Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret

Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret

The city of Le Havre, on the English Channel in Normandy, was severely bombed during the Second World War. The destroyed area was rebuilt according to the plan of a team headed by Auguste Perret, from 1945 to 1964. The site forms the administrative, commercial and cultural centre of Le Havre. Le Havre is exceptional among many reconstructed cities for its unity and integrity. It combines a reflection of the earlier pattern of the town and its extant historic structures with the new ideas of town planning and construction technology. It is an outstanding post-war example of urban planning and architecture based on the unity of methodology and the use of prefabrication, the systematic utilization of a modular grid, and the innovative exploitation of the potential of concrete.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Le Havre, la ville reconstruite par Auguste Perret

La ville du Havre, au bord de la Manche en Normandie, a été lourdement bombardée pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La zone détruite a été reconstruite entre 1945 et 1964 d’après le plan d’une équipe dirigée par Auguste Perret. Le site forme le centre administratif, commercial et culturel du Havre. Parmi les nombreuses villes reconstruites, Le Havre est exceptionnel pour son unité et son intégrité, associant un reflet du schéma antérieur de la ville et de ses structures historiques encore existantes aux idées nouvelles en matière d’urbanisme et de technologie de construction. Il s’agit d’un exemple remarquable de l’architecture et l’urbanisme de l’après-guerre, fondé sur l’unité de méthodologie et le recours à la préfabrication, l’utilisation systématique d’une trame modulaire, et l’exploitation novatrice du potentiel du béton.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

هافر، المدينة التي شيّدها أوغست بيرّي

تعرّضت مدينة هافر التي تقع على ضفاف بحر المانش في محافظة النورماندي لقصف عنيف خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية، وتمّ إعادة بناء المنطقة المهدّمة بين عامي 1945 و1964 وفقاً لتصميم وضعه فريق هندسي برئاسة المهندس أوغست بيرّي. ويشكّل الموقع المركز الإداري والتجاري والثقافي لمدينة هافر. ومن بين المُدن العديدة التي أُعيد بناؤها، تُعتبر هافر استثنائية بوحدتها وواكتمالها إذ تجمع بين بريق التصميم السابق للمدينة وتركيباتها التاريخية التي لا تزال قائمة والأفكار الجديدة في مجال التنظيم العمراني وتكنولوجيا البناء. تشكّل هافر مثالاً للهندسة والتنظيم المديني في فترة ما بعد الحرب، يقوم على وحدة المنهجية، واللجوء إلىالمواد المصُنعةمسبقا، والاستخدام النظامي للشبكات التركيبية، والاستغلال المبدع لمادة الباطون.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

勒阿弗尔,奥古斯特•佩雷重建之城

勒阿弗尔市位于英吉利海峡的诺曼底,在第二次世界大战期间遭到了惨烈轰炸。从1945年至1964年,根据奥古斯特·佩雷(Auguste Perret)领导的团队的规划,对炸毁区域进行了重建。这里现在是勒阿弗尔的行政、商业和文化中心。在许多重建城市之中,勒阿弗尔以其协调和完整而独具一格。它融合了早期城市布局的设想和未毁的历史建筑,同时融入了城市规划和建筑技术的新观念。勒阿弗尔是战后城市规划和建筑的杰出典范,其建筑的基础在于统一协调的方法,预制构件的使用,模块网络的系统利用,以及对混凝土潜能的创新开发利用。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Гавр – город, восстановленный Огюстом Перре

Город Гавр, расположенный на берегу пролива Ла-Манш в Нормандии, подвергался жестоким бомбежкам во время Второй мировой войны. Разрушенные районы были восстановлены в соответствии с проектом, разработанным в 1945-1964 гг. авторским коллективом во главе с Огюстом Перре. Объект наследия включает административный, торговый и культурный центр Гавра. Среди многих восстановленных городов Гавр выделяется своим единством и целостностью. Следы старой структуры города и его сохранившиеся исторические сооружения соединяются здесь с новыми идеями в сфере градостроительства и развития строительной техники. Это выдающийся пример послевоенного градостроительства и архитектуры, в котором сочетаются единство методологии, систематическое следование в проектировании модульной решетки, применение предварительно изготовленных строительных конструкций и новаторское использование возможностей бетона.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Le Havre – Ciudad reconstruida por Auguste Perret

La ciudad de Le Havre, situada en la región de Normandía, a orillas del Canal de La Mancha, fue víctima de intensos bombardeos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Entre 1945 y 1964, la parte bombardeada fue reconstruida con arreglo al plan urbanístico de un equipo dirigido por Auguste Perret. El sitio inscrito está integrado por el centro administrativo, comercial y cultural de la ciudad. Entre las muchas ciudades reconstruidas, Le Havre destaca por la excepcional unidad e integridad de su plan de reedificación, en el que se asociaron los vestigios del trazado urbano precedente y las estructuras históricas subsistentes con las nuevas ideas en materia de urbanismo y técnicas de construcción. La reconstrucción de esta ciudad es un notable ejemplo de aplicación de los principios de la arquitectura y la planificación urbanística de la posguerra, basados en la unidad metodológica, el uso de elementos prefabricados, el recurso sistemático a una trama modular y la explotación innovadora de las posibilidades del hormigón.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ル・アーヴル、オーギュスト・ペレによる再建都市
ノルマンディ地方のル・アーヴルは、第2次世界大戦で猛爆を受けた。現代建築の旗手で、復興にあたった当時71歳のオーギュスト・ペレは、新市街を以前の町筋に合わせて設計。新たな建築素材・技術を開発し、1945年から64年にかけて、その統一性と完全性において比類のない復興都市を作り上げた。破壊前の年の原型を保ちつつ、現存する歴史建造物群を保存した技術は見事で、戦後、各地で行われた都市計画や建築の中でも、優れた成功例となった。登録地はル・アーヴルの行政・商業・文化の中心地を形成している。

source: NFUAJ

Le Havre, de stad herbouwd door Auguste Perret

Le Havre werd zwaar gebombardeerd tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Het verwoeste stadsdeel werd herbouwd onder leiding van Auguste Perret van 1945 tot 1964 en vormt nu het administratieve, commerciële en culturele centrum. Le Havre is uitzonderlijk onder de vele gereconstrueerde steden vanwege haar eenheid en integriteit. Het combineert het vroegere patroon van de stad en de overgebleven historische gebouwen met nieuwe ideeën van stedenbouw en bouwtechnologie. De stad is een naoorlogs voorbeeld van stedenbouw en architectuur waarbij onder andere gebruik gemaakt werd van systeembouw, systematisch gebruik van een modulair patroon en het innovatieve gebruik van de mogelijkheden die beton biedt.

Source: unesco.nl

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Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret (France) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief description

Located on the English Channel in Normandy, the city of Le Havre was severely bombed during the Second World War. The destroyed area was rebuilt between 1945 and 1964 according to the plan of a team of architects and town planners headed by Auguste Perret. The site forms the administrative, commercial and cultural centre of Le Havre. Among the many reconstructed cities, Le Havre is exceptional for its unity and integrity, associating a reflection of the earlier pattern of the city and its extant historic structures with the new ideas of town planning and construction technology. It is an outstanding post-war example of urban planning and architecture, based on the unity of methodology and the use of prefabrication, the systematic utilization of a modular grid and the innovative exploitation of the potential of concrete.

The inscribed property, an urban area of 133 ha, represents a homogenous architectural and urban ensemble. It comprises large areas (principal axes, squares, buildings and significant groups of buildings of the École du Classicisme Structurel), but also the ordinary residential fabric (streets, passages, inner city blocks) created from 1945 to 1964 within the reconstruction framework. It integrates the île Saint-François (rebuilt at the same time by regional architects, not part of the Perret team), fragments of ancient urban fabric and isolated buildings spared from destruction (around which the grid of the city is reconstructed) and buildings constructed after 1964, the presence of which appears indissociable to the rebuilt fabric (notably the Maison de la Culture, the Résidence de France, the extension of the Town Hall).

The new urban plan follows two axes: the principal public axe is formed by the broad Avenue Foch, which runs in west-east direction through the northern part of the city, taking the alignment of the earlier Boulevard de Strasbourg. It starts from the Porte Océane on the sea front and continues to Saint-Roch squere and the place de Hôtel de Ville, providing the general direction for the basic grid. At the Porte Océane, the avenue is crossed at the angle of 45° by the Boulevard François Ier, which forms the second axis. The Quartier du Perrey is on the seaside part of the boulevard. The Porte Océane is a monumental entrance to Avenue Foch and an entrance to the city from the sea, taking the idea of the ancient gate destroyed in the war. This building also became an experimental “laboratory” for the development of the structural system and methods of construction for the project. The Saint-Roch square is located in the place of an earlier public park and cemetary, which has given some of its orientations. The Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall) is the most monumental structure in the whole scheme: it measures 143 m in length, and its central part is marked by a tower of 18 stories and is 70 m in height.

Perret’s project reflects his ideal: to create a homogenous ensemble where all the details are designed to the same pattern, thus creating a kind of Gesamtkunstwerk on the urban scale. The architect reserved some of the principal public buildings for his personal design projects.

Criterion (ii): The post-war reconstruction plan of Le Havre is an outstanding example and a landmark of the integration of urban planning traditions and a pioneer implementation of modern development in architecture, technology and town planning.

Criterion (iv): Le Havre is an outstanding post-war example of urban planning and architecture, based on the unity of methodology and system of prefabrication, the systematic use of a modular grid and the innovative exploitation of the potential of concrete.

Integrity

The essence of Perret’s project resides in its structural design based on a utilization of avant-garde reinforced concrete elements, with the system known as “poteau dale”. His idea was to create a completely transparent modular structure so that no structural element remains hidden, giving its domineering character and a certain unformity to all the architectuire of the city. Nevertheless, the elements are used with skill in such a way as to avoid boredom. The design of the buildings and open spaces was based on a square module of 6.24 m each side, to facilitate production, but also to introduce “musical harmony” into the city. In comparison to prer-war density, the average density of the population was reduced from 2,000 to 800 inhabitants par hectare. The spirit of the city was conceived as “neoclassical”, with closed construction blocks and where the streets remain functional. These principles of integration of urban traditions and a pioneer implementation of modern developments in architecture, technology and town planning, have been fully respected and today remain perfectly visible.

Authenticity

Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret, is a recent work of historical importance. The plan and the location of the buildings have remained unchanged since their construction. If modernisations and current maintenance have replaced here and there some components, the authenticity of the ensemble remains intact.

Protection and management requirements

The modern city constructed by Perret is protected through an Outstanding Heritage Site (SPR) listing, approved in July 2016, that defines intervention modes in buildings or undeveloped land. The SPR aims to enhance the architectural characteristics of reconstruction: scheduling façades, legibility of the load bearing structure, diversity in the treatment of concrete. Its perimeter corresponds to the inscribed property.

The SPR embraces numerous buildings protected under the Heritage Code (inscribed or listed as Historic Monuments).

The SPR devotes particular attention to sustainable development. The qualities of the Reconstruction Buildings as regards energetic material are of particular importance in the diagnostic of this area of public interest. The Agglomeration Community of Havre (CODAH), an intercommunal structure, supports individuals in their projects to improve the energy performances of their residences, and lessen negative affects on the heritage qualities of the façades.

The urbanism plan (PLU), adopted on 19 September 2011, was made compatible with the regulation and objectives of the SPR by amendment of 11 July 2016, imposing an increased degree of architectural and landscape requirements.

A local commission regrouping elected officials of the city, State representatives and qualified personalities, ensures the monitoring and implementation of the architectural and heritage enhancement plan.

With regard to concrete, the dominant material, restoration campaigns are the opportunity for specific and innovative research.