Hanseatic City of Lübeck

Hanseatic City of Lübeck

Lübeck – the former capital and Queen City of the Hanseatic League – was founded in the 12th century and prospered until the 16th century as the major trading centre for northern Europe. It has remained a centre for maritime commerce to this day, particularly with the Nordic countries. Despite the damage it suffered during the Second World War, the basic structure of the old city, consisting mainly of 15th- and 16th-century patrician residences, public monuments (the famous Holstentor brick gate), churches and salt storehouses, remains unaltered.

Ville hanséatique de Lübeck

Ancienne capitale de la Ligue hanséatique et reine de la Hanse, elle a été fondée au XIIe siècle et fut jusqu'au XVIe siècle la métropole du négoce pour toute l'Europe du Nord. Elle reste encore aujourd'hui un centre de commerce maritime, spécialement avec les pays nordiques. Malgré les dommages qu'elle a subis durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la structure de la vieille ville est conservée avec ses résidences patriciennes des XVe et XVIe siècles, ses monuments publics (notamment la célèbre porte fortifiée en brique de la Holstentor), ses églises et ses greniers à sel.

مدينة الهانزا لوبيك

إنها العاصمة القديمة للتحالف (الهانزي) التجاري وملكة الهانزا. لقد تأسست المدينة في القرن السابع وبقيت حتى القرن السادس عشر مدينة التبادلات التجارية لكل أوروبا الشمالية. لا تزال حتى اليوم مركزاً للتجارة البحرية ولا سيما مع الدول الشمالية. على الرغم من الأضرار التي لحقت بها خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية، لا تزال بنية المدينة القديمة قائمة بمقرات النبلاء التي تعود إلى القرنين الخامس عشر والسادس عشر وبنصبها العامة (لا سيما الباب الشهير المعزز المصنوع من القرميد القادم من هولتنستور) وكنائسها ومخازن الملح فيها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

吕贝克的汉西梯克城

吕贝克,汉萨同盟(the Hanseatic League)的前首都和皇后城,建于公元12世纪,作为北欧的重要商业中心曾一度繁荣, 直到16世纪。今天,这里仍是海上商贸中心(尤其与北欧国家的海上贸易)。尽管在第二次世界大战中受到了一定的损毁,这座老城的基本城市结构还是保留了下来,这点从15世纪至16世纪建造的贵族居所,历史古迹(如著名的豪斯顿砖门)、教堂和盐场等都能够看出来。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ганзейский город Любек

Любек, бывшая столица и главный город Ганзейского союза, был основан в XII в. и процветал до XVI в. как главный центр торговли на севере Европы. В наше время Любек остается центром морской торговли, в основном со странами Северной Европы. Несмотря на повреждения, нанесенные во время Второй мировой войны, сохранилась структура Старого города, где находятся относящиеся к XV-XVI вв. патрицианские особняки, общественные здания и сооружения (включая знаменитые кирпичные ворота Хольштентор и соляные склады).

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad hanseática de Lübeck

Antigua capital y ciudad reina de la Liga Hanseática, Lübeck fue fundada en el siglo XII y hasta el siglo XVI fue la principal metrópoli comercial de la Europa Septentrional. Actualmente sigue siendo un importante centro de comercio marítimo, sobre todo con los países nórdicos. Pese a los daños sufridos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se ha conservado la estructura de la ciudad antigua con sus mansiones señoriales de los siglos XV y XVI, sus iglesias, sus depósitos de sal y sus monumentos públicos como la famosa puerta fortificada de Holstentor, construida en ladrillo.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ハンザ同盟都市リューベック

source: NFUAJ

Hanzestad Lübeck

Lübeck is de voormalige hoofdstad en koninginnenstad van de Hanze – een samenwerkingsverband van handelaren en steden tijdens de middeleeuwen. De stad werd in 1143 gesticht door Heinrich der Löwe op een klein eiland voor de Baltische kust. De stad bloeide tot de 16e eeuw als het belangrijkste handelscentrum voor Noord-Europa. Het is nog steeds een centrum voor maritieme handel, met name met de Scandinavische landen. Ondanks de schade die de stad heeft geleden tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog, is de basisstructuur van de oude stad ongewijzigd gebleven. Het oude deel bestaat voornamelijk uit 15e en 16e-eeuwse patriciërswoningen, openbare monumenten (de beroemde Holstentor bakstenen poort), kerken en zoutpakhuizen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Hanseatic City of Lübeck © Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Founded in 1143 on the Baltic coast of northern Germany, Lübeck was from 1230 to 1535 one of the principal cities of the Hanseatic League, a league of merchant cities which came to hold a monopoly over the trade of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The plan of the Old Town island of Lübeck, with its blade-like outline determined by two parallel routes of traffic running along the crest of the island, dates back to the beginnings of the city and attests to its expansion as a commercial centre of Northern Europe. To the west, the richest quarters with the trading houses and the homes of the rich merchants are located, and to the east, small commerces and artisans. The very strict socio-economic organization emerges through the singular disposition of the Buden, small workshops set in the back courtyards of the rich hares, to which access was provided through a narrow network of alleyways (Gänge).

Lübeck has remained an urban monument characteristic of a significant historical structure even though the city was severely damaged during the Second World War. Almost 20% of it were destroyed, including the most famous monumental complexes- the Cathedral of Lübeck, the churches of St Peter and St Mary and especially the Gründungsviertel, the hilltop quarter where the gabled houses of the rich merchants clustered. Selective reconstruction has permitted the replacement of the most important churches and monuments.

Omitting the zones that have been entirely reconstructed, the World Heritage site includes three areas of significance in the history of Lübeck. The first area extends from the Burgkloster in the north to the quarter of St Aegidien in the south. The Burgkloster, a Dominican convent built in fulfilment of a vow made at the battle of Bornhöved (1227), contains the original foundations of the castle built by Count Adolf von Schauenburg on the Buku isthmus. The Koberg site preserves an entire late 18th-century neighbourhood built around a public square bordered by two important monuments, the Jakobi Church and the Heilig-Geist-Hospital. The sections between the Glockengiesserstrasse and the Aegidienstrasse retain their original layout and contain a remarkable number of medieval structures.

Between the two large churches that mark its boundaries - the Petri Church to the north and the Cathedral to the south - the second area includes rows of superb Patrician residences from the 15th and 16th centuries. The enclave on the left bank of the Trave, with its salt storehouses and the Holstentor, reinforces the monumental aspect of an area that was entirely renovated at the height of the Hansa epoch (about 1250 to 1400), when Lübeck dominated trade in Northern Europe.

Located at the heart of the medieval city, the third area around St Mary’s Church, the Town Hall, and the Market Square bear the tragic scars of the heavy bombing suffered during the Second World War.

Criterion (iv): As outstanding examples of types of buildings, the most authentic areas of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck exemplify the power and the historic role of the Hanseatic League.

Integrity

The preserved quarters of the Old Town show in their unity the medieval structure of the Hanseatic Town and represent a high-ranking European monument. The overall impression of the Old Town is reinforced by individual architectural highlights of ecclesiastical and profane character, whereas the combined effect is revealed through the unique town silhouette with the seven high church towers.

Authenticity

The heart of the Old Town is surrounded by water on all sides and, partly, by embankments and park areas. Despite the damage it suffered during the Second World War, the basic structure of the Old City, consisting mainly of 15th and 16th century Patrician residences, public monuments (the famous Holstentor brick gate), churches and salt storehouses, remains unaltered. Up to the present day, its layout is clearly recognisable as a harmonious, complete masterpiece and its uniquely uniform silhouette is visible from far.

Protection and management requirements

The laws and regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of Schleswig-Holstein guarantee the consistent protection of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck. The large number of historic monuments and the Old Town island are protected by the Act on the Protection and Conservation of Monuments in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Monument Preservation Plan is the basis for town planning and specific architectural interventions. Furthermore, the historic centre of Lübeck is protected by a preservation statute and a design statute; even the quarters of the late 19th century surrounding the Old Town are protected by preservation statutes. The regional development programme of the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein ensures the protection of the view axes and the silhouette of the World Heritage property.

The City of Lübeck is responsible for the management of the World Heritage property. The coordination between the stakeholders is organised by a World Heritage commissioner within the municipal structure in order to duly indicate potential threats to the Outstanding Universal Value and to ensure the integration of relevant issues into the planning procedures, an integrative monitoring approach and a sustainable development of the World Heritage property. Complemented by the Management Plan, this differentiated protective system guarantees an efficient preservation of the historical substance of the property. To protect and sustain the Outstanding Universal Value, a buffer zone and additional view axes outside the buffer zone are in place to ensure the long-term protection and sustained preservation of the important views and of the structural integrity.

In addition, external experts meet regularly in consultative bodies to monitor quality and discuss suitable solutions in town planning and construction practice.

Regarding the tourism and visitor management, a tourism development concept (TDC) forms the basis for strategic activities. 

Long Description

Lübeck is the city which, more than any other, exemplifies the power and historic role of the Hanseatic League. Founded in 1143 by Heinrich der Löwe (Henry the Lion) on a small island of the Baltic coast, Lübeck was the former capital and Queen City of the Hanseatic League from 1230 to 1535. As such it was one of the principal cities of this league of merchant cities which monopolized the trade of the Baltic and the North Sea, just as Venice and Genoa exerted their control over the Mediterranean.

The plan of Lübeck, with its blade-like outline determined by two parallel traffic routes running along the crest of the island, dates to the beginnings of the site and testifies to the expansion of the commercial centre of Northern Europe. To the west lay the richest quarters with the trading houses and the homes of the rich merchants and to the east were small traders and artisans. The very strict socio-economic organization emerges through the singular disposition of the Buden (small workshops) set in the back courtyards of the rich homes, which were accessed through a narrow network of alleyways (Gänge); other lots on the courtyard (Stiftungshöfe) illustrated the charity of the merchants who housed there the impoverished widows of their colleagues.

Lübeck remained an urban monument characteristic of a significant historical structure, but the city was severely damaged during the Second World War, in which almost 20% of it, including the most famous monumental complexes, were destroyed - the cathedral, the churches of St Peter and St Mary and especially the Gründungsviertel, the hilltop quarter where the gabled houses of the rich merchants clustered. Selective reconstruction has permitted the replacement of the most important churches and monuments.

Omitting the zones that have been entirely reconstructed, the World Heritage site includes several areas of significance in the history of Lübeck:

  • Zone 1: The site of the Burgkloster, a Dominican convent built in fulfilment of a vow made at the battle of Bornhöved (1227), contains the original foundations of the castle built by Count Adolf von Schauenburg on the Buku isthmus. The Koberg site preserves an entire late 18th-century neighbourhood built around a public square bordered by two important monuments, the Jakobikirche and the Heilig-Geist-Hospital. The sections between the Glockengiesserstrasse and the Aegidienstrasse retain their original layout and contain a remarkable number of medieval structures.
  • Zone 2: Between the two large churches that mark its boundaries - the Petrikirche to the north and the cathedral to the south - this area includes rows of superb patrician residences from the 15th and 16th centuries. The enclave on the left bank of the Trave, with its salt storehouses and the Holstentor, reinforces the monumental aspect of an area that was entirely renovated at the height of the Hansa epoch, when Lübeck dominated trade in Northern Europe.
  • Zone 3: Located at the heart of the medieval city, the Marienkirche, the Rathaus, and the Marktplatz bear the tragic scars of the heavy bombing suffered during the Second World War.
Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC