Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom

Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom

The site includes archaeological remains of three cities and 40 tombs: Wunu Mountain City, Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City, 14 tombs are imperial, 26 of nobles. All belong to the Koguryo culture, named after the dynasty that ruled over parts of northern China and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula from 277 BC to AD 668. Wunu Mountain City is only partly excavated. Guonei City, within the modern city of Ji’an, played the role of a ‘supporting capital’ after the main Koguryo capital moved to Pyongyang. Wandu Mountain City, one of the capitals of the Koguryo Kingdom, contains many vestiges including a large palace and 37 tombs. Some of the tombs show great ingenuity in their elaborate ceilings, designed to roof wide spaces without columns and carry the heavy load of a stone or earth tumulus (mound), which was placed above them.

Capitales et tombes de l’ancien royaume de Koguryo

Ce site comprend les vestiges archéologiques de 3 villes et 40 tombeaux : la ville de montagne de Wunu, la ville de Guonei et la ville de montagne de Wandu, 14 tombeaux impériaux et 26 tombeaux de nobles. Tous appartiennent à la culture koguryo qui doit son nom à la dynastie qui régna sur une partie de la Chine septentrionale et sur la moitié septentrionale de la péninsule coréenne entre 277 av. J.-C. et 668 apr. J.-C. La ville de montagne de Wunu n’a été que partiellement dégagée par les fouilles. La ville de Guonei, située sur le territoire de la ville moderne de Ji-an, joua le rôle de capitale secondaire après le transfert de la capitale principale de Koguryo à Pyongyang. La ville de montagne de Wandu, l’une des capitales du royaume de Koguryo, contient de nombreux vestiges dont un vaste palais et 37 tombeaux. Certains tombeaux renferment des plafonds à l’architecture savante, conçus pour coiffer de vastes espaces sans colonnes et supporter la lourde dalle de pierre ou le tertre qui les surmontait.

عواصم مملكة كوغوريو القديمة وقبورها

يتضمّن هذا الموقع آثار 3 مدن و40 مقبرة، وهي مدينة وونو الجبلية، مدينة غووناي ومدينة واندو الجبلية، و14 قبراً إمبراطورياً و26 مقبرة نبلاء. وينتمي جميعها إلى ثقافة كوغوريو التي يُنسب اسمها إلى السلالة التي حكمت جزءاً من الصين الشماليّة والنصف الشمالي لشبه الجزيرة الكوريّة بين عامي 277 ق.م و668 ب.م. ولم تكشف أعمال التنقيب سوى عن جزء من مدينة وونو الجبلية. أمّا مدينة غووناي الواقعة على أرض مدينة جيان الحديثة، فأدّت دور العاصمة الثانوية بعد نقل العاصمة الأساسيّة من كوغوريو إلى بيونغ يانغ. ومدينة واندو الجبلية وهي إحدى عواصم مملكة كوغوريو تتضمن آثاراً عديدةً ومنها قصر شاسع و37 مقبرة. لبعض المقابر سقف ذات هندسة مبتكرة ولقد صُممت لتغطي المساحات الشاسعة الخالية من الأعمدة ولسند الأرض الصخريّة أو الجثوة التي تعلوها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

高句丽王城、王陵及贵族墓葬

此遗址包括3座王城和40座墓葬的考古遗迹:五女山城、国内城、丸都山城,14座王陵及26座贵族墓葬。这些都属于高句丽文化,从公元前37年到公元668年,高句丽王朝一直统治中国北部地区和朝鲜半岛的北部,这里的文化因此而得名。五女山城是唯一部分挖掘的王城。国内城位于今天的集安市内,在高句丽迁都平壤之后,与其他王城相互依附共为都城。丸都山城是高句丽王朝的都城之一,城内有许多遗迹,其中包括一座雄伟的宫殿和37座墓葬。一些墓葬的顶部设计精巧,无需支柱就可支撑宽敞的墓室,还能承载置于其上的石冢或土冢。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Столичные города и гробницы древнего царства Когурё

В объект наследия включены руины трех древних горных городов (Уну, Гуонэй и Ваньду) и 40 гробниц императоров и знати. Все эти памятники относятся к культуре Когурё, названной так по имени династии, правившей на территории части северного Китая и северной половины Корейского полуострова с 37 г. до н.э до 668 г. н.э.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Capitales y tumbas del antiguo reino Koguryo

Este sitio comprende los vestigios arqueológicos de tres ciudades –Monte Wunu, Guonei y Monte Wandu– y de 40 tumbas, en las que fueron enterrados 14 soberanos y 26 nobles. Todos estos vestigios pertenecen a la cultura koguryo, que recibe su nombre de la dinastí­a que reinó desde 277 a.C. hasta 668 d.C. en una parte del norte de China y en la mitad septentrional de la Pení­nsula de Corea. Las excavaciones de la ciudad del Monte Wunu sólo se han efectuado en parte. La ciudad de Guonei, cuyos restos se hallan en el perí­metro de la moderna ciudad de Ji“™an, desempeñó la función de capital secundaria, después de que los Koguryo desplazasen su capital principal a Pyongyang. Otra de las capitales del reino de los Koguryo, la ciudad del Monte Wandu, posee numerosos vestigios, entre los que figuran un vasto palacio y 37 tumbas. Algunos de estos mausoleos poseen techumbres muy perfeccionadas que se concibieron para cubrir espacios amplios sin necesidad de recurrir a columnas, y también para soportar el enorme peso de la piedra o del montí­culo de tierra (túmulo) que se poní­an encima.

source: UNESCO/ERI

古代高句麗王国の首都と古墳群
中国東北部から朝鮮半島北半部にかけて、紀元前1世紀後半から紀元後668年まで栄えた高句麗王国時代の遺跡群。3都市に40の古墳群があり、五女山城・国内城・丸都山城のほか、14の王陵と26の貴族墓からなる。近代都市・集安に位置する国内城は、高句麗の首都が平壌に移った後も、重要な都市としてあり続けた。また、高句麗王国の首都の一つだった丸都山城の内外には、広大な宮殿や37の墳墓などさまざまな遺跡が残る。墳墓には、天井部分を広くするため、柱を使わずに重量のある石を載せた精巧な天井もある。五女山城は、まだ一部しか発掘が行われていない。

source: NFUAJ

Hoofdsteden en tombes van het oude Koguryo koninkrijk

Dit gebied omvat de archeologische overblijfselen van drie steden – Wunushan, Guonei en Wandushan – en 40 tombes, waarvan 14 keizerlijke graven en 26 graven van edelen. Ze behoren allemaal tot de Koguryo cultuur, genoemd naar de dynastie die heerste over delen van Noord-China en het noordelijk deel van de Koreaanse schiereilanden van 277 voor Christus tot 668 na Christus. Wunushan is slechts gedeeltelijk opgegraven. Guonei – gelegen in de moderne stad Ji'an – was een soort reservehoofdstad, nadat de hoofdstad Koguryo verhuisde naar Pyongyang. Wandushan was een van de hoofdsteden van het Koguryo koninkrijk, hiervan resteren vele vestingwerken, inclusief een groot paleis en 37 graven.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The tombs represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius in their wall paintings and structures.

Criterion (ii): The Capital Cities of the Koguryo Kingdom are an early example of mountain cities, later imitated by neighbouring cultures. The tombs, particularly the important stele and a long inscription in one of the tombs, show the impact of Chinese culture on the Koguryo (who did not develop their own writing). The paintings in the tombs, while showing artistic skills and specific style, are also an example for strong impact from other cultures.

Criterion (iii): The Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom represent exceptional testimony to the vanished Koguryo civilization.

Criterion (iv): The system of capital cities represented by Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City also influenced the construction of later capitals built by the Koguryo regime; the Koguryo tombs provide outstanding examples of the evolution of piled-stone and earthen tomb construction.

Criterion (v): The capital cities of the Koguryo Kingdom represent a perfect blending of human creation and nature whether with the rocks or with forests and rivers.

Long Description

The World Heritage site represents exceptional testimony to the vanished Koguryo civilization. The Capital Cities of the Koguryo Kingdom are an early example of mountain cities, later to be imitated by neighbouring cultures. The tombs, particularly the important stele and a long inscription in one of the tombs, show the impact of Chinese culture on the Koguryo (who did not develop their own form of writing). The paintings in the tombs, while showing artistic skills and specific style, are also an example of the strong impact from other cultures.

The system of capital cities represented by Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City also influenced the construction of later capitals built by the Koguryo regime. The Koguryo tombs provide outstanding examples of the evolution of piled-stone and earthen tomb construction.

The site includes archaeological remains of three cities (Wunu Mountain City (only partly excavated), Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City) and 40 tombs, 14 of which are imperial and 26 of nobles. All belong to the Koguryo culture, named after the dynasty that ruled over parts of northern China and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula from 37 BC to AD 668.

Of the medieval cities in north-east Asia, Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City are both masterpieces of capital city layout and construction. They witnessed the splendid civilization that was created by Koguryo and submerged in the long process of history. They were the capitals of the Early and Middle Koguryo (1st-5th centuries AD), noteworthy for the fact that the plains city and the mountain city were supporting each other and jointly functioning as the capital. Guonei City played the role of a supporting capital after the main Koguryo capital moved to Pyongyang; it is one of the few plains city sites with stone city walls still standing on the ground.

Wandu Mountain City contains many remains, including a large palace and 37 tombs. Some of the latter have elaborate ceilings, designed to roof wide spaces without columns and carry the heavy load of a stone or earth mound that was placed above them. The city, built along the terrain of the mountain and rationally designed, perfectly realizes the harmonious blending of natural environment and human creation.

In addition to Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City, there are some 7,000 tombs of the Koguryo period (Donggou Ancient Tombs) in the Tonggou Plain surrounded by mountains. Among the tombs, the ten large-scale Koguryo imperial tombs represented by the General's Tomb and Taiwang Tomb, along with a large number of aristocratic wall-painting tombs, are the epitome of Koguryo's high architectural and artistic achievements.

The Haotaiwang stele on the east of Taiwang Tomb has an inscription with Chinese characters. This is the longest Koguryo written text so far known. What is especially important is that the blending of a local culture with its neighbouring culture, in particular the cultural elements from China's central plains, is amply illustrated by this World Heritage site.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Koguryo kingdom starts as a regional power and ethnic group in the year 37BC, when its first capital city, Wunu Mountain City was built. 30 years later the capital moved to Guonei city. The capital moved again in 427 AD to Pyonyang, nowadays the capital of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea.

Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City were the economic, political and cultural centers of the Koguryo for hundreds of years. Guonei City was destroyed in the year 197 AD when Koguryo were defeated by another power. Wandu Mountain City was built in 209 AD. Both cities were damaged in wars and rebuilt several times.

After moving the capital to Pyongyang, Guonei city was considered as a "supporting capital". It was then deserted for long period and repaired again after the founding of modern Ji'an in 1902.The remains of Wunu city were repaired in the years 1999 and 2002.

The sites of the historic towns were declared as protected monuments since the second half of the 20th century and in 1983 all the residents of newly built Wandu city moved out.

Thousands of Koguryo tombs are known. Their first excavations date to the period of the Japanese occupation, during World War II. The People's Republic of China attached great importance to their protection, study and conservation.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation