبنى البورصة الكلاسيكي الجديد، مروراً بكنيسة القديسة كلارا المبنية حسب الطراز المانويلي الذي تميزت به البرتغال.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

波尔图历史中心

波尔图市沿山势而建,可以眺望到杜罗河入海口,此地举世无双的城市景观已有千年历史。波尔图的发展与海洋息息相关(罗马人把它叫做伯特斯,即港口),城中众多各式各样的古迹都向我们说明了这一点,无论是带有罗马风格唱诗班席的大教堂,还是新古典主义的证券交易所,以及典型的葡萄牙纽曼尔式圣克拉拉教堂。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Исторический центр города Порту

Построенный на склонах холмов вблизи устья реки Дору город Порту - это выдающийся городской ландшафт, имеющий тысячелетнюю историю. Его непрерывное развитие, связанное с морем (древние римляне называли его Портус, что значит порт), можно представить по многочисленным и разнообразным памятникам – от кафедрального собора с хорами в романском стиле до неоклассического здания Фондовой биржи и церкви Санта-Клара, построенной в типично португальском стиле мануэлино.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Centro histórico de Oporto

Situada en la desembocadura del Duero y escalonada sobre las laderas de las colinas que dominan el río, la ciudad de Oporto ofrece un paisaje urbano excepcional, testigo de su historia bimilenaria. Llamada “Portus” –el puerto– por los romanos, la ciudad siempre estuvo estrechamente vinculada con la actividad marítima, fuente de su prosperidad secular, de la que son exponentes sus numerosos monumentos, desde la catedral con coro románico hasta el edificio neoclásico de la Bolsa, pasando por la iglesia de Santa Clara, de estilo manuelino típicamente portugués.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ポルト歴史地区
ドウロ川河口を見下ろす山腹に沿って建設され、1000年の歴史をもつ都市的な景観を誇っている。その絶えざる成長は、証券取引所やサンタ・クララ教会などこの間のさまざまな様式の多くの建築物の存在が物語っている。

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum van Porto

De stad Porto is gebouwd langs de heuvels die uitzien op de monding van de Douro. Het is een stedelijk landschap met een historie van 2.000 jaar. Omdat Porto verbonden was aan de zee – de Romeinen gaven de stad de naam Portus (haven) – groeide ze voortdurend. Dit blijkt uit de vele verschillende monumenten, zoals de kathedraal met zijn Romaanse koor, de neoklassieke beurs en de Santa Clara kerk, in de typisch Portugese Manuelijnse stijl. Het historisch centrum van Porto toont een stadsbeeld van hoge esthetische waarde, met sporen van stedelijke ontwikkeling uit de Romeinse, middeleeuwse en Almada periode.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Centre of Oporto (Portugal) © M & G Therin-Weise
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar, built along the hills overlooking the mouth of the Douro River in northern Portugal, is an outstanding urban landscape with a 2,000-year history. The Romans gave it the name Portus, or port, in the 1st century BC. Military, commercial, agricultural, and demographic interests came together in this place. Its continuous growth linked to the sea can be seen in its many and varied monuments, from the cathedral with its Romanesque choir to the neoclassical Stock Exchange and the typically Portuguese Manueline-style Church of Santa Clara. The urban fabric of the Historic Centre of Oporto and its many historic buildings bear remarkable testimony to the development over the past thousand years of a European city that looks outward to the sea for its cultural and commercial links.

Archaeological excavations have revealed human occupation at the mouth of the Douro River since the 8th century BC, when there was a Phoenician trading settlement there. By the 5th century the town had become a very important administrative and trading centre. In the succeeding centuries it was subjected to attacks and pillage by successive groups, including Swabians, Visigoths, Normans, and Moors. By the early 11th century, however, it was firmly established as part of the Castilian realm. Expansion came in the 14th century with the construction of massive stone town walls to protect its two urban nuclei: the original medieval town and the hitherto extramural harbour area. The Historic Centre of Oporto is located within the line of these Fernandine walls (named after Dom Fernando, in whose reign they were completed in 1376), together with some smaller areas that retain their medieval characteristics. This area conserves to a large extent Oporto’s medieval town plan and urban fabric, along with some later monumental insertions as well as the two remaining sections of the Fernandine walls.

In this area are many important ecclesiastical buildings such as the cathedral – whose Romanesque core dates to the 12th century – and fine churches in various styles. The historic centre also has a number of outstanding public buildings, including the São João theatre (1796-1798; 1911-1918) and the former prison “Cadeia da Relação” (1765-1796). Among the important later structures are Palácio da Bolsa (1842-1910) and São Bento railway station (1900-1916). This rich and varied architecture eloquently expresses the cultural values of succeeding periods – Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, neoclassical, and modern. The active social and institutional tissue of the town ensures its survival as a living historic centre. This property also includes Luíz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar.

Criterion (iv): The Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar with its urban fabric and its many historic buildings bears remarkable testimony to the development over the past thousand years of a European city that looks outward to the sea for its cultural and commercial links.

Integrity

Within the boundaries of the 51 ha property are located all the elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar, including the urban fabric and historic buildings that bear testimony to its development over the past thousand years. There is a 186 ha buffer zone. The property does not suffer unduly from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. Several rehabilitation projects included in the property’s Management Plan have been planned and partly implemented in order to contribute to the property’s integrity.

Authenticity

The authenticity of the urban fabric of the Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar is absolute in terms of its location and setting, forms and designs, and materials and substances. The property illustrates over a thousand years of continuous settlement, with successive interventions each leaving their imprints. Individual buildings, such as the rich stock of ecclesiastical properties, are similarly illustrative of this local history. Municipal managers apply regulatory and legal efforts for the preservation and maintenance of physical and intangible assets, defending the existing urban fabric and the built characteristics, monumental or not, the landscape, and its scenic importance. Solutions are being studied to address depopulation issues.

Protection and management requirements

The entire Historic Centre of Oporto is classified as a National Monument under Law No. 107/2001 of 8 September. Additional protective instruments include the Council of Ministers’ Resolution No. 19/2006 of January 26 and the Regulatory Code of Oporto City Council (2008). A large percentage of the historic centre – usually smaller, mainly residential buildings – is in private ownership. The remainder is owned by the State, the Church and religious orders, municipal council, civil parishes, foundations and associations, and Porto Vivo, SRU. The World Heritage Management Plan for the Historic Centre of Oporto includes a survey of the state of conservation, an action plan, a monitoring programme, and a communication plan. Due to the complexity of implementing such a Management Plan, a specific Urban Area Management Unit was created, responsible for solving day-to-day problems in the Historic Centre of Oporto (Porto Vivo, SRU: Sociedade de Reabilitação Urbana da Baixa Portuense, S.A.).

Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require ensuring that the attributes that convey that value are protected, conserved, and managed, and continuing to address, to the degree possible, the issues associated with depopulation.