Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Made in Paris by the French sculptor Bartholdi, in collaboration with Gustave Eiffel (who was responsible for the steel framework), this towering monument to liberty was a gift from France on the centenary of American independence. Inaugurated in 1886, the sculpture stands at the entrance to New York Harbour and has welcomed millions of immigrants to the United States ever since.
Statue de la Liberté
Exécutée à Paris par le sculpteur Bartholdi avec la collaboration de Gustave Eiffel pour la charpente métallique, la statue colossale de la Liberté éclairant le monde fut offerte par la France pour le centenaire de l'indépendance des États-Unis. Inaugurée en 1886, elle a accueilli depuis lors à l'entrée du port de New York des millions d'immigrants venus peupler les États-Unis.
بمناسبة مرور مئة عام على استقلال الولايات المتحدة قّدمت فرنسا للأخيرة تمثال الحريّة الذي صقله في باريس النحّات بارتولدي وأعدّ هيكله المعدني غوستاف إيفل فأنار بشعلته العالم وانتصب على مدخل مرفأ مدينة نيويوك حيث رحّب بعد تنصيبه عام 1886 بتوافد ملايين المهاجرين القادمين للإقامة في الولايات المتحدة.
Статуя Свободы (Нью-Йорк)
Этот поставленный на башню монумент свободе, созданный в Париже французским скульптором Бартольди в сотрудничестве с Густавом Эйфелем (рассчитавшим стальной каркас), был подарен Францией Америке в 1886 г. к столетию ее независимости. Возвышающаяся у входа в гавань Нью-Йорка, статуя приветствовала миллионы иммигрантов, прибывавших в Соединенные Штаты.
Estatua de la Libertad
La colosal estatua de la Libertad iluminando el mundo con su antorcha fue realizada en París por el escultor Bartholdi, en colaboración con Gustavo Eiffel que se encargó de la estructura metálica, La estatua fue regalada por Francia a los Estados Unidos con motivo del centenario de su independencia. Instalada en 1886 en la entrada del puerto de Nueva York, su efigie acogió desde entonces a millones de emigrantes venidos a poblar los Estados Unidos.
自由の女神像ニューヨーク港内マンハッタン島から３kmのリバティ島にある。アメリカ独立100周年を記念して、米仏両国の友好のために、フランス人の募金を得て、フランス人が発案・設計・製作した。正式名称は“Liberty Enlightening the World”（世界を照らす自由）。高さ46m，重量225tの像は、右手に自由を象徴する松明を掲げ、左手に独立宣言書を抱え、足元は暴力を象徴する鎖を踏みつけている。資金難から完成は1886年。全高93m。
Dit standbeeld van 'Vrijheid die de wereld Verlicht' werd in Parijs vervaardigd door de Franse beeldhouwer Bartholdi, in samenwerking met Gustave Eiffel die verantwoordelijk was voor de staalconstructie. Het beeld bestaat uit een holle kolos van dun geslagen koperen platen over een stalen raamwerk. Het torenhoge monument was een geschenk van Frankrijk op de 100e Amerikaanse Onafhankelijkheidsdag in 1886. Het Vrijheidsbeeld staat bij de ingang van de haven van New York en heeft sindsdien miljoenen immigranten verwelkomd. In de tweede helft van de 19e eeuw bereikte de immigratie z'n hoogtepunt en in 30 jaar verdubbelde de bevolking van de Verenigde Staten zich bijna.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Statue of Liberty, a hollow colossus composed of thinly pounded copper sheets over a steel framework, stands on an island at the entrance to New York Harbor. It was designed by sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi in collaboration with engineer Gustave Eiffel, and was a gift from France on the centenary of American independence in 1876. Its design and construction were recognized at the time as one of the greatest technical achievements of the 19th century and hailed as a bridge between art and engineering. Atop its pedestal (designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt), the Statue has welcomed millions of immigrants to the United States since it was dedicated in 1886.
The Statue is a masterpiece of colossal statuary, which found renewed expression in the 19th century, after the tradition of those of antiquity, but with intimations of Art Nouveau. Drawing on classical elements and iconography, it expressed modern aspirations. The interior iron framework is a formidable and intricate piece of construction, a harbinger of the future in engineering, architecture, and art, including the extensive use of concrete in the base, the flexible curtain-wall type of construction that supports the skin, and the use of electricity to light the torch. Édouard René de Laboulaye collaborated with Bartholdi for the concept of the Statue to embody international friendship, peace, and progress, and specifically the historical alliance between France and the United States. Its financing by international subscription was also significant. Highly potent symbolic elements of the design include the United States Declaration of Independence, which the Statue holds in her left hand, as well as the broken shackles from which she steps.
Criterion (i): This colossal statue is a masterpiece of the human spirit. The collaboration between the sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi and the engineer Gustave Eiffel resulted in the production of a technological wonder that brings together art and engineering in a new and powerful way.
Criterion (vi): The symbolic value of the Statue of Liberty lies in two basic factors. It was presented by France with the intention of affirming the historical alliance between the two nations. It was financed by international subscription in recognition of the establishment of the principles of freedom and democracy by the United States of America’s Declaration of Independence, which the Statue holds in her left hand. The Statue also soon became and has endured as a symbol of the migration of people from many countries into the United States in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries. She endures as a highly potent symbol – inspiring contemplation, debate, and protest – of ideals such as liberty, peace, human rights, abolition of slavery, democracy, and opportunity.
Within the boundaries of the property are located all the elements necessary to understand and express the Outstanding Universal Value of the Statue of Liberty. The Statue has been maintained through its lifetime with no major change. Deformations related to the galvanic interaction of metals were corrected in an extensive restoration undertaken for its centennial in 1986, which included reproducing the original deteriorated torch, which is now preserved in the museum. There have been periodic updates to the internal mechanical and security systems. The 5.95 ha property is of sufficient size to adequately ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey the property’s significance, and does not suffer from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. There is no official buffer zone for the property, but its island location within the urban setting provides equivalent protection. The property, which is the whole of Liberty Island, also houses a number of administrative structures.
The Statue of Liberty is authentic in terms of its location and setting, form and design, materials and substance, use and function, and spirit and feeling. The Statue’s design and purpose have been preserved from the time of its construction. The interior iron strapwork supporting the metal skin was replaced in 1986 with stainless steel that will prevent corrosion. All repairs were made with great fidelity to the original design and materials. Periodic mechanical, circulation, and security updates have not affected the sculptural and symbolic values of the monument, and have been done to ensure the safety of visitors. There is a formal monitoring program for the property. The known and potential threats to the authenticity of the property include pollution, severe weather, and large numbers of visitors.
Protection and management requirements
The Statue of Liberty is owned by the Government of the United States of America. The Statue was designated as a National Monument in 1924 (the National Monument additionally includes Liberty Island  and Ellis Island ), and is administered by the National Park Service. These measures give it the highest possible level of protection. The existing General Management Plan (1982), which addresses physical preservation and interpretation, has been supplemented in recent years by a comprehensive study on life-safety and emergency management (2009), the recommendations of which have been implemented. The Statue receives a large number of visitors, and has substantial professional staff and facilities that include a Visitor Information Center, an exhibit on the Statue’s history, and the nearby Ellis Island Immigration Museum. Access is by ferry, which includes security screening of visitors; maintaining the security of the property is an ongoing concern.
Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require continuing to monitor and manage the known and potential threats, including pollution, severe weather, and large numbers of visitors.
The Statue of Liberty is a masterpiece of the human creative spirit. Its construction in the studios of Bartholdi in Paris represents one of the greatest technical exploits of the 19th century. It welcomed immigrants at the entrance to New York harbour, and so it is directly and materially associated with an event of outstanding universal significance: the populating of the United States, the melting pot of disparate peoples in the second half of the 19th century. The fact that the statue, whose funds were raised by international subscription, was executed in Europe, by a French sculptor, strengthens the symbolic interest of this world-renowned work.
During the second half of the 19th century, the population of the United States almost doubled in 30 years, from 38,500,000 inhabitants in 1870 to 76,000,000 in 1900. This prodigious growth is principally due to immigration which reached an unprecedented high at that time. Between 1840 and 1880, 9,438,000 foreigners landed in the United States, among which, besides the British, were Germans, Irish and Scandinavian. Between 1880 and 1914, the number of immigrants reached 22,000,000, this time deriving mainly from southern and eastern Europe.
It is within this context the order was placed for the Statue of Liberty, made in Paris by the French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, in collaboration with Gustave Eiffel, who conceived and executed the metallic skeleton which was to form the interior framework. The exterior 'envelope' was composed of brass plaques, formed by hammering them in hard wood moulds made from plaster models. These plaques were then soldered and riveted together. After Bartholdi prefabricated the figure in Paris by moulding sheets of copper over a steel framework, it was shipped to the United States in 241 crates in 1885.
Some of the money to erect the statue was contributed by American schoolchildren. It is certain that for millions of immigrants who came to America in the 19th century seeking freedom, it was the fulfilment of their dreams. The sculptor also intended with his work to be an immense and impressive symbol of human liberty, and it is one of the most universal symbols of political freedom and democracy. The people of France gave the statue to the people of the United States over 100 years ago in recognition of the friendship established during the American Revolution.
The Statue of Liberty, a woman holding on high a book and a 46 m long torch set on Liberty Island, situated at the entrance to New York harbour about 1 km from the landing point of the immigrants, was dedicated on 28 October 1886 and was designated a National Monument on 15 October 1924. On 8 September 1937, jurisdiction was enlarged to encompass all of Bedloe's Island and in 1956, the island's name was changed to Liberty Island. On 11 May 1965, Ellis Island was also transferred to the National Park Service and became part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.
'Liberty Enlightening the World' was extensively restored in time for the spectacular centennial of American independence on 4 July 1986, for whom it symbolized the ideals of Washington and Lincoln. It has continued to inspire people across the world.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC