Hill Forts of Rajasthan
Chittorgarh Fort N24 54 E74 42
Kumbhalgarh Fort N25 10 E73 50
Gagron Fort N24 36 E76 9
Ranthambore Fort N26 30 E76 26
Amber Fort N26 59 E75 52
Jalor Fort N25 20 E72 36
Bala Kila Fort N27 34 E76 36
The 'Hill Forts of Rajasthan' are serial property formed by 7 sites in the northwestern state of Rajasthan in India, each strategically built and located on the oldest mountain range of the Aravallis or the Vindhyan range in the region and, each as a representative of the medieval defense settlements of the Rajput warrior caste. These 7 sites collectively constitute the most authentic, best conserved and most representative sites of Rajput military architecture of Rajasthan region.
This set of medieval and post medieval hill forts narrates centuries of political, cultural, social and architectural evolution of the ruling Rajput caste in the history of India. They stand as testimony to the formation of princely states, development of Rajput ideologies and Rajput architectural style over successive periods, myriad political conflicts, battles and alliances between the ruling Rajput clan vis a vis the Sultanate period rulers and Mughal Emperors of Central India.
The 7 hill forts of Rajasthan are selected as authentic examples from varied geographic, physiographic and cultural zones within Rajasthan to represent a complete range of the hill forts of Rajasthan. Each selected hill fort site is of Outstanding Universal Value with advanced construction techniques exploiting natural terrain and contours for defense, unique social associations with Rajput courtly life, most sophisticated and evolved examples of secular Hindu Rajput architecture, technological adaptations utilizing the wealth of natural resources and located in an extraordinary geographical setting. These 7 fort sites are described below in the chronological order of their development.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- Eastern Plain, South eastern Rajasthan
Cultural Zone - Pragvat/Mewar
A Monument of National importance protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.
The Chittor, the ancient Chitrakuta occupies a place of pride in the history of Rajputs as it remained an important seat of Rajput power from the 7th to 16th cent. AD. Covering an area of about 700 acres, the fort stands on a 152mt. high hill. The construction of fort is ascribed to Chitrangad of the Mori dynasty in 7th cent. AD. It has been a witness to the rulers of several dynasties such as the Mori or Mauryas (7-8th century AD), Pratiharas (9-10th century AD), Paramaras (10-11th century AD), Solankis (12th century AD) and lastly by Guhilots or Sisodia clan of Rajputs.
Historically, Chittorgarh is established as an indomitable Rajput hill fort withstanding several attacks by Muslim invaders such as Alauddin Khilji in 1303 AD, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in 1535 AD and finally by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1567 AD. Each time the Rajput women and children committed the ritual of Jauhar (group immolation by the women and children of a besieged fort when the fall of the place seems inevitable). Hence, the Fort has strong associations with these sacrificial events. Its eventful history and rich monumental heritage is characterized by strong fortification, gateways, bastions, palaces, temples, towers and reservoirs which are fine examples of Rajput architecture. The Kalikamata temple, originally dedicated to Surya, is one of the oldest surviving shrines datable to 8th century AD which is corroborated by an inscription attributing the construction of the temple by one king Manbhanga. The Samadhisvara temple, dedicated to Lord Siva is identified with the temple of Tribhubvana Narayan built by the Paramara king Bhoja in the eleventh cent. AD. The remains of Kshemankari and brick temple are datable to 9-10th cent. AD while the Jain Kirtti Stambha, dedicated to Adinath or Rishabhadeva, the first Jaina Tirthankar is one of the most interesting Jaina monument datable to 13th cent.AD and is adorned heavily with sculptures and mouldings from base to sumit.
Jain Sat Bis temple dates from the 11th century, the 23 metres high Kirti Stambh from the 12th century, followed by the oldest surviving Rajput Palace in the Fort complex - the Choonda's Palace from 1400 AD in a ruinous condition.
A number of 15th century structures added by Rana Kumbha include: the 37 metre high nine storey Vijay Stambh (1440-1448 AD) embellished with images of gods and goddesses and inscribed slabs of the fragmentary prasasti containing genealogy of the the Guhilots family; the Rana Kumbha's Palace; temples of Kumbhasvamin, Sringar Chauri, Sat Bis Deori, Adbhutnath, etc. The palaces of Ratan Singh and Padmini are other important buildings besides large numbers of temples, reservoirs, residential complexes, etc. The Gaumukh Kund, a historic water body in the fort complex has religious associations.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- South East Rajasthani Pathar, South eastern Rajasthan,
Cultural Zone - Hadauti
The Gagron Fort is protected by the State Archaeology and Museums Department under the Department of Art and Culture, Government of Rajasthan.
Gagron Fort, located 5 km. north-east of the Jhalawar town is dated from 7th-8th century AD and stands as a witness to the valour of the Khichi Chauhan clan of Rajputs. Surrounded by the waters of the Ahu and Kali Sindh rivers on three sides, it is considered as one of the finest example of water fort, looming out on the crest of the Vindhyan hill range at the confluence of two rivers. The vertical cliff, locally known as Gidh Karai or Vulture's Cliff is a strong natural feature.
The Khichi Chauhan clan of Rajputs under their Raja Jaita Singh, successfully withstood a siege by Allauddin Khilji in AD 1300. Raja Achaldas Khinchi held this fort valiantly against the Hoshang Shah of Malwa and the fort records the ritual events of Jauhar performed during the invasion. The fort went through 14 battles and Alauddin Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi, besieged it unsuccessfully for 11 years. Rana Kumbha of Mewar (AD 1433-1468I disposed Mahmud Khilji, the Sultan of Malwa in AD 1439 and held it till AD 1532 when Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat conquered it. In 1561 AD, the Mughal Emperor Akbar captured Gagron and the Mughals held it till 1715 AD when it was gifted to Maharao Bhim Singh, the ruler of Kota belonging to Hada clan of Rajputs. Jauhar, the Rajput ritual of women immolating themselves during enemy attack, was performed thrice in the history of Gagron fort. Gagron remained one of the favourite retreats of Zalim Singh Jhala in the 19th century.
The Gagron fort is famous for its natural and strategic location, massive construction and glorious history. Ganesh Pol, Nakkarkhana, Bharaiv Pol, Kishan Pol, Silikhana-ka-Darwaza are important gateways inside the fort. The Diwan-e Am, Diwan-e-Khas, Zanana Mahal, Madhusudan Mandir or Rang Mahal are important built structures in the fort complex. Silekhana which was the storehouse for arms and ammunition exists in the form of small cells along western wall of the fort.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area-Aravalli Range and Hilly Region, South west Rajasthan
Cultural Zone- Mewar-Bhorat
The Kumbhalgarh Fort is a Monument of National importance protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Kumbhalgarh (or Kumbhalmer), situated about 80 km. northwest of Udaipur on the peaks of the Aravalli range rises 213 meters above the surrounding countryside, with a commanding view of the Aravallis. Its construction is attributed to Rana Kumbha between1443-1458 AD. It was constructed under the supervision of his famous architect Mandana. The site originally housed an earlier structure that traditions ascribe to Samprati, a Jaina prince of the second century B.C.
The only time the fort was invested by an outsider was in 1578 AD when it was taken by Mughal forces during Emperor Akbar's reign. The fort is approached through a series of protective walls and strong defensive fortifications having perimeter of about 12 km. with 5 meters wide abutting wall on the inner side of the fortification further supported by a series of round bastions. The fort has ten gates with several groups of temples devoted to Hindu and Jain pantheon which includes the Ganesh temple, Neelkanth Mahadev temple, Vedi temple, Parsvanath temple, Bawan Deori, Pitaliadev temple, Mamadev temple, Golerao roup of temples and Jain temples No. 1,2,3, etc. Other monuments within the fort include Badal Mahal, Kumbha Mahal, Jhalia Mahal, Birth Place of Maharana Pratap and ancient bunds, reservoirs and step-wells. Most of the monuments/structures are datable to 15-16th century AD except Badal Mahal which was constructed by Rana Fateh Singh (1884-1930 AD) and is the highest point of the fort. The Kumbhalgarh inscription from 1460 AD records the history of Rana Kumbha's period.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- Eastern Plains, Eastern Rajasthan
Cultural Zone - Dhoondhar- Dangbhang
The Ranthambore Fort is a Monument of National importance protected by the
Archaeological Survey of India.
Ranthambore Fort is a formidable fort and has been a focal point of historical developments of Rajasthan. The fortress of Ranthambore is said to be constructed by Maharaja Jayanta in 5th century AD. The Yadavas ruled over it till they were expelled by Prithviraj Chauhan in 12th century AD. The fortress commands a strategic location, 213 metres above the surrounding plain surrounded by a Wildlife Sanctuary.
After the defeat of the Chauhan king Prithviraj III by Muhammad of Ghor in 1192 AD, Ranthambore became the center of Chauhan resistance to the expanding Sultanate of Delhi during the reign of Govinda Raja, grandson of Pritviraj III. The Delhi Sultan Iltutmish captured Ranthambore in 1226 AD, but the Chauhans recaptured it after his death in 1236 AD. Sultan Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji briefly besieged the fort in 1290-91 AD. Hammir Deo (1282-1301A.D.) was the most powerful ruler of Ranthambhore who patronised art and literature and fought bravely against Alla ud din Khilji during a siege in 1301 AD.
The fort was captured by the kingdom of Mewar under Rana Hamir Singh (1326-1364 AD) and Rana Kumbha (1433-1468 AD). After the reign of Rana Kumbha's successor Rana Udai Singh I (1468-1473AD) passed it to the Hada Rajputs of Bundi. Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat captured the fortress from 1532 to 1535 AD. The Mughal Emperor Akbar captured the fortress in 1559 AD. The fort passed to the Kachwaha Rajputs of Jaipur in the 17th century, and it remained part of Jaipur state until Indian Independence. The area surrounding the fortress (Ranthambore National Park) became a hunting ground for the Rajput rulers of Jaipur.
The fort is well strengthened by massive fortification provided with seven gateways, known as Pols namely, Navlakha Pol, Hathia Pol, Ganesh Pol, Andheri Pol, Sat Pol, Suraj Pol and Delhi Pol Pol. Important monuments inside the fort are Hammir Paalace, Rani Palace, Hammir Badi Kachehari, Chhoti Kachehari, Badal Mahal, Battis Khambha Chhatri, Jhaura-Bhaura (Granaries), Dargah, Hindu and Jain temples. Ganesh temple is the most visited shrine inside the fort.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- semiarid transitional zone, Western Rajasthan
Cultural Zone - Marwar
Protection: Protected by the State Archaeology and Museums Department under the Department of Art and Culture, Government of Rajasthan.
Jalor Fort is situated on a rocky outcrop about 336m high in the southern part of Jalor town with a fortified wall and bastions. The fort was built by the Paramara Rajputs between the 8th- 10th century AD. Kirtipala, ruler of Nadol and the founder of the Jalor line of Rajputs captured the fort from the Paramaras in 1181 AD. In 1228 AD, Iltutmish circled Jalor but the fort was defended by the then Rajput ruler, Udaysimha. Jalor was attacked in 1311 AD by Alla ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi during the reign of Kanhad Dev Songara who along with his son Viramdeo Songara died defending the fort. Many women performed Jauhar, the Rajput ritual of self immolation during this event. The path to the main entrance, cut in rock, is well over two miles long and it negotiates three distinct lines of defense because of which Jalor fort could valiantly resist wave after wave of Muslim invasions.
Measuring about ¾ km in length and ½ km in breadth the fort has 4 gateways -Suraj Pol, Dhruv Pol, Chand Pol and Sirhe Pol. At present the fort complex includes several historic buildings such as the palaces of Man Singh, two step-wells, three Jain temples, one Shiva temple, dilapidated temple of Jogmaya, Chauki of Vikramdeo and dargah of Malik Shah.
Among the Jain temples, the one dedicated to Parsvanath is the most magnificent and impressive. Rathore clan ruler Man Singh of Jodhpur lived here and the fort records arrest of freedom fighters Ganeshlal Vyas, Mathuradas Mathur, Fatehraj Joshi and Tulsidas Rathi in the 20th century. The mahal or the residential palace inside the fort is now desolated, and what is left of it are the ruined symmetrical walls with huge rock formations around it. The cut-stone walls of the fort are still intact at many places. The Kila Masjid (Fort Mosque) within the fort is also noteworthy as they demonstrates the widespread influence of the architectural decorations associated with late 16th century architectural styles.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- Eastern Plain, North eastern Rajasthan
Cultural Zone - Dhoondhar
The Amber Fort is protected by the State Archaeology and Museum Department under the Department of Art and Culture, Government of Rajasthan.
Amber is located in a valley formed by a range of Aravallis known as Kalikho hills. The Palace and Fort are located on top of the hill with the city on slopes, and the valley protected by fort walls with four gates in the four cardinal directions. Kakil Dev (1036 - 1038 AD) is said to have laid the foundations of the fortifications of Amber, though the capital was shifted to Amber only between 1179 and 1216 AD. The construction of the fort began in 1592 AD by Man Singh I and was completed, later, by his descendant Jai Singh I. It shows the evolution from the purely defensive fort settlements of the early medieval period to the palace fortress type of architecture typified in the 16th century. This palace fortress was never attacked or invaded.
The fort comprises of number of gardens, courtyards and palatial spaces derived from Mughal architecture such as the Diwan-e-Am, Diwan-e-Khas, etc. The construction of the palaces within was started by Raja Bharmal in 1558 AD and saw later palace structures made by Raja Man Singh and Jai Singh. The most significant architectural features in the whole complex are the Shish Mahal, the Ganesh Pol and the temple of Mata Sila Devi.
Geographic/ Physiographic Area- Hilly region, North eastern Rajasthan
Cultural Zone - Mewat
Protection: Protected by the State Archaeology and Museum Department under the Department of Art and Culture, Government of Rajasthan.
The fort was originally built in the 10th century as a mud structure, it was expanded and improved over the centuries by the Mughals and Jats. It stands 305 metres above sea level, is spread 5 kms across North to South and nearly 2 km from east to west.
Part of the rampart of Bala Kila was built by Raja Hasan Khan Mewati from the Jadon clan of Rajput in 1550 AD. It passed from the Mughals, to the Marathas, to the Jats, till it was finally captured by the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs of Jaipur. It is known to have housed Mughal rulers from Babur for a night halt to Emperor Jahangir when he was Prince Salim and spent 3 months in exile.
There are six entrances to the fort which are, Chand Pol, Suraj Pol, Jai Pol, Kishan Pol, Andheri Gate and Laxman Pol. The fort comprises of 15 large and 51 small ornate stone towers surrounding the frescoed palace of Nikumbh Mahal.
Justification of Outstanding Universal Value
The series of 7 hill fort sites of Rajasthan represent the genius of Rajput Military Architecture in the medieval and post medieval period of Indian History. The 7 hill forts built in local stone masonry trace the development of the fort typology and the evolution of the Rajput Architectural Style from the 15th to the 19th century. It is observed that 5 of the 7 forts i.e. Chittorgarh, Gagron, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambore and Jalor include additional historic layers from the 6th - 10th century, while exhibiting significant structure of the Rajput military architecture of the 15th and 16th century, whereas the Amber Fort and Bala Kila house structures from the later phase of mature Rajput architectural style. The forts are important records of the political situation of the period, marked by the alternate strife and subjugation from the Sultanate and the Mughal Empire and friction amongst the Rajput Kingdoms ruled by various clans.
Cultural Criterion (i): " The Hill forts of Rajasthan represent a masterpiece of human creative genius"
The series of 7 hill forts exemplify a varied repertoire of military planning exploiting the natural contours and terrain across the various geographical zones within north western state of Rajasthan in India
Cultural Criterion (ii):
"The fort settlements exhibit an important interchange of Princely Rajput values and ideologies, across the medieval period within the varied cultural zones of northwestern state of Rajasthan in India."
They trace the development of Rajput architecture and technology, monumental arts, landscape design from the early Hindu principles to the adaptations and transformations during Mughal and British times. The Rajput Forts of Rajasthan reflect the continuity of the Hindu Architectural tradition in secular structures. Despite the widespread Muslim authority in 15th century India, the pre- Islamic style of the 12th century in secular structures survived in the Forts of Rajasthan as a reflection of the relative political independence maintained by the Rajput kingdoms of Rajasthan The Forts bear an exceptional testimony to the cultural traditions of Rajputs, the medieval ruling clan for the region of Rajasthan, responsible for the development of several fortified historic towns across the state. These 7 sites express following characteristics:
- Association of sites such as of Kumbhalgarh with King Samprati, the grandson of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka.
- Reflect the strong positions of Mewar and Marwar in North India by the end of the 15th century, before the Sultanate and Mughal supremacy was established in the region.
- Inform the political history of the region with many independent Rajput clans in conflicts and alliances with each other and their resistance to the external Sultanate and Mughal rule linked with the hill forts along with a number of political personalities important in the region - such as Rana Kumbha, Rana Pratap, Prthiviraj Chauahan from the Rajput clans of Sisodias, Chauhans and Pramars.
- Represent the overlay of the local physical landscape and natural topography with a cultural landscape of polity, economy and Rajput architecture.
- Show architectural development of the Rajput military strong holds from 6th to the 15th century and the palaces within from the 16th to the 18th century traced through these hill forts represents military and civil architecture from the medieval and post medieval period.
- Exhibit excellence in building arts and crafts of the region as observed in stone carved temples and victory towers at Kumbhalgarh and Chittorgarh and, glass inlay and paintings at Sheesh Mahal, Amber and Nikumbh Mahal, Bala Kila at Alwar.
These hill forts of Rajasthan provide an exceptional opportunity for multidisciplinary research, in particular in the field of archaeology, medieval Indian history, architecture, arts, anthropology and historical geography.
Cultural Criterion (iii): "The hill forts of Rajasthan are an exceptional testimony to the Rajput cultural tradition and the socioeconomic strata of Rajasthan" These forts are architectural manifestations of Rajput valour, bravery, feudalism and cultural traditions documented in several historic texts and paintings of the medieval and post medieval period. The hill forts mark the sites where the ritual of Jauhar (self immolation of womenfolk rather than subjugating to the enemy) took place, reflecting a cultural tradition of the Rajputs for whom pride and valor was more important than life.
Cultural Criterion (iv): "The series of 7 forts illustrate a significant period of human history."
The hill forts are definitely an outstanding example of the defensive fort typology, with unique planning and architectural features, exceptional civil engineering feat in building monumental fortifications in stone. Individually, as well as collectively these 7 forts represent an incomparable ensemble or landscape that illustrates the medieval history of the Rajasthan region in India.
Satements of authenticity and/or integrity
The 7 hill fort sites retain most of the original form, design and material.
Form and design: Due to the forced abandonment of the Fort of Chittorgarh and distraction from building activity at Kumbhalgarh Fort since the 16th century, very few additions were made to the original structure except for palace structures added in the 19th century during the Maharana Fateh Singh of Mewar. Hence, the two Forts have structures from the 16th century with no intervention and, structures rebuilt in the 19th century that can be easily distinguished due to the marked difference in the architectural style. The fort of Gagron retains its authenticity too, and recent restoration work taken up in 2007-08 by the State Archaeology Department ensures that there is no change in the authenticity of the structures inside the fort. Ranthambore and Jalor fort too, retain all original structures and materials with minimal intervention. The structures in the Hill forts of Amber and Bala Kila were continually added upon from the time of their foundation, and the earliest dateable structures are from the 16th century while few of the structures have a much later vocabulary (18th -19th century) due to transformations and rebuilding.
Material and substance: All the 7 forts retain their original construction material and no new intervention has been attempted except replacement of falling lime plaster or restoration of damaged stone in the forts of Amber, Gagron and Bala Kila. Substantial restoration works were undertaken in the Amber fort by the State Archaeology department which have been well recorded and documented at all stages.
Function: The Forts were originally defense structures that also housed the royal family. However, housing the administrative set up of the chiefdom/ kingdom partly lost its significance in the 19th century, with the British controlling most of India and further in the 20th century as India gained its Independence from the British and became a republic with the Rajput kingdoms dissolved in to the modern state of Rajasthan. Today, these forts are protected monuments under the government and, are open to tourists.
Location: All the hill forts are located in their original positions within the geographical context of Aravalli or Vindhyan range of mountains. The visual integrity of all 7 forts remains intact and their settings retain the original landscape with no development in the immediate surroundings.
Comparison with other similar properties
Historically significant hill forts were constructed in Rajput history such as the Bhatner Fort at Hanumangarh, Timangarh Fort south of Bayana, Taragarh Fort at Ajmer and Ahar Fort near Udaipur. The Achalgarh Fort at Mt. Abu has layers of history from the 11th century and the 15th century, while the Mandore Fort may have even earlier fabric, though they do not have any surviving structures and can be explored only through archaeological studies. Similar association with the committing of Jauhar by the women of the Fort as at Chittorgarh and Jaisalmer Fort was seen at the Fort at Tanot in 814 AD, and Ranthambore Fort in 1301 AD. The mature Rajput style can be seen in the fort palaces of Udaipur, Bikaner, Dungarpur, Bundi and Kota as in Jaisalmer and Mehrangarh, Jodhpur. Nahargarh and Jaigarh Forts are hill forts of the 18th century built as defense mechanism for the city of Jaipur.
The representatives of the early phase of Rajput civil architecture - Chittorgarh and Kumbhalgarh bear roots and references from surviving gates of the fortifications in Dabhoi, Gujarat, fortified by Solanki Rajputs around 1100 AD and the Palace of Raja Kirtti Singh of Gwalior (1454 - 1459). The Rana Kumbha's palace at Chittorgarh establishes the identity of the Rajput architecture as distinct from the sultanate architecture of Mandu and the Delhi tombs of Tughlaq and Sayyid Sultans from the same period. The Juna Mahal in Jaisalmer fort can be dated to the early 16th century due to parallels of the carved screens used with those at the tomb at Sarkhej near Ahmedabad from the same period and also the screens in the temples at Aihole dating to a much earlier period. The 14th century Tughlaq Devagiri Fort of Daulatabad, Maharashtra and 16th century Golconda Fort of Qutb Shahi dynasty in Andhra Pradesh are other significant examples of hill forts in India.
International Level including Listed World Heritage Sites:
- 17th century San Pedro Castle in Cuba - massive series of fortifications on a rocky promontory, built to protect the important port of Santiago - best-preserved example of Spanish-American military architecture, based on Italian and Renaissance design principles.
- Bahla Fort, Oman includes 12th - 15th century fortifications with bastions similar to the ones in Indian forts.
- Rohtas Fort, Pakistan built in 1541 by Sher Shah Suri. The main fortifications consist of the massive walls, which extend for more than 4 km; they are lined with bastions and pierced by monumental gateways. Rohtas Fort(hill fort), also called Qila Rohtas, is an exceptional example of early Muslim military architecture in Central and South Asia - site in ruined condition except few structures.
- Brimstone Hill Fortress, Saint Kitts and Nevis, is an outstanding, well-preserved example of 17th- and 18th-century military architecture in a Caribbean context.
- Three castles and fortifications at Bellinzone, Switzerland - an outstanding example of a late medieval defensive structure guarding a key strategic Alpine pass.
- Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd - United Kindom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (include hill forts)- extremely well-preserved monuments are examples of the colonization and defence works carried out throughout the reign of Edward I (1272-1307) and the military architecture of the time.
- Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains, Romania - Built in the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D. under Dacian rule, these fortresses show an unusual fusion of military and religious architectural techniques and concepts from the classical world and the late European Iron Age. The hill-fort and its evolved successor, the oppidum, were characteristic of the Late Iron Age in Europe, and the Dacian fortresses are outstanding examples of this type of defended site.
- Fortifications of Vauban - The Fortifications of Vauban consist of 12 groups of fortified buildings and sites along the western, northern and eastern borders of France. They represent the finest examples of the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), a military engineer of King Louis XIV. The serial property includes towns built from scratch by Vauban, citadels, urban bastion walls and bastion towers.
- Western Stone Forts of Ireland - Based on the evidence of archaeological excavations and of early (AD 700-900) documentary sources, Western Stone Forts can be considered to have been royal sites - i.e. the principal residences of kings or sub-kings of dynastic groups.
Some of these examples are similar to the hill forts of Rajasthan as they are defensive settlements of stone construction with clan origins but most of these as conglomerates are based in Europe and surrounding region. The hill forts of Rajasthan are an exceptional corpus of medieval military architecture in India and South Asia region of the world.