Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)

Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)

The ancient city of Ashur is located on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia in a specific geo-ecological zone, at the borderline between rain-fed and irrigation agriculture. The city dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. From the 14th to the 9th centuries BC it was the first capital of the Assyrian Empire, a city-state and trading platform of international importance. It also served as the religious capital of the Assyrians, associated with the god Ashur. The city was destroyed by the Babylonians, but revived during the Parthian period in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.

Assour (Qal'at Cherqat)

La cité antique d’Assour se trouve sur les rives du Tigre, dans le nord de la Mésopotamie, dans une zone géo-écologique particulière, à la frontière séparant l’agriculture avec système d’irrigation de celle qui n’en possède pas. La ville est née au troisième millénaire avant J.-C. Du XIVe au IXe  siècle avant J.-C., en tant que première capitale de l’Empire assyrien, elle fut une ville-État et un carrefour commercial international. Elle fut aussi la capitale religieuse des Assyriens, associée au dieu Assour. La ville fut détruite par les Babyloniens mais renaquit de ses cendres à l'époque parthe, aux Ie r et IIe  siècles.

آشور (القلعة الشرقية)

تقع مدينة آشور العتيقة على ضفاف نهر دجلة، شمال بلاد ما بين النهرين، في منطقة جغرافية بيئية مميزة، على الحدود التي تفصل الزراعة بنظام ريّ عن الزراعة التي لا أنظمة ريّ فيها. وقد نشأت المدينة في الألفية الثالثة ق.م. وبين القرنين الرابع عشر والتاسع ق.م.، أصبحت هذه المدينة بصفتها العاصمة الأولى للامبراطورية الأشورية مدينة دولة ومفترقًا تجاريًا دوليًا. وكانت أيضًا العاصمة الدينية للأشوريين، تيمّنًا بالإله آشور. ثم دمِّرت المدينة على يد البابليين ولكنها نهضت من الرماد في الحقبة البارثيّة في القرنين الأول والثاني.

source: UNESCO/ERI

亚述古城

亚述古城位于美索不达米亚北部底格里斯河的特殊地带上,处于雨水灌溉农业和人工灌溉农业的交界处,其历史可以追溯到公元前3000年。公元前14世纪到公元前9世纪,亚述古城是城市国家亚述帝国的第一个都城,是重要的国际贸易平台。古城同时也是帝国的宗教都城,与阿舒尔神紧密相连。亚述古城最后被巴比伦人摧毁,但在公元1世纪和2世纪帕提亚时代经历过短暂的复兴。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Ашшур (Калат-Шергат)

Древний город Ашшур расположен на реке Тигр в северной Месопотамии в переходной природной зоне, на границе между влажными и засушливыми районами. Город ведет свою историю с 3-го тысячелетия до н.э. В ХIV-IХ вв. до н.э. он был первой столицей Ассирийской империи, городом-государством и центром торговли международного значения. Он также служил религиозной столицей ассирийцев, будучи тесно связанным с культом бога Ашшура. Город был разрушен вавилонянами, но возродился в Парфянский период в I-II вв. н.э.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Asur (Qal’at Sherqat)

Situada al norte de Mesopotamia, a orillas del Tigris, la antigua ciudad de Asur está emplazada en una zona geoecológica peculiar, donde la agricultura de regadío limita con la de secano. Asur, que se fundó tres mil años antes de la era cristiana, recibió el nombre de su dios protector y fue la capital religiosa de los asirios. Entre los siglos XIV y IX a. C., esta ciudad-estado fue la primera capital del Imperio Asirio y un importante centro internacional de intercambios comerciales. Tras su destrucción a manos de los babilonios, renació de sus cenizas en tiempos del Imperio Parto (siglos I y II d.C.).

source: UNESCO/ERI

アッシュール(カラット・シェルカット) 

source: NFUAJ

Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)

De oude stad van Ashur ligt aan de rivier de Tigris in het noorden van Mesopotamië, in een specifieke geo-ecologische zone op de grens tussen regenwater- en irrigatie landbouw. De stad dateert uit het 3e millennium voor Christus. Van de 14e tot de 9e eeuw voor Christus was het de eerste hoofdstad van het Assyrische Rijk en daarmee een stadstaat en handelsplaats van internationaal belang. Ashur diende ook als religieuze hoofdstad van de Assyriërs, geassocieerd met de god Ashur. De stad werd verwoest door de Babyloniërs, maar nieuw leven ingeblazen tijdens de Parthische periode in de 1e en 2e eeuw na Christus.

Source: unesco.nl

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Statement of Significance

Criterion iii: Founded in the 3rd millennium BCE, the most important role of Ashur was from the 14th to 9th century BCE when it was the first capital of the Assyrian empire. Ashur was also the religious capital of Assyrians, and the place for crowning and burial of its kings. Criterion iv: The excavated remains of the public and residential buildings of Ashur provide an outstanding record of the evolution of building practice from the Sumerian and Akkadian period through the Assyrian empire, as well as including the short revival during the Parthian period.

Long Description

Founded in the 3rd millennium BC, the most important role of Ashur was from the 14th to 9th centuries BC when it was the first capital of the Assyrian empire. Ashur was also the Assyrian religious capital and the place for crowning and burial of its kings. The excavated remains of the public and residential buildings of Ashur provide an outstanding record of the evolution of building practice from the Sumerian and Akkadian period through the Assyrian empire, as well as including the short revival during the Parthian period.

The ancient city of Ashur (Assur, modern Qal'at Sherqat) is located 390km north of Baghdad. The settlement was founded on the western bank of the Tigris. The excavated remains consist of superimposed archaeological deposits, the earliest from the Sumerian Early Dynastic period (early 3rd millennium BC), then the Akkadian and Ur III periods, followed by the Old, Middle and Neo-Assyrian (ending mid-1st millennium BC) periods, and finally, the Hellenistic period and that of the Arab kings of Hatra.

Structurally, the city of Ashur was divided into two parts: the old city (Akkadian libbi-ali, the heart of the city), which is the northern and largest part of Ashur, and the new city (Akk. alu-ishshu), which was constructed around the mid-2nd millennium BC. The major features of the city now visible on-site consist of architectural remains: the ziggurat and the great temple of the god Ashur, the double temple of Anu and Adad, the temple of Ishtar, the Sumerian goddess of love and war, the Old Palace with its royal tombs and several living quarters in many parts of the city. The city was surrounded by a double wall with several gates and a big moat. The majority of the buildings of the city were built with sun-dried mud-bricks with foundations of quarried stones or dressed stone, depending on the period. Artistic objects and parts of architectural remains of the city are at present on display in the major museums of the world.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The history of the city of Ashur goes back to the Sumerian Early Dynastic period (first half of the 3rd millennium BCE). Some remains may even date to preceding periods. For this early part the stratigraphic excavation of the temple of Ishtar provided substantial information about the development of the religious architecture. Two of the five major building stages of it belong to this period. During the Akkadian empire (ca 2334-2154 BCE) Ashur was an important centre, and a governor of the third dynasty of Ur (2112-2004 BCE) ruled over the city which had to pay taxes to the central administration in the south. Still, the temple of Ishtar and its findings remain the main archaeological reference point. As an independent citystate Ashur became capital of Assyria and the Assyrians during the 2nd millennium BCE starting with the Old- Assyrian rulers Erishum, Ilushuma and Shamshi-Adad I and thereafter with the Middle-Assyrian kings Eriba- Adad I and Ashuniballit I. From here, the military campaigns of the Middle-Assyrian kings Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglathpileser I started and laid the foundation for the territorial expansion of the Assyrian empire to the west, ie Syro-Mesopotamia and the Levant, and other adjacent regions. For the 2nd millennium BCE a systematic building programme is attested for Ashur, culminating in the Middle-Assyrian period, when king Tukulti-Ninurta I not only renovated or reconstructed the majority of the temples (among them the temple of Ishtar), but terraced a large area for the his New Palace (the building was not erected since the king founded a new residential city named Kar-Tukulti- Ninurta, further upstream).

Ashur remained political capital until the reign of the Neo- Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BCE), who moved it to Kalhu (modern Nimrud). After that, Ashur continued to be an important religious and provincial Assyrian centre even though it had lost its function as national capital. The Neo-Assyrian kings executed restoration work at the main sanctuaries and palaces of Ashur as it was requested by the inscriptions of their predecessors and erected the royal burial place within the area of the Old royal palace. The majority of the private houses and living quarters date to this Neo-Assyrian period and provide important information about domestic architecture and the conditions of life of those parts of the Assyrian society not belonging to the royal elite. Special attention was received by the more than 1,000 inhumations in graves and tombs, mainly located inside the buildings, which provide important information on aspects of burial rites and funerary culture. The site survived the fall of the Assyrian empire in the 7th century BCE, and it flourished in the Hellenistic and Parthian periods until the 2nd century CE. The Parthian palace and a temple close to the ziggurat are architectural testimonies of this period. Presently, residential areas of the Parthian period are being excavated.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation