Historic Centre of Warsaw

Historic Centre of Warsaw

During the Warsaw Uprising in August 1944, more than 85% of Warsaw's historic centre was destroyed by Nazi troops. After the war, a five-year reconstruction campaign by its citizens resulted in today's meticulous restoration of the Old Town, with its churches, palaces and market-place. It is an outstanding example of a near-total reconstruction of a span of history covering the 13th to the 20th century.

Centre historique de Varsovie

En août 1944, pendant le soulèvement de Varsovie, plus de 85 % du centre historique de la ville ont été détruits par les troupes nazies. Après la guerre, ses habitants ont entrepris une campagne de reconstruction sur cinq ans, avec pour résultat une restauration méticuleuse des églises, des palais, et de la place du marché de la vieille ville. C'est un exemple exceptionnel de reconstruction quasi totale d'une séquence de l'histoire (XIIIe-XXe siècle).

وسط وارسو التاريخي

في آب أغسطس من العام 1944، وفي أثناء الانتفاضة في وارسو، دمّرت الفرق النازية أكثر من 85% من الوسط التاريخي للمدينة. وبعد انتهاء الحرب، قام السكان بحملة اعادة بناء امتدت على فترة 5 سنوات كانت نتيجتها ترميم دقيق للكنائس والقصور وسوق المدينة القديمة. انه مثال استثنائي لإعادة البناء شبه التامة لحقبة من التاريخ (القرن الثالث عشر حتى القرن العشرين).

source: UNESCO/ERI

华沙历史中心

1944年8月华沙起义期间,华沙历史中心85%以上的建筑遭到纳粹部队的摧毁。二战之后,华沙人民用长达5年的时间重建古城,他们修建了教堂、宫殿和贸易场所。华沙的重生是13世纪至20世纪建筑史上不可抹灭的一笔。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический центр Варшавы

Во время Варшавского восстания в августе 1944 г. более чем 85% исторического центра Варшавы было разрушено нацистскими войсками. После войны, в ходе пятилетней кампании по восстановлению Варшавы ее жителями, Старый город с церквями, дворцами и Рыночной площадью был тщательно отреставрирован. Это - выдающийся пример почти полного воссоздания городского облика, формировавшегося в период с XIII в. по XX в.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Centro histórico de Varsovia

El centro histórico de la capital polaca fue destruido por las tropas hitlerianas en más de un 85% en agosto de 1944, durante la insurrección de sus habitantes contra el ocupante nazi. Después de la guerra, una campaña de reconstrucción de cinco años, llevada a cabo por los propios varsovianos, dio como resultado la restauración meticulosa de sus iglesias y palacios, así como de la plaza del mercado de la ciudad vieja. El sitio es un ejemplo único de reconstrucción prácticamente total del conjunto de un patrimonio arquitectónico histórico de los siglos XIII a XX.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ワルシャワ歴史地区

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum van Warschau

Meer dan 85% van het historisch centrum van Warschau werd door nazitroepen vernietigd tijdens de Opstand van Warschau in augustus 1944. Na de oorlog hebben de burgers van de stad vijf jaar lang een reconstructieplan uitgevoerd. Het resultaat is de huidige uiterst precieze restauratie van de oude stad, met zijn kerken, paleizen en marktplein. Het is een goed voorbeeld van een bijna volledige reconstructie van de geschiedenisspanne van de 13e tot de 20e eeuw. Het historisch centrum toont een mix van verschillende stijlen – van gotiek tot barok – en bijna elk gebouw in de oude binnenstad heeft een unieke architectonische stijl.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Centre of Warsaw © Our Place
Statement of Significance

Warsaw was deliberately annihilated in 1944 as a repression of the Polish resistance to the German occupation. The capital city was reduced to ruins with the intention of obliterating the centuries-old tradition of Polish statehood. The rebuilding of the historic city, 85% of which was destroyed, was the result of the determination of the inhabitants and the support of the whole nation. The reconstruction of the Old Town in its historic urban and architectural form was the manifestation of the care and attention taken to assure the survival of one of the most important testimonials of Polish culture. The city – the symbol of elective authority and tolerance, where the first democratic European constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791, was adopted – was rebuilt. The reconstruction included the holistic recreation of the urban plan, together with the Old Town Market, the town houses, the circuit of the city walls, as well as the Royal Castle and important religious buildings. The reconstruction of Warsaw’s historical centre was a major contributor to the changes in the doctrines related to urbanisation and conservation of urban development in most of the European countries after the destruction of World War II. Simultaneously, this example illustrates the effectiveness of conservation activities in the second half of the 20th Century, which permitted the integral reconstruction of the complex urban ensemble.

Criterion (ii): The initiation of comprehensive conservation activities on the scale of the entire historic city was a unique European experience and contributed to the verification of conservation doctrines and practices.

Criterion (vi): The historic centre of Warsaw is an exceptional example of the comprehensive reconstruction of a city that had been deliberately and totally destroyed. The foundation of the material reconstruction was the inner strength and determination of the nation, which brought about the reconstruction of the heritage on a unique scale in the history of the world.

Long Description

The reconstruction of the historic centre of Warsaw, associated with events of considerable historic significance, has exercised a considerable influence, in the majority of European countries, on the evolution of doctrines of urbanization and the preservation of older districts of cities.

Following the insurrection of the inhabitants of Warsaw in August 1944, the Polish capital was annihilated in a reprisal by the Nazi occupation troops. From these ruins, between 1945 and 1966, the will of the nation brought to life again a city of which 85% had been destroyed. The reconstruction of the historic centre so that it is identical with the original symbolizes the will to ensure the survival of one of the prime settings of Polish culture and illustrates, in an exemplary fashion, the restoration techniques of the second half of the 20th century. The reconstruction of religious edifices such as the Cathedral of St John, the churches of Our Lady, St James and the Holy Trinity, and the palace, was accompanied by the integral restitution of the urban whole, with its full land allotment and its reconstruction. The example of the market place of the Old City is justifiably famous.

Warsaw Old Town was established in the 13th century. The heart of the area is the Old Town Market Square: until the end of the 18th century the square was the most important place in Warsaw; regular fairs and festivities were held here. During the Second World War the square was turned into rubble, but after many years of reconstruction it was restored to its original beauty. Surrounding streets feature old architecture such as the City Walls and the Barbican. The Cathedral of St John, completed in the 15th century, was originally a parish church and only became a cathedral in 1798. During the war it was destroyed but it has been restored to its original Gothic style. The interior of the cathedral features many works of religious art, tombs and various sculptures and paintings.

The Royal Castle is a magnificent example of the Baroque style, built in the 14th century. In 1569 King Zygmunt III Waza moved his residence there when Warsaw became the capital of Poland. Between 1598 and 1619 the king had the castle restyled as a polygon by Italian architects. In the 18th century King Augustus III converted the east wing into Baroque style, while King Stanislaw Poniatowski added sessions of the Royal Library. The Royal Castle served as both a residence for the kings as well as hosting sessions of the Sejm (Polish Parliament). It is now a museum displaying furniture, famous paintings and other great works of art. The fascinating interiors of the castle contain many original furnishings, statues, paintings and other objets d'art. Among the paintings are works by Bernardo Bellotto and Marcello Bacciarelli.

Almost every building in the Old Town, a blend of different styles from Gothic to Baroque, is old and of a unique architectural style. Among the other attractive historic structures are the many churches, the Barbican, the City Walls, Fukier House, Pelican House, Pod Blacha Palace and Salvator House.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC