Cultural Properties - Historic Town of Grand-Bassam (Côte d’Ivoire)
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Documents WHC-12/36.COM/8B.Add and WHC-12/36.COM/INF.8B1.Add,
2. Inscribes the Historic Town of Grand-Bassam, Côte d’Ivoire, on the World Heritage List on the basis of criteria (iii) and (iv);
3. Adopts the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value:
The historic town of Grand-Bassam is an example of a colonial town built at the end of the 19th century and during the early 20th century. It follows a planning concept based on the specialisation of quarters for commerce, administration, housing for Europeans and housing for Africans. It embodies, on the one hand, colonial architecture and town planning, based on the principles of functionalism and hygiene of the time, and adapted to climatic conditions, and, on the other hand, an village N’zima which demonstrates the permanency of indigenous cultures. Grand-Bassam was the first colonial capital, and the most important port, economic centre and legal centre of Côte d’Ivoire; it bears witness to the complex social relations between Europeans and Africans, and then to the popular movement in favour of independence.
Criterion (iii): Grand-Bassam bears witness, through its well preserved urban organisation, to an important cultural tradition linked to its role as a colonial capital, an administrative centre for the former AOF (Afrique occidentale française) and a regional commercial hub. From the 1880s to the 1950s, the town brought together various African, European and Middle Eastern populations. Cohabitation between them was harmonious but at the same time conflictual.
Criterion (iv): Grand-Bassam constitutes an outstanding example of rational colonial town planning, with its specialised quarters in an overall urban network in which vegetation has an important role. The colonial architecture is characterised by a sober and functional style, using principles of hygiene adapted to a tropical location. The organisation of the vernacular house in the N'zima village echoes this approach, expressing the permanency of indigenous values.
The integrity of the urban fabric is generally good. The property includes sufficiently large ensembles of characteristic built structures to enable them to be well understood. However, the architectural integrity of the buildings is under threat in many cases, because of abandonment and lack of maintenance. The integrity of the urban landscape might be under threat from the pressure for property linked to beach tourism.
The authenticity of the urban fabric has been generally conserved, enabling satisfactory expression of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. While some buildings, which are generally the public ones, have been acceptably restored and reused, the architectural integrity of a large number of buildings is often mediocre or poor, and their authenticity has in some cases been adversely affected by alterations which are not in keeping with the original design.
Protection and management requirements
Protection of the property and its management system are appropriate and their implementation is under way, including through the establishment of the Cultural Heritage Centre and through the overarching Building Permits Commission. However, it is essential to confirm the suspensive effect of decisions of the latter and strengthen the human and financial resources dedicated to the conservation of the property. The boundaries of the unified buffer zone should be extended around the Petit Paris embankment and the lighthouse as in the original nomination dossier.
4. Requests the State Party to implement the following regulatory measures:
a) Refine the already well advanced definition of the contour of the property on the basis of cadastral boundaries,
b) Enlarge the property’s buffer zone by reverting to the initially planned boundaries near the Quai du Petit Paris and the lighthouse, while retaining the current extension which unifies the buffer zone,
c) Inscribe all the “buildings of heritage interest” in the local inventory on the National Cultural Heritage List,
d) Clarify, in the near future, the land ownership situation, as the number of land lots announced is the same as in the initial dossier (of 2008), even though the property has been extended to include the N’zima village, and in relation to land lots for which there is no property deed,
e) Define operational monitoring indicators (in addition to the current indicators) which correspond to precise, periodic and quantified monitoring actions, by considering international standards in this area,
f) Strengthen and give details of the permanent human resources of the Local Committee and/or of the Cultural Heritage Centre for the property conservation monitoring actions; the presence of an architect and of conservation specialists is necessary;
5. Recommends that the State Party give consideration to the following:
a) Providing a progress report on the setting up and functioning of the Building Permits Commission,
b) Continuing the efforts undertaken to reinforce the practical and operational dimension of the Plan for the Conservation and Management of the property,
c) Confirming the measures to provide encouragement for the restoration and conservation of the privately owned buildings;
6. Requests the State Party to submit, by 1 February 2013, a report to the World Heritage Centre outlining progress made in the implementation of the demands and above-mentioned recommendations to be examined by the Committee at its 37th session in 2013.