Takht-e Soleyman

Takht-e Soleyman

The archaeological site of Takht-e Soleyman, in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian period (6th and 7th centuries) dedicated to Anahita. The site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and the general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.

Takht-e Sulaiman

Le site archéologique de Takht-e Sulaiman, dans le nord-ouest de l’Iran, est situé dans une vallée, au milieu d’une région de montagnes volcaniques. Le site comprend le principal sanctuaire zoroastrien, en partie reconstruit sous la période des Ilkhans (Mongols), au XIIIe  siècle, ainsi qu’un temple dédié à Anahita datant de la période sassanide, VIe et VIIe  siècles. Le site a une valeur symbolique importante. La conception du temple du feu, celle du palais et la disposition générale du site ont sensiblement influencé le développement de l’architecture islamique.

تخت سليمان

يقع موقع تخت سليمان الأثري شمال غرب إيران في وادٍ وسط منطقة جبلية بركانية. ويشمل الموقع المزار الزرادشتي الأساسي الذي أعيد بناؤه جزئيًا في حقبة الإيلخانيين (المغول) في القرن الثالث عشر، بالإضافة إلى معبد مخصص لـ"أناهيتا" وعائد إلى الحقبة الساسانية، في القرنين السادس والسابع. وللموقع قيمة رمزية هامة. فتصميم معبد النار والقصر والترتيب العام للموقع تأثير شديد على تطور الهندسة المعمارية الإسلامية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

塔赫特苏莱曼

塔赫特苏莱曼考古遗址在伊朗的西北部,坐落于一个火山地区的山谷中。该遗址包括了索罗亚斯德教避难所的主要部分、伊卡哈尼德(蒙古)13世纪重建地区的一部分、以及萨桑时代(6世纪到7世纪)一些属于阿纳海塔的庙宇,具有十分重要的象征意义。其中火庙宫殿的设计和总体布局都对伊斯兰教建筑的发展产生了深远影响。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Техте-Солейман

Археологический комплекс Техте-Солейман расположен на северо-западе Ирана, в одной из долин гористого вулканического района. Объект включает главное зороастрийское святилище, частично перестроенное в период власти ильханов (монголов) в ХIII в., а также храм Сасанидского периода VI-VII вв., посвященный богу Анахите, и имеет большое символическое значение. Конструкция храма огня и дворца, а также общая планировка комплекса оказали большое влияние на развитие исламской архитектуры.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Takht-e Sulaiman

El sitio arqueológico de Takht-e Sulaiman se halla en un valle del noroeste del Irán situado en medio de una región de montañas volcánicas. En él se encuentran el santuario zoroástrico más importante –que fue parcialmente reconstruido en época de los iljanidas (siglo XIII)– y un templo del periodo sasánida (siglos VI y VII) dedicado a la diosa Anahita. Además de su importante valor simbólico, los monumentos de este sitio –y más concretamente el trazado global y el diseño del templo del fuego y el palacio– influyeron considerablemente en el desarrollo de la arquitectura islámica.

source: UNESCO/ERI

タハテ・スレマーン 
イラン北西部の西アゼルバイジャン州、テヘランから約750㎞の火山帯の渓谷に位置するタハテ・スレマーン(「ソロモンの王座」の意)の古代遺跡は、アナヒタ寺院とともにササン朝末期(6~7世紀)の重要なゾロアスター教(拝火教)の聖域。また始祖アフラ・マズダの定めた三大聖火のうちの「戦士の火」の座である。火の寺のデザインや、宮殿、全体的なレイアウトは、イスラーム建築の発展に重要な影響を与えている。

source: NFUAJ

Takht-e Soleyman

Het archeologische erfgoed van Takht-e Soleyman (Salomon’s troon) ligt in een vallei van een vulkanisch berggebied, in noordwestelijk Iran. De plaats bevat het belangrijkste Zoroastrische heiligdom – gedeeltelijk herbouwd in de periode van het Il-kanaat (Mongoolse periode, 13e eeuw) – en een tempel uit de Sassanidische periode (6e en 7e eeuw) gewijd aan Anahita. De ontwerpen van de vuurtempel, het paleis en de algemene indeling hebben grote invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van de islamitische architectuur. Takht-e Soleyman is een goed voorbeeld van koninklijke architectuur die de belangrijkste architectonische elementen van de Sassanieden samenvoegt tot een harmonieus geheel, geïnspireerd door de natuurlijke context.

Source: unesco.nl

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Takht-e Soleyman © Sacred sites
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief Synthesis

The archaeological ensemble called Takht-e Soleyman (“Throne of Solomon”) is situated on a remote plain surrounded by mountains in northwestern Iran’s West Azerbaijan province. The site has strong symbolic and spiritual significance related to fire and water – the principal reason for its occupation from ancient times – and stands as an exceptional testimony of the continuation of a cult related to fire and water over a period of some 2,500 years. Located here, in a harmonious composition inspired by its natural setting, are the remains of an exceptional ensemble of royal architecture of Persia’s Sasanian dynasty (3rd to 7th centuries). Integrated with the palatial architecture is an outstanding example of Zoroastrian sanctuary; this composition at Takht-e Soleyman can be considered an important prototype.

An artesian lake and a volcano are essential elements of Takht-e Soleyman. At the site’s heart is a fortified oval platform rising about 60 metres above the surrounding plain and measuring about 350 m by 550 m. On this platform are an artesian lake, a Zoroastrian fire temple, a temple dedicated to Anahita (the divinity of the waters), and a Sasanian royal sanctuary. This site was destroyed at the end of the Sasanian era, but was revived and partly rebuilt in the 13th century. About three kilometres west is an ancient volcano, Zendan-e Soleyman, which rises about 100 m above its surroundings. At its summit are the remains of shrines and temples dating from the first millennium BC.

Takht-e Soleyman was the principal sanctuary and foremost site of Zoroastrianism, the Sasanian state religion. This early monotheistic faith has had an important influence on Islam and Christianity; likewise, the designs of the fire temple and the royal palace, and the site’s general layout, had a strong influence on the development of religious architecture in the Islamic period, and became a major architectural reference for other cultures in both the East and the West. The site also has many important symbolic relationships, being associated with beliefs much older than Zoroastrianism as well as with significant biblical figures and legends.

The 10-ha property also includes Tepe Majid, an archaeological mound culturally related to Zendan-e Soleyman; the mountain to the east of Takht-e Soleyman that served as quarry for the site; and Belqeis Mountain 7.5 km to the northeast, on which are the remains of a Sasanian-era citadel. The archaeological heritage of the Takht-e Soleyman ensemble is further enriched by the Sasanian town (which has not yet been excavated) located in the 7,438-ha landscape buffer zones.

Criterion (i):Takht-e Soleyman is an outstanding ensemble of royal architecture, joining the principal architectural elements created by the Sasanians in a harmonious composition inspired by their natural context.

Criterion (ii):The composition and the architectural elements created by the Sasanians at Takht-e Soleyman have had strong influence not only in the development of religious architecture in the Islamic period, but also in other cultures.

Criterion (iii):The ensemble of Takht-e Soleyman is an exceptional testimony of the continuation of cult related to fire and water over a period of some two and half millennia. The archaeological heritage of the site is further enriched by the Sasanian town, which is still to be excavated.

Criterion (iv):Takht-e Soleyman represents an outstanding example of Zoroastrian sanctuary, integrated with Sasanian palatial architecture within a composition, which can be seen as a prototype.

Criterion (vi): As the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary, Takht-e Soleyman is the foremost site associated with one of the early monotheistic religions of the world. The site has many important symbolic relationships, being also a testimony of the association of the ancient beliefs, much earlier than the Zoroastrianism, as well as in its association with significant biblical figures and legends.

Integrity

Within the boundaries of the property are located the known elements and components necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, including the lake and the volcano, archaeological remains related to the Zoroastrian sanctuary, and archaeological remains related to the royal architecture of the Sasanian dynasty. Masonry rooftops have collapsed in some areas, but the configurations and functions of the buildings remain evident.

The region’s climate, particularly the long rainy season and extreme temperature variations, as well as seismic action represent the major threats to the integrity of the original stone and masonry materials. Potential risks in the future include development pressures and the construction of visitor facilities in the buffer zones around the sites. Furthermore, there is potential conflict between the interests of the farmers and archaeologists, particularly in the event that excavations are undertaken in the valley fields.

Authenticity

The Takht-e Soleyman archaeological ensemble is authentic in terms of its forms and design, materials and substance, and location and setting, as well as, to a degree, the use and the spirit of the fire temple. Excavated only recently, the archaeological property’s restorations and reconstructions are relatively limited so far: a section of the outer wall near the southern entrance has been rebuilt, using for the most part original stones recovered from the fallen remains; and part of the brick vaults of the palace structures have been rebuilt using modern brick but in the same pattern as the original. As a whole, these interventions can be seen as necessary, and do not compromise the authenticity of the property, which retains its historic ruin aspect. The ancient fire temple still serves pilgrims performing Zoroastrian ceremonies. 

Protection and management requirements

Takht-e Soleyman was inscribed on the national heritage list of Iran in 1931, and it is subject to legal protection under the Law on the Protection of National Treasures (1930, updated 1998) and the Law of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization Charter (n. 3487-Qaf, 1988). The inscribed World Heritage property, which is owned by the Government of Iran, is under the legal protection and management of the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (which is administered and funded by the Government of Iran). Acting on its behalf, Takht-e Soleyman World Heritage Base is responsible for implementation of the archaeology, conservation, tourism, and education programmes, and for site management. These activities are funded by the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, as well as by occasional international support. The current management plan, prepared in 2010, organises managerial strategies and activities over a 15-year period.

Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require continuing periodic on-site observations to determine whether the climate or other factors will lead to a negative impact on the Outstanding Universal Value, integrity or authenticity of the property; and employing internationally recognised scientific standards and techniques to properly safeguard the monuments when undertaking stabilisation, conservation, or restoration projects intended to address such negative impacts.