The Sassi and the Park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera

The Sassi and the Park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera

This is the most outstanding, intact example of a troglodyte settlement in the Mediterranean region, perfectly adapted to its terrain and ecosystem. The first inhabited zone dates from the Palaeolithic, while later settlements illustrate a number of significant stages in human history. Matera is in the southern region of Basilicata.

Les Sassi et le parc des églises rupestres de Matera

Situé dans la région du Basilicate, c'est l'exemple le plus remarquable et le plus complet d'un ensemble d'habitations troglodytiques de la région méditerranéenne, parfaitement adapté à son terrain et à son écosystème. La première zone habitée remonte au paléolithique et les habitations postérieures illustrent un certain nombre d'étapes importantes de l'histoire humaine.

لي ساسّي ومرتع الكنائس الصخرية لماتيرا

تقع هذه المجموعة في منطقة بازيليكاتي وهي المثال الأكبر والأفضل على مجموعات المساكن الكهفيّة في المنطقة المتوسطية، والمتكيفة كليًا مع الأرض التي تقع عليها والنظام البيئي فيها. وتعود المنطقة المأهولة الأولى إلى العصر الحجري القديم (الباليوليثي) وتشهد المساكن اللاحقة على عدد من المراحل الهامة في تاريخ البشرية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

马泰拉的石窟民居和石头教堂花园

这是地中海地区最著名也是保存最完好的穴居人遗址。整个遗址依地势而建,且完美地配合当地的生态系统。遗址最早的居住年代可以追溯到旧石器时代,并反映了人类历史发展的重要历史阶段。马泰拉地处巴西利卡塔的南部地区。

source: UNESCO/ERI

«И-Сасси-ди-Матера» - старые районы города Матера

В масштабах всего Средиземноморья – это самый выдающийся по степени сохранности пример пещерного поселения, прекрасно приспособленного к специфике местного ландшафта. Первые следы обитания человека на этом месте относятся к палеолиту, тогда как более поздние поселения иллюстрируют другие важные этапы в истории развития человека. Город Матера находится в южной области Базиликата.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Los Sassi y el conjunto de iglesias rupestres de Matera

Situado en la región de Basilicata, este sitio posee el más extraordinario y mejor conservado conjunto de viviendas trogloditas de la cuenca del Mediterráneo, perfectamente adaptadas a la morfología del terreno y el ecosistema de la zona. Los sucesivos asentamientos del hombre en este sitio, desde los tiempos del Paleolítico, ilustran toda una serie de etapas importantes de la historia de la humanidad.

source: UNESCO/ERI

マテーラの洞窟住居と岩窟教会公園

source: NFUAJ

Sassi en het park met de rotskerken van Matera

Dit gebied is het meest opvallende, intacte voorbeeld van een in de rotsen uitgehouwen nederzeting in het Middellandse Zeegebied, perfect aangepast aan haar omgeving en ecosysteem. De eerste bewoonde zone dateert uit het Paleolithicum, terwijl latere nederzettingen een aantal belangrijke stadia binnen de menselijke geschiedenis illustreren. Matera ligt in de zuidelijke regio Basilicata. De Sassi van Matera en het park met rotskerken laat traditionele menselijke bewoning en landgebruik zien, het bewijs van de ontwikkeling van een cultuur die een harmonieuze relatie met de natuurlijke omgeving heeft weten te behouden.

Source: unesco.nl

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The Sassi and the Park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera © UNESCO
Long Description

The Sassi of Matera and their park are an outstanding example of a rock-cut settlement, adapted perfectly to its geomorphological setting and its ecosystem and exhibiting continuity over more than two millennia. They represent an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement and land use showing the evolution of a culture that has maintained over time a harmonious relationship with its natural environment.

The Matera region has been inhabited by man since the Palaeolithic period. Permanent defended village settlements grew up after the last Ice Age, based on agriculture. Deforestation of the area led to serious erosion and created problems of water management. The gradual invasion of fields by garrigue and maquis led to a change from agriculture to pastoral transhumance. Matera's development was due to its geological setting. A belt of soft tufo is located between 350 m and 400 m above the valley bed, and this also contains two natural depressions (grabialioni ); in consequence, it was here that the settlement grew up. The clay plateau above was reserved for agriculture and pastoralism.

The advent of better tools with the Metal Ages made it easier to dig into the soft calcareous tufo rocks exposed in the gravine (gorges or canyons) and there is evidence from the Bronze Age of the creation of underground cisterns and tombs, and in particular of underground dwellings opening out of a central space (jazzi ). The excavated tufo blocks were used for the construction of walls and towers. This process was easiest on the sides of ravines, where the softer strata of tufo were exposed. Greek colonization led to the introduction of higher technology and political structures, under the influence of the Pythagorean School. The earlier dispersed settlements coalesced into urban centres of government, under their own kings (i Re Pastori), leading eventually to the creation of true towns. The harsh landscape resulted in the growth of a spirit of sturdy independence which was resistant to successive waves of invaders after the Byzantine period. The area was also very attractive to monastic and utopian communities.

This structure remained intact until the 18th century. It was the expansion and interventions of the 19th and 20th centuries that rejected the ancient principle of land management based on water supply and drainage and spread to the clays of the plateau above.

The earliest house form was a simple cave in the tufo with a closing wall formed from the excavated blocks. This developed into a vaulted room (lamione ) built out into the open space, and was then available for considerable adaptation and extension. Groups of dwellings round a common courtyard evolved into the social structure of the vicinato, with shared facilities such as a cistern. In between the two sassi was established the fortified centre of the town (cività ), within which the cathedral was sited. Workshops and granaries were set up outside the cività, which was connected with the sassi by narrow lanes and steps. The water supply was highly organized, being collected on the plateau above and brought down by gravity for distribution to the community. As the town grew, more houses were excavated and built, climbing the hillside; the roofs of some houses often acted as streets for the houses above them. The houses became more grandiose, and terraces were built out in the Renaissance period for gardens.

 

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Matera region has been inhabited by man since the Palaeolithic period. Permanent defended village settlements grew up after the last Ice Age, based on agriculture. Deforestation of the area led to serious erosion and created problems of water management. The gradual invasion of fields by garricue and maauis led to a change from agriculture to pastoral transhumance. The advent of better tools with the Metal Ages made it easier to dig into the soft calcareous tufo rocks exposed in the gravine (gorges or canyons) and there is evidence from the Bronze Age of the creation of underground cisterns and tombs, and in particular of underground dwellings opening out of a central space (iazzi). The excavated tufo blocks were used for the construction of walls and towers. This process was easiest on the sides of ravines, where the softer strata of tufo were exposed.

Greek colonization led to the introduction of higher technology and political structures, under the influence of the Pythagorean school. The earlier dispersed settlements coalesced into urban centres of government, under their own kings (i Re Pastori), leading eventually to the creation of true towns. The harsh landscape resulted in the growth of a spirit of sturdy independence which was resistant to successive waves of invaders after the Byzantine period. The area was also very attractive to monastic and utopian communities.

Matera's development was due to its geological setting. A belt of soft tufo is located between 350 and 400 m above the valley bed, and this also contains two natural depressions (arabialioni); in consequence, it was here that the settlement grew up. The clay plateau above was reserved for agriculture and pastoralism.

This structure remained intact until the 18th century. It was the expansion and interventions of the 19th and 20th centuries that rejected the ancient principle of land management based on water supply and drainage and spread to the clays of the plateau above. The original urban fabric degenerated to the point where Matera, Idrisi as hailed by the 12th century geographer El "magnificent and splendid", was seen by Carlo Levi in his famous novel Cristo si B fermato ad Eboli (Christ stopped at Eboli), published in 1945, life in southern Italy. as the symbol of the misery of peasant As a result of the Italian Government's concern about this situation, legislation passed in 1952 led to the rehousing of the dwellers of the old quarters in new buildings and the desertion of the ancient centre in the 1950s.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation