Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau

Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau

Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionized architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices. The buildings put up and decorated by the school's professors (Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Wassily Kandinsky) launched the Modern Movement, which shaped much of the architecture of the 20th century.

Le Bauhaus et ses sites à Weimar et Dessau

Entre 1919 et 1933, l'école du Bauhaus, installée d'abord à Weimar puis à Dessau, a révolutionné l'ensemble des conceptions et des productions architecturales et esthétiques. Les bâtiments construits et décorés par les professeurs de l'école (Walter Gropius ou Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy ou Vassily Kandinsky) ont inauguré le « mouvement moderne » qui a modelé l'aspect architectural de notre siècle.

الباوهاوس والمواقع في فايمار وديساو

بين العامين 1919 و1933، أحدثت مدرسة باوهاوس التي استقرت أولاً في فايمار ومن ثم في ديساو ثورةً في مجال مجمل المفاهيم والمنتجات الهندسية والتجميلية. وكانت المباني التي شيّدها وزيّنها اساتذة المدرسة (واتر غروبيوس أو هانس ماير ولازل موهولي- ناجي أو فاسيلي كادنسكي) فاتحة للحركة المعاصرة التي رسمت الطابع الهندسي المعماري في قرننا هذا.

source: UNESCO/ERI

魏玛和德绍的包豪斯建筑及其遗址

包豪斯学派(the Bauhaus School)首先兴起于魏玛(Weimar),然后扩展到了德绍(Dessau),于1919至1933年期间对当时的建筑和美学观念及实践产生了革命性影响。由该学派的教授们(沃尔特·格罗皮斯、汉斯·梅尔、拉斯罗·摩利那基和韦斯利·坎丁斯基)修建和装潢的一系列建筑代表了“现代运动”的兴起,同时也为20世纪建筑的发展奠定了基础。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Памятники архитектурной школы Баухаус в городах Веймар и Дессау

В период 1919-1933 гг. школа Баухаус, находившаяся сначала в Bеймаре, а затем в Дессау, революционно изменила архитектурно-эстетические концепции и практику. Здания, воздвигнутые и оформленные профессорами школы (Вальтер Гропиус, Ханнес Мейер, Ласло Мохоли-Надь и Василий Кандинский) положили начало «Современному движению» и сильно повлияли на архитектуру ХХ в.

source: UNESCO/ERI

La Bauhaus y sus sitios en Weimar y Dessau

Entre 1919 y 1933, la Escuela Bauhaus, que tuvo primero su sede en Weimar y luego en Dessau, revolucionó los conceptos y prácticas arquitectónicas y estéticas. Los edificios construidos y ornamentados por algunos de sus profesores (Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Lazlo Moholy-Nagy y Wassily Kandinsky) señalaron los inicios del movimiento modernista que configuró gran parte de la arquitectura del siglo XX.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ヴァイマールとデッサウのバウハウスとその関連遺産群
バウハウスは、1919~1933年の間に建築上および美学上の概念とその作品に革命を起こした学校。この学校の教授陣(グロピウス、マイヤー、カンディンスキーなど)の建築物は、20世紀建築の開幕を告げるものとなった。

source: NFUAJ

Bauhaus en zijn locaties in Weimar en Dessau

De Bauhaus School, eerst gevestigd in Weimar en later in Dessau, ontketende tussen 1919 en 1933 een revolutie in architectonische en esthetische concepten en praktijken. De gebouwen die opgetrokken en ingericht zijn door de professoren van de school – Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy en Wassily Kandinsky – waren de aanzet van de Moderne Beweging, die een groot deel van de architectuur van de 20e eeuw heeft gevormd. Het gebouw van de Bauhaus School in Weimar is representatief voor de progressieve architectonische concepten van de Jugendstil in de overgangsfase tussen historisme en het modernisme. Het gebouw werd in 1923 versierd met muurschilderingen van Herbert Beyer. In 1925 moest de school om politieke redenen sluiten. In Dessau vond Bauhaus nieuw onderdak en beleefde een korte maar zeer invloedrijke periode. In 1933 werd Bauhaus definitief gesloten.

Source: unesco.nl

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Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionised architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices. The buildings created and decorated by the school's professors (Henry van de Velde, Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Wassily Kandinsky) launched the Modern Movement, which shaped much of the architecture of the 20th century and beyond. Component parts of the property are the Former Art School, the Applied Art School and the Haus am Horn in Weimar, the Bauhaus Building and the group of seven Masters Houses in Dessau.

The Bauhaus represents the desire to develop a modern architecture using the new materials of that time (reinforced concrete, glass, steel) and construction methods (skeleton construction, glass facades). Based on the principle of function, the form of the buildings refuses the traditional, historical symbols of representation. In a severely abstract process, the architectural forms - both the subdivided building structure and the individual structural elements - are reduced to their primary, basic forms; they derive their expression, characteristic of Modernist architecture, from a composition of interpenetrating cubes in suggestive spatial transparency. The Bauhaus was a centre for new ideas and consequently attracted progressive architects and artists.

The Bauhaus School has become the symbol of modern architecture for both its educational theory and its buildings throughout the world and is inseparable from the name of Walter Gropius. The Bauhaus itself and the other buildings designed by the masters of the Bauhaus are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism and as such are essential components of the image of their period of the 20th century. Their consistent artistic grandeur is a reminder of the still uncompleted project for “modernity with a human face", which has sought to use the technical and intellectual resources at its disposition not in a destructive way but to create a living environment worthy of human aspirations. For this reason, they are important monuments not only for art and culture, but also for the historic ideas of the 20th century. Even though the Bauhaus philosophy of social reform turned out to be little more than wishful thinking, its utopia became reality through the form of its architecture. Its direct accessibility still has the power to fascinate and belongs to the people of all nations as their cultural heritage. 

Criterion (ii): The Bauhaus building in Dessau is a central work of European modern art, embodying an avant-garde conception directed towards a radical renewal of architecture and design in a unique and widely influential way.

Criterion (iv): The Bauhaus itself and the other buildings designed by the masters of the Bauhaus are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism and as such are essential components of the image of their period of the 20th century.

Criterion (vi): The Bauhaus architectural school was the foundation of the Modern Movement which was to revolutionise artistic and architectural thinking and practice in the 20th century. 

Integrity

The Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau includes all elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, reflecting the development of Modernism, which was to have worldwide influence in the visual arts, applied art, architecture, and urban planning. The five component parts are of adequate size to ensure protection of the features and processes which convey the significance of the property. 

Authenticity

Although the three buildings in Weimar have undergone several alterations and partial reconstructions, there is no reason to dispute their authenticity (apart from the reconstructed murals in the two Schools). Similarly, despite the level of reconstruction, the Bauhaus building in Dessau preserves its original appearance and atmosphere, largely thanks to the major restoration work carried out in 1976. As for the Masters Houses, the restoration work carried out on one of the semi-detached houses (No 63 Ebertallee) was based on thorough research and may be judged to meet the test of authenticity. If future restoration work on the other semi-detached houses is carried out according to the same principles and methods, the question of authenticity would be addressed satisfactorily. 

Protection and management requirements

The two former Art Schools, the Applied Art School and the Haus am Horn in Weimar are protected by listing in the Register of Historical Monuments of the Free State of Thuringia as unique historical monuments, under the provisions of the Thuringian Protection of Historic Monuments Act of 7 January 1992. The Bauhaus is listed in the equivalent Register of the State of Saxony-Anhalt (Protection of Historical Monuments Act of 21 October 1991); it is used by the Bauhaus Foundation for Research, a public foundation. The Meisterhäuser (Masters Houses) are municipal property, but not legally protected. In Weimar the status of registered historic monuments guarantees that the requirements for monument protection will be taken into account in any regional development plans. There is also a buffer zone, reflecting a monument zone, for the protection of the World Heritage property.

The buildings that make up the property are owned by the Ministry for Science and Humanities of the Free State of Thuringia (former School of Art), the Weimar Academy for Architecture and Building Arts (former School of Applied Arts), the Municipal corporation of Weimar (Haus am Horn), the City Administration of Dessau (Bauhaus), and the Municipal corporation of Dessau (Masters Houses).

Overall responsibility for protection of the Weimar monuments is with the Ministry for Science and Humanities of the Free State of Thuringia and for those in Dessau with the Ministry of Culture of the State of Saxony-Anhalt, in both cases operating through their respective State Offices for the Preservation of Historical Monuments. Direct management is assigned to the appropriate state and municipal authorities, operating under their respective protection regulations. In Dessau, the site of the Bauhaus itself is managed by the Foundation Bauhaus Dessau (Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau).