Our Lady of Burgos was begun in the 13th century at the same time as the great cathedrals of the Ile-de-France and was completed in the 15th and 16th centuries. The entire history of Gothic art is summed up in its superb architecture and its unique collection of works of art, including paintings, choir stalls, reredos, tombs and stained-glass windows.
Cathédrale de Burgos
Commencée au XIIIe siècle, en même temps que les grandes cathédrales de l'Île-de-France, et achevée aux XVe et XVIe siècles, Notre-Dame de Burgos résume l'histoire entière de l'art gothique dans sa splendide architecture et dans la collection unique de chefs-d'œuvre – peintures, stalles, retables, tombeaux, vitraux etc. – qu'elle abrite.
بدأ تشييد كاتدرائيّة سيّدة بورغوس في القرن الثالث عشر، في نفس تاريخ تشييد الكاتدرائيات الكبرى في منطقة إيل دو فرانس (فرنسا)، وانتهى العمل بها في القرنين الخامس والسادس عشر وهي تستعرض في حناياها الفنّ القوطي بروعته الهندسيّة وتُبرز مجموعةً فريدةً من التحف الفنيّة على شكل رسوم ومقاعد كهنة ومنحوتات حجريّة ومقابر وزجاجيات.
Кафедральный собор в городе Бургос
Собор Богоматери в Бургосе был заложен в ХIII в., одновременно с великими кафедральными соборами Иль-де-Франса, а завершен в ХV-ХVI вв. Вся история искусства готики отразилась в его прекрасной архитектуре и уникальной коллекции произведений искусства, включающей картины, резные скамьи хора, рельефы алтаря, надгробья и витражи.
Catedral de Burgos
La construcción de la Catedral de Santa María de Burgos comenzó en el siglo XIII, al mismo tiempo que la de las grandes catedrales francesas de la región de París, y finalizó en los siglos XV y XVI. Su espléndida arquitectura y la colección excepcional de obras maestras que alberga –pinturas, sitiales del coro, retablos, tumbas y vidrieras– son un verdadero compendio de la historia del arte gótico.
Kathedraal van Burgos
De bouw van de Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe Kathedraal van Burgos begon in de 13e eeuw – hetzelfde moment waarop de grote kathedralen van het Île-de-France werden gebouwd – en voltooid in de 15e en 16e eeuw. De hele geschiedenis van de gotische kunst wordt samengevat in deze prachtige architectuur en unieke collectie kunstwerken, waaronder schilderijen, koorgestoelte, retabels, graven en glas-in-loodramen. De Kathedraal van Burgos met zijn kerk, klooster en bijgebouwen heeft een aanzienlijke invloed uitgeoefend op de evolutie van de architectuur en beeldende kunsten. Het gebouw getuigt van het creatieve brein van vele architecten, beeldhouwers en ambachtslieden.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Burgos Cathedral is located in the historical centre of the Spanish city of the same name, in the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León, in the northern Iberian Peninsula. The inscribed property encompasses 1.03 ha.
Construction on the Cathedral began in 1221 and was completed in 1567. It is a comprehensive example of the evolution of Gothic style, with the entire history of Gothic art exhibited in its superb architecture and unique collection of art, including paintings, choir stalls, reredos, tombs, and stained-glass windows.
The plan of the Cathedral is based on a Latin Cross of harmonious proportions of 84 by 59 metres. The three-story elevation, the vaulting, and the tracery of the windows are closely related to contemporary models of the north of France. The portals of the transept (the Puerta del Sarmental to the south and the Puerta de la Coronería to the north) may also be compared to the great sculpted ensembles of the French royal domain, while the enamelled, brass tomb of Bishop Mauricio resembles the so-called Limoges goldsmith work. Undertaken after the Cathedral, the two-storied cloister, which was completed towards 1280, still fits within the framework of the French high Gothic.
After a hiatus of nearly 200 years, work resumed on the Burgos Cathedral towards the middle of the 15th century and continued for more than 100 years. The work done during this time consisted of embellishments of great splendour, assuring the Cathedral’s continued world-renown status. The workshop was composed of an international team, and among the most famous architects were Juan de Colonia, soon relieved by his son Simon (responsible for the towers and open spires of the facade, the Constable's chapel, and the Saint Anne's chapel) and Felipe de Borgoña, assisted by numerous collaborators (responsible for the choir, cupola, and lantern tower over the transept crossing). When two of these architects, Juan de Vallejo and Juan de Castañeda, completed the prodigious cupola with its starred vaulting in 1567, the Burgos Cathedral unified one of the greatest known concentrations of late Gothic masterpieces: the Puerta de la Pellejería (1516) of Francisco de Colonia, the ornamental grill and choir stalls, the grill of the chapel of the Presentation (1519), the retable of Gil de Siloe in the Constable's chapel, the retable of Gil de Siloe and Diego de la Cruz in Saint Anne's chapel, the staircase of Diego de Siloe in the north transept arm (1519), the tombs of Bishop Alonso de Cartagena, Bishop Alonso Luis Osorio de Acuña, the Abbot Juan Ortega de Velasco, the Constable Pedro Hernández de Velasco and, his wife Doña Mencía de Mendoza, etc.
Thereafter, the cathedral continued to be a monument favoured by the arts: the Renaissance retable of the Capilla Mayor by Rodrigo and Martin de la Haya, Domingo de Berriz, and Juan de Anchieta (1562-1580), the tomb of Enrique de Peralta y Cardenas in the chapel of Saint Mary, the chapel of Santa Tecla, and the "trascoro" of the 18th century.
Criterion (ii): Burgos Cathedral has exerted, at different times throughout history, a considerable influence on the evolution of architecture and the arts. The Cathedral played an important role in the diffusion of the forms of 13th-century, French Gothic art in Spain. The internationally important Cathedral’s workshop in the 15th and 16th centuries, where artists from the Rhineland, Burgundy, and Flanders trained Spanish architects and sculptors, created one of the most flourishing schools at the end of the Middle Ages. The Cathedral’s also served as a model throughout the 19th century, i.e. the French architect Garnier was inspired by the staircase of Diego de Siloe when he created that of the Opera in Paris.
Criterion (iv): Burgos offers a celebrated example of an integral Gothic cathedral with its chapels, cloister, and annexes. Built over more than four centuries, the Cathedral bears testimony to the creative genius of architects, sculptors, and craftsmen throughout these periods.
Criterion (vi): Burgos Cathedral, with the tomb of El Cid and his wife Doña Jimena, is intimately linked to the history of the Reconquista and Spanish unity. Several members of the early royal house of Castile rest beneath the main altar. The memory of Saint Ferdinand is linked to the construction of this symbolic monument of the Spanish monarchy.
The property contains all key attributes to express its Outstanding Universal Value. The monument has been maintained as an integral Gothic cathedral, with chapels, cloister, and annexes; and is an extraordinary summary of European Gothic influences, which can be admired in every component of the structure, from the facades and chapels to the stained glass windows and sculptures. Regular works of maintenance have helped to sustain the material integrity of the monument. There are no negative effects from urban development, since it is legally protected at the highest level of Spanish law, with every action strictly controlled to preserve the Outstanding Universal Value of the property.
The Burgos Cathedral retains all the key features of authenticity in respect to location, materials, form, and design. Over time, continuous maintenance works have taken place under control and supervision of the Administration Departments in charge of protection and conservation of Cultural Heritage. The basis for these interventions is set out in the Director Plan. Regular restoration works in different parts of the monument have been undertaken, as well as several studies – including chemical and microclimatic analyses, and on the deterioration of the materials, especially the stone, due to dampness – in order to maintain the extraordinary cultural value of the monument. As a result, the authenticity of the Burgos Cathedral has been preserved.
Protection and management requirements
The protection and management of Burgos Cathedral is under the responsibility and supervision of the Junta de Castilla y León, through the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, and the Cathedral Chapter as the owner of the property.
Any intervention on the Cathedral requires administrative authorisation according to the current Cultural Heritage Laws (Law 12/2002, 11 July, of Cultural Heritage of Castilla y León y Decree 37/2007, 19 April, that approves the Rules for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Castilla y León and Law 16/1985, 25 June, of Spanish Historic Heritage). As a result, the Commission for Cultural Heritage of Castilla y León must approve all projects concerning the Cathedral prior to initiation.
The Burgos Cathedral has a Director Plan used as an instrument to analyse and plan any needed interventions for its adequate conservation. The Plan guarantees the constant maintenance of the Cathedral.
In respect to urban planning, a Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic City includes all the monumental surroundings of the Cathedral, which also overlaps with the surroundings of the Route of Santiago de Compostela. The Special Plan sets out the regulations for this area, with strict guidelines for general, urban development and for the uses of buildings in this area. In particular, the protection level of the Cathedral in this Plan is fully comprehensive, and the authorized actions are: consolidation, restoration, and conservation, as well as the use of adaptations that do not result in deterioration or irreversible interventions.
Burgos Cathedral, an outstanding example of an integral Gothic cathedral, with church, cloister and annexes. has exerted, at different times, a considerable influence on the evolution of architecture and the plastic arts. It bears witness to the creative genius of many architects, sculptors, and craftsmen. It is sufficient to call to mind its role in the diffusion in Spain of the forms of French Gothic art of the 13th century, and the international importance of the workshop in the 15th and 16th centuries where artists from the Rhineland, Burgundy and Flanders trained Spanish architects and sculptors, thus creating one of the most flourishing schools of the end of the Middle Ages.
Begun in 1221 and completed in 1567, Santa María de Burgos is a striking summary of the evolution of Gothic architecture. The body of the work, undertaken through the initiative of Bishop Mauricio in the reign of Ferdinand III 'the Holy', was rapidly carried out: a first campaign, the most important, was completed in 1293. The plan of the cathedral is based on a Latin cross of pleasing proportions. The three-storey elevation, the vaulting, and the tracery of the windows are closely related to contemporary models of the north of France. The portals of the transept (the Puerta del Sarmental to the south and the Puerta de la Coronería to the north) may also be compared with the great sculpted ensembles of the French royal domain, while the enamelled brass tomb of Bishop Mauricio resembles the so-called Limoges goldsmith work. Undertaken after the cathedral, the two-storeyed cloister that was completed towards 1280 still fits within the framework of 'French' High Gothic.
After a hiatus of some 200 years, work was resumed on the Cathedral of Burgos in the mid-15th century and continued over more than 100 years. These were embellishments of a profuse splendour which have, ever since, assured the world renown of this edifice. The workshop was composed of an international team. Among the most famous architects were Juan de Colonia, soon relieved by his son Simon (towers and open spires of the facade, the Constable's chapel, the Chapel of Santa Ana) and Felipe de Borgoña, assisted by numerous collaborators (choir, cupola and lantern tower over the transept crossing).
When in 1567 two of these architects, Juan de Vallejo and Juan de Castaneda, completed the prodigious cupola with its starred vaulting, the cathedral of Burgos incorporated one of the greatest concentrations of masterpieces of this last phase of the Gothic: the Puerta della Pellejería (1516) of Francesco de Colonia, the ornamental grill and choir stalls, the grill of the chapel of the Presentation (1519), the retablo of Gil de Siloé in the Constable's chapel, the retablo of Gil de Siloé and Diego de La Cruz in the chapen of Santa Ana, the staircase of Diego de Siloé in the north transept arm, the tombs of Bishop Alonso de Cartagena, of Bishop Acuña, of Abbot Juan Ortega de Velasco, of the Condestable Pedro Hernández de Velasco and of his wife Doña Mencia de Mendoza, etc. Thereafter, the cathedral continued to be a monument favoured by the arts - the Renaissance retablo of the Capilla Mayor by Rodrigo and Martín de la Haya, Domingo de Berríz and Juan de Anchieta, the tomb of Enrique de Peralta y Cardenas in the chapel of San Enrique, the chapel of Santa Tecla and the trascoro of the 18th century.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
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