Vlkolínec, situated in the centre of Slovakia, is a remarkably intact settlement of 45 buildings with the traditional features of a central European village. It is the region’s most complete group of these kinds of traditional log houses, often found in mountainous areas.
Dans le centre de la Slovaquie, Vlkolínec est un ensemble remarquablement préservé de 45 bâtiments caractéristiques d’un village traditionnel d’Europe centrale. C’est le groupe le plus complet de ce genre dans la région, avec ses maisons traditionnelles en bois, typiques des zones de montagne.
تشكل فيلكولينيك الواقعة وسط سلوفاكيا مجموعة محفوظة من 45 بناء يميّز القرية التقليدية في اوروبا الوسطى، وهي المجموعة الاكثر اكتمالاً من هذا النوع في المنطقة بمنازلها الخشبية التقليدية التي تتميز بها المناطق الجبلية.
Историческая деревня Влколинец
Влколинец, расположенный в центре Словакии, представляет собой отлично сохранившееся поселение с 45 домами и характерными чертами центрально-европейской деревни. Это наиболее комплексная группа такого рода традиционных бревенчатых домов, часто встречаемых в горной местности в этом регионе.
Situada en el centro de Eslovaquia, Vlkolínec es una aldea tradicional característica de Europa Central que posee un conjunto de 45 edificaciones en un estado de conservación admirable. Este conjunto de casas de madera, típicas de las zonas de montaña, es el más completo de su género en toda la región.
Vlkolínec – in het midden van Slowakije – is een opmerkelijk intact gebleven nederzetting met gebouwen kenmerkend voor een centraal Europees dorp. De huizen worden gebouwd op stenen funderingen, de muren bedekt met klei en vervolgens wit of blauw geschilderd. Er zijn 47 van dit soort traditionele woningen in Vlkolínec en daarmee de meest volledige groep van dit soort traditionele Slowaakse houten huizen, die vaak voorkomen in bergachtige gebieden. Naast de traditionele woningen staan er in het plaatsje een winkel en school uit het einde van de 19e eeuw en de kerk van de Heilige Maagd Maria uit 1875, met een belfort gebouwd in 1770.
Outstanding Universal Value
Vlkolínec is a 4.9 ha community forming an administrative part of the town of Ružomberok. It was historically referred to as a “street” of Ružomberok, yet is situated about 7 kilometres from the town itself, in the mountains of the northern part of central Slovakia. It is a remarkably well preserved rural medieval settlement featuring wooden architecture typical of hillside and mountain areas. Its layout, defined in part by the hilly terrain of the mountains of Veľká Fatra, features log houses situated on narrow lots with stables, barns and smaller outbuildings in the rear. A canalized stream flows through the centre of the village. The surrounding landscape is formed by narrow strips of fields and pastures with haylofts, protected from the north by the Sidorovo Hill.
Although the settlement has roots in the 10th century, its first records date to the late 14th century. The urban layout can be traced to this era as records indicate five streets in place by 1469. Most of the surviving buildings, however, date from the 19th century. These include 43 nearly intact homesteads that retain a multitude of archaic building elements, the Church of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary built in 1875, a bell tower built in 1770, and a school.
The settlement and its surrounding landscape form a balanced urban unit with a significant interaction between nature and humans. Vlkolínec represents the region’s best preserved and most complex urban unit of original folk architecture consisting of wooden houses and outbuildings, the wooden bell tower and mural buildings of the church and school.
Criterion (iv): Vlkolínec is a remarkably intact rural settlement of a characteristic central European type with log-built architecture, which is often found in mountainous areas. The layout of the settlement has remained virtually unchanged and the architectural style has been fully retained. It is the best preserved and most comprehensive unit of its kind in the whole region.
Criterion (v): Vlkolínec is an outstanding example of a traditional Central European rural settlement, with 43 unaltered houses and ancillary buildings reflecting a multitude of archaic building elements, all set within a traditional farming landscape of strip fields which has become vulnerable due to the changed way of life.
All important elements necessary to convey the Outstanding Universal Value are contained within the boundaries of the property and Vlkolínec’s delimitation and size are appropriate. A row of buildings that was destroyed by fire during the Second World War have not been replaced. The buffer zone, which includes the surrounding fields and pastures, safeguards the property’s main views and prevents inappropriate developments.
The property is vulnerable to the impacts of tourism interfering with the inhabitants’ everyday life. The settlement’s character has been affected by the increase of temporary residents acquiring property for recreational purposes. In addition, outbuildings are particularly at risk due to high vacancy rates and lack of appropriate uses.
The historic character of the whole settlement featuring unaltered wooden log houses has been preserved primarily due to its isolated location. Authenticity of form and design is apparent in the original architectural style that survives virtually unchanged. Authenticity of use and function has been affected by modifications to building interiors in order to correspond with current dwelling standards.
Protection and management requirements
The site has the highest form of monument protection enabled by the national legislation under the provisions of the Act No. 49/2002 Coll. on the protection of monuments and historic sites. In 1977 Vlkolínec was declared a Reservation of Folk Architecture which, in part, forbids any new construction. Most of the buildings within the site are protected as national cultural monuments. The site’s protection is strengthened by the declared buffer zone (320.7 ha in size) and due to its location within the National Park of Vel’ká Fatra, it also falls under the provisions of the Act No. 543/2002 Coll. on the protection of nature and landscape. The overall responsibility for the preservation of the village and the surrounding area is vested with the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic respectively.
All planned activities on the site are liable to strict assessment of the project documentation done by the Regional Monuments Board Žilina, office in Ružomberok. Principles of Care for Historic Monuments in the Vlkolínec Folk Architecture Reserve (1981, updated 1995) define appropriate conservation methods and techniques applicable for properties both within the reserve and its buffer zone. Change of use of buildings is only permitted if there are no material changes and must be approved by the regional monuments board.
The majority of the properties within the site are in private ownership. Notable exceptions are the approximately 10 properties owned by the local government (Ružomberok Municipality) and the church which is owned by the Roman Catholic Church.
The site is regularly assessed and monitored, and measures to prevent any potential threats are taken. The site management follows the Management Plan and is conducted by the Town Council of Ružomberok in close cooperation with the respective national authority, the Regional Monuments Board Žilina, Ružomberok office. To facilitate its effective protection and enhance the public awareness of the site’s values, Vlkolínec has been granted a specific statute by the town of Ružomberok.
Vlkolinec is a remarkably intact unitary settlement of a characteristic central European type with log-built architecture, which is often found in mountainous areas. The layout of the town has remained virtually unchanged and the architectural style has been fully retained. There are 45 unaltered buildings in the ensemble, retaining many early constructional features. It is the best preserved and most comprehensive set of traditional vernacular buildings in the Slovak Republic. It has preserved its ancient appearance with remarkable fidelity: although it is now in its 19th-century guise, Vlkolinec is essentially the same as it has been for a much longer period.
There was an early Slav settlement on the site from the Burgwall (walled settlement) period (10th-12th centuries AD). The first documentary record dates from 1376, and in a document of 1469 reference is made to five named streets. In 1675 there were only four homesteads and five residences of servants of the nearby Likava manor, of which Vlkolinec always seems to have been a fief. A decree of 1630 suggests that the name derives from the important charge laid upon the villagers to maintain the wolf-pits in good order. The present settlement consists almost entirely of buildings from the 19th century.
The characteristic houses of Vlkolinec are situated on the street frontages of narrow holdings, with stables, smaller outbuildings, and barns ranged behind them. The main street, which is on a comparatively steep slope, forks in the centre of the village. Parts of the northern end of the village were destroyed by fire in the Second World War and have not been rebuilt. A canalized stream flows through the village. The houses are of the traditional central Slovak timber-built (Blockbau) type. This consists of log walls on stone footings, the walls being coated with clay and whitewashed or painted blue. Over 50% of them have three rooms; some are smaller and others double. The roofs are pitched and semi-hipped, and were originally covered with wooden shingles. They are entered from elongated yards shared with several other houses.
There are 47 traditional farmhouses of this type and a shop and schoolhouse from the end of the 19th century. The Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary dates from 1875, but the belfry was built in 1770.
One especially interesting feature of the settlement is the fact that the parcels of land that surround it retain the elongated strip shape characteristic of medieval land allotment over most of feudal Europe. Outside these lie the areas of common land and forest which are also essential elements of the feudal landscape (although these have been substantially altered in later centuries through forestry and pasturage).Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
There was an Early Slav settlement on the site from the Burgwall (walled settlement) period (10th to 12th centuries AD). The first documentary record dates from 1376, and in a document of 1469 reference is made to five named streets. In 1675 there were only four homesteads and five residences of servants of the nearby Likava manor, of which Vlkolinec always seems to have been a fief. A decree of 1630 suggests that the name derives from the important charge laid upon the villagers to maintain the wolf-pits (vlk = wolf) in good order. The present settlement consists almost entirely of buildings from the 19th century.Source: Advisory Body Evaluation