Rideau Canal

Rideau Canal

The Rideau Canal, a monumental early 19th-century construction covering 202 km of the Rideau and Cataraqui rivers from Ottawa south to Kingston Harbour on Lake Ontario, was built primarily for strategic military purposes at a time when Great Britain and the United States vied for control of the region. The site, one of the first canals to be designed specifically for steam-powered vessels, also features an ensemble of fortifications. It is the best-preserved example of a slackwater canal in North America, demonstrating the use of this European technology on a large scale. It is the only canal dating from the great North American canal-building era of the early 19th century to remain operational along its original line with most of its structures intact.

Canal Rideau

Ce canal monumental qui date du début du XIXe siècle s’étend sur 202 km, le long des rivières Rideau et Cataraqui, depuis Ottawa au nord jusqu’au port de Kingston sur le lac Ontario au sud. Il a été construit à des fins principalement militaires et stratégiques à une époque où la Grande-Bretagne et les États-Unis se disputaient le contrôle de la région. Ce canal, qui est l’un des premiers à avoir été conçus spécialement pour les bateaux à vapeur, est associé à un ensemble de fortifications. Il s’agit du canal à plans d’eau le mieux préservé d’Amérique du Nord et il illustre l’utilisation à grande échelle de cette technologie européenne dans la région. C’est le seul canal datant de la grande époque de la construction de canaux en Amérique du Nord au début du XIXe siècle qui soit encore opérationnel sur tout son tracé initial et qui conserve intactes la plupart de ses structures d’origine.

قناة ريدو

تغطي القناة الضخمة التي بنيت في مطلع القرن التاسع عشر 202 كلم من نهري ريدو وكاتاركي، انطلاقاً من جنوب أوتاوا باتجاه مرفأ كينغستون وبحيرة أونتاريو. بنيت القناة لدوافع استراتيجية وعسكرية في البداية، عندما كانت المنافسة بين بريطانيا والولايات المتحدة الأميركية على أشدها للسيطرة على المنطقة. كما تشمل القناة، التي تشكل إحدى أولى القنوات المصممة تحديداً لعبور السفن البخارية، مجموعة من التحصينات. مع انطلاق المشروع عام 1826، اختار البريطانيون ما يُعرف بتكنولوجيا "المياه الراكدة" (فترة الركود بين المد والجزر) لتجنب أعمال الحفر الواسعة. وبنيت مجموعة من السدود لإبقاء مياه النهر على عمق صالح للملاحة. كما أنشئ 50 ممراً للسفن. يشكل الموقع أفضل مثال قائم لقنوات المياه الراكدة في أميركا الشمالية، ويشير إلى استخدام هذه التكنولوجيا الأوروبية الأصل في أميركا الشمالية على نطاق واسع. إنها القناة الوحيدة من مرحلة القنوات الكبرى في شمال أميركا في بداية القرن التاسع عشر التي ما زالت تعمل على طول خطها الأصلي وقد حفِظت معظم بناها الأصلية. كما كانت تتمتع بستة "حصون صغيرة" لاتقاء النيران وحصن كبير لحمايتها. وبين عامي 1846 و1848، شيِّدت أربعة أبراج لتعزيز التحصينات في مرفأ كيتغستون. تكتسي قناة ريدو أهمية تاريخية إذ أنها تشهد على المعركة التي كانت قائمة للسيطرة على شمال القارة الأميركية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

丽都运河

丽都运河是建于19世纪初的一条伟大的运河,包含了丽都河和卡坦拉基河(Cataraqui)长达202公里的河段,北起渥太华,南接安大略湖金斯顿港。在英美两国争相控制这一区域之际,为战略军事目的开凿了这条运河。丽都运河是首批专为蒸汽船设计的运河之一,防御工事群是它的另一个特色。1826年,在运河建造初期,英国人采用“静水”技术,避免了大量挖掘工作,并建立了一连串的水库和47座大型水闸,将水位抬高到适航深度。这是北美保存最完好的静水运河,表明当时北美已大规模使用这项欧洲技术,是唯一一条始建于19世纪初北美大规模兴建运河时代,流经途径至今保持不变,且绝大多数原始构造完好无损的运河。运河上建有六座“碉堡”和一座要塞,后来又在多个闸站增建防御性闸门和管理员值班室。在1846至1848年期间,为加固金斯顿港口的防御工事建造了四个圆形石堡。丽都运河见证了为控制北美大陆发起的战争,具有重要的历史价值。  

source: UNESCO/ERI

Канал Ридо

Монументальный канал постройки XIX в. протянулся на 202 км, соединяя реки Ридо и Катарки к югу от Оттавы с гаванью Кингстона на озере Онтарио. Он строился с военно-стратегическими целями в тот период, когда Великобритания и Соединенные Штаты Америки вели борьбу за господство в этом районе. Сооружение, являвшееся одним из первых каналов, предназначенных для передвижения судов с паровыми двигателями, было оборудовано рядом фортификационных укреплений. Канал Ридо – один из лучших образцов хорошо сохранившегося канала со стоячей водой в Северной Америке, демонстрирующий широкомасштабное применение европейской технологии в условиях северо-американского континента. Это единственный канал времен великой эры строительства каналов в начале XIX в., который продолжает функционировать в соответствии с исходными разработками. Канал Ридо имеет историческое значение как материальное свидетельство завоевания северной части Американского континента.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Canal Rideau

Este monumental canal de principios del siglo XIX se extiende a lo largo de 202 kilómetros por los cursos de los rí­os Rideau y Cataraqui, siguiendo una trayectoria sur, desde Ottawa hasta el puerto de Kingston, situado en el lago Ontario. Se construyó con fines principalmente militares y estratégicos, en una época en que la Gran Bretaña y los Estados Unidos de América se disputaban el control de la región. Fue uno de los primeros canales diseñados ex profeso para la navegación de barcos de vapor y posee un conjunto importante de fortificaciones. De todas las ví­as de agua de América de Norte creadas con el sistema ”slackwater“ es la mejor conservada y las mí¡s ilustrativa de la utilización a gran escala de esta técnica europea en la región. Asimismo, es el único canal del periodo de auge de estas obras de ingenierí­a en América del Norte –principios del siglo XIX– que no sólo sigue siendo operacional a lo largo de todo su recorrido primitivo, sino que ademí¡s conserva intactas casi todas sus estructuras primigenias.

source: UNESCO/ERI

リドー運河
オタワ川沿いの町オタワと、オンタリオ湖のキングストン港を結ぶリドー運河は、19世紀初期、現在のカナダを植民地としていた英国が、米軍に対する防御、及び軍事物資の輸送ルートを確保する目的で建設したもの。北米支配をめぐる米英戦争の目撃者として歴史的に重要である。完成は1832年、全長は202㎞で、大型蒸気船の航行も視野に入れ、水位調節のための47の閘門を備える。ヨーロッパの技術を採用した運河としては北米最古で、現在も当時の建設場所及び当初の構造で操業を続ける、北米唯一の運河だ。19世紀中頃には商業用、19世紀後半から現在にかけてはレジャー用として使用されている。

source: NFUAJ

Rideau kanaal

Het Rideau kanaal is een monumentale vroeg 19e-eeuwse constructie die 202 kilometer beslaat van de Rideau en Cataraqui rivieren, van zuid-Ottawa tot Kingston Haven. Het komt uit het Ontario meer en werd aangelegd voor strategische militaire doeleinden in de tijd dat Groot-Brittannië en de Verenigde Staten wedijverden om de macht in deze regio. Het Rideau kanaal is een van de eerste kanalen die ontworpen is voor stoomschepen. Langs het kanaal zijn ook vestingwerken te vinden.

Source: unesco.nl

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The flight of eight locks at Ottawa Lockstation is the largest flight on the Rideau Canal. © Parks Canada Agency
Outstanding Universal Value

The Rideau Canal is a large strategic canal constructed for military purposes which played a crucial contributory role in allowing British forces to defend the colony of Canada against the United States of America, leading to the development of two distinct political and cultural entities in the north of the American continent, which can be seen as a significant stage in human history.

Criterion (i): The Rideau Canal remains the best preserved example of a slackwater canal in North America demonstrating the use of European slackwater technology in North America on a large scale. It is the only canal dating from the great North American canal-building era of the early 19th century that remains operational along its original line with most of its original structures intact.

Criterion (iv): The Rideau Canal is an extensive, well preserved and significant example of a canal which was used for a military purpose linked to a significant stage in human history - that of the fight to control the north of the American continent.

The nominated property includes all the main elements of the original canal together with relevant later changes in the shape of watercourses, dams, bridges, fortifications, lock stations and related archaeological resources. The original plan of the canal, as well as the form of the channels, has remained intact. The Rideau Canal has fulfilled its original dynamic function as an operating waterway without interruption since its construction. Most of its lock gates and sluice valves are still operated by hand-powered winches.

All the elements of the nominated area (canal, associated buildings and forts) are protected as national historic sites under the Historic Sites and Monuments Act 1952-3. A buffer zone has been established. Repairs and conservation of the locks, dams, canal walls and banks are carried out directly under the control of Parks Canada. Each year one third of the canal's assets are thoroughly inspected by engineers. A complete inventory thus exists of the state of conservation of all parts of the property. A Management Plan exists for the canal (completed in 1996 and updated in 2005), and plans are nearing completion for Fort Henry and the Kingston fortifications. The Canal Plan is underpinned by the Historic Canals Regulations which provide an enforcement mechanism for any activities that might impact on the cultural values of the monument.

Historical Description

As a result of the American War of Independence, thousands of people who remained loyal to the British Crown moved northwards to Canada. The government immediately began identifying areas suitable for the development of settlements for the loyalists. The Cataraqui and the Rideau rivers was one of the areas surveyed and by 1800, a number of mills had been built, the first, at Kingston Mills, in 1784. Within a few years, there were mills at most of the major falls along the two rivers. However the difficulty of navigation along the rivers north to the St Lawrence river, the main settlement area, hindered much concentrated development.

The impetus to improve the waterway came though not from agriculture or other economic stimuli but from the needs of defence. The War of 1812-1814 between Britain and the United States of America had brought into focus the vulnerability of the St Lawrence River as the main supply line for the colony. Not only was it slow with a series of rapids, but it was vulnerable to attack from America along much of its length between Montréal and Lake Ontario. After the end of hostilities, America was still seen as a potential threat and the need for a secure military supply route a key necessity. Accordingly military planners turned their attention to the Cataraqui and the Rideau rivers.

After an exploratory mission, at the end of the war, the canal project was really launched in 1824-1825, with two studies, one by the civil engineer Samuel Clowes, at the request of the authorities of Upper Canada, and the other at the request of the Duke of Wellington, then commander-in- chief of the army. The strategic dimension of the canal led the British government to take charges of its realisation.

Lieutenant Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers Corp was appointed by the British Government to supervise the construction of the canal in 1826. Before his appointment, military engineers had mapped out a scheme to construct new channels to bypass the rapids and swamps along the rivers. This would have necessitated around 40km of new channels along the 202 km route. By took a different approach and persuaded the government to adopt a ‘slackwater' system that raised the level of the water above the rapids and swamps thorough the use of tall dams. This created a practical route with the minimum of excavation. By also pressed for the canal to accommodate the then newly introduced steamships and this necessitated dams that were taller and wider than anything previously constructed in North America. Canal construction begun in 1828 and involved around 6,000 workers at multiple sites along the length of the canal. The whole length was navigable in 1832.

The choice of route for the Rideau Canal, and the use of a slack water canal design, were influenced by the underdeveloped nature of the country through which the canal was to pass. In many parts of Europe, for instance, owners of riverside agricultural land, water mills and fishing rights would have resisted the alteration in river levels required by such a system. Slackwater canals are easier to build, and require fewer workers. Therefore this method will be chosen instead of a more costly conventional canal where the environment allows, as was the case with the Rideau Canal.

As with many canals, the Rideau Canal seems to have formed a catalyst for development. Ottawa grew around the canal as it runs southward from the Ottawa River, and elsewhere towns sprung up on the canal's banks. This is typical of economic development associated with canals, and mirrors the development of towns following canal building elsewhere in the world.

The Rideau Canal has survived almost in its original condition as it was by-passed following the improvement in relations between Britain and the USA and the development of the much larger St Lawrence Seaway. Its military capacity was never put to the test. It now functions mainly as a waterway for leisure craft.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation