Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

Built in the early 13th century a few kilometres south of Delhi, the red sandstone tower of Qutb Minar is 72.5 m high, tapering from 2.75 m in diameter at its peak to 14.32 m at its base, and alternating angular and rounded flutings. The surrounding archaeological area contains funerary buildings, notably the magnificent Alai-Darwaza Gate, the masterpiece of Indo-Muslim art (built in 1311), and two mosques, including the Quwwatu'l-Islam, the oldest in northern India, built of materials reused from some 20 Brahman temples.

Qutb Minar et ses monuments, Delhi

Construit au début du XIIIe siècles à quelques kilomètres au sud de Delhi, le minaret de Qutb Minar est une tour de grès rouge haute de 72,5 m, d'un diamètre de 14,32 m à la base et de 2,75 m au sommet, avec des cannelures et des encorbellements de stalactites. La zone archéologique avoisinante comprend des tombeaux, le magnifique portail d'Alai-Darwaza, chef-d'œuvre de l'art indo-musulman bâti en 1311, et deux mosquées, dont celle de Quwwat-ul-Islam, la plus ancienne de l'Inde du Nord, faite de matériaux provenant d'une vingtaine de temples brahmaniques.

نصب قطب مينار ، دلهي

إنّ منارة قطب مينار التي شُيّدت في بداية القرن الثالث عشر على بُعد كيلومترات من جنوب دلهي هي برج من الحجر الرملي الأحمر يبلغ ارتفاعه 72.5 متراً وقطر قاعدته 14.32 متراً وقمته 2.75 ذو ضلوع حجرية وخرجات في الرواسب الكلسية المتحجرة. تشمل المنطقة الأثرية المجاورة أضرحة، وبوابة عاليه دروازه وهي تُحفة الفن الهندي-المسلم التي شيّدت عام 1311، ومسجدين أحدهما يُطلق عليه اسم قوات الإسلام، المسجد الأقدم في الهند الشمالية المصنوع من مواد أولية مصدرها عشرات المعابد البرهمانية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

德里的顾特卜塔及其古建筑

顾特卜塔位于德里南部几公里处,建于13世纪早期。这座红砂石尖塔高72.5米。基座直径14.32米,塔峰直径2.75米,从下往上逐渐变细,塔身棱角状和圆状的凹槽装饰穿插出现。周围的考古地区包括一些墓葬建筑:著名的有建于1311年的印度穆斯林艺术的精品阿拉伊-达尔瓦扎门;以及两座清真寺,其一是库瓦图伊斯兰清真寺。该寺是印度北部最古老的清真寺,其建筑材料取自20余座婆罗门寺庙。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Башня Кутб-Минар и окружающие ее археологические памятники, Дели

Воздвигнутая в начале XIII в. в нескольких километрах к югу от Дели башня из красного песчаника Кутб-Минар имеет высоту 72,5 м, диаметр 2,75 м в верхней части и 14,32 м у подножья, и поверхность, орнаментированную выступами попеременно угловатой и закругленной формы. Прилегающая археологическая зона содержит бывшие ранее погребенными здания, к примеру, великолепные ворота Алаи-Дарваза, шедевр индо-мусульманского искусства (построенные в 1311 г.), и две мечети, включая Кувват-уль-Ислам – самую старую в северной Индии, построенную из материалов, взятых из примерно 20 разрушенных брахминских храмов.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Qutb Minar y sus monumentos (Delhi)

Construido a principios del siglo XIII, a unos kilómetros al sur de Delhi, el minarete de Qutb Minar es una torre de arenisca roja de 72,5 metros de altura, con un diámetro de 14,32 metros en su base y de 2,75 metros en su cúspide. Su pared exterior está ornamentada, alternativamente, con acanaladuras de aristas agudas y redondeadas. La zona arqueológica en la que se encuentra posee varias tumbas, la magnífica Puerta de Alai Darwaza, obra maestra del arte indomusulmán construida en 1311, y dos mezquitas. Una de ellas, la de Quwwat Ul Islam, es la más antigua de la India septentrional y fue construida con materiales procedentes de una veintena de templos brahmánicos.

source: UNESCO/ERI

デリーのクトゥブ・ミナールとその建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Qutb Minar en monumenten, Delhi

Een paar kilometer ten zuiden van Delhi staat de rode zandstenen toren van Qutb Minar. De toren werd begin 13e eeuw bebouwd en is 72,5 meter hoog. Hij loopt taps toe van 2,75 meter doorsnede op haar hoogtepunt tot 14,32 meter aan de basis, afwisselend met hoekige en afgeronde groeven. Het omliggende archeologische gebied bevat funeraire gebouwen. Hieronder bevinden zich de prachtige Alai-Darwaza poort – een meesterwerk uit de Indo-islamitische architectuur – gebouwd in 1311 en twee moskeeën waarvan de Quwwatu'l-Islam de oudste is in noord India. De moskeeën werden gebouwd uit hergebruikte materialen van ongeveer 20 Brahmaanse tempels.

Source: unesco.nl

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Justification for Inscription

The Committee inscribed the site on the World Heritage List under criterion (iv)

Long Description

Lalkot is the first of the seven cities of Delhi, established by the Tomar Rajput ruler, Anang Pal, in 1060. The Qutb complex lies in the middle of the eastern part of Lalkot. Building of the Quwwatu'l-Islam (Might of Islam) congregational mosque was begun in 1192 by Qutbu'd-Din Aibak and completed in 1198, using the demolished remains of Hindu temples. It was enlarged by Iltutmish (1211-36) and again by Alauld-Din Khalji (1296-1316).

The Qutb Minar was also begun by Qutbu'd-Din Aibak, in around 1202 and completed by his successor, Muhammad-bin-Sam. It was damaged by lightning in 1326 and again in 1368, and was repaired by the rulers of the day, Muhammad-bin-Tughluq (1325-51) and Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-88). In 1503 Sikandar Lodi carried out some restoration and enlargement of the upper storeys. The iron pillar in the mosque compound was brought from elsewhere in India. It bears a Sanskrit inscription from the 4th century AD describing the exploits of a ruler named Chandra, believed to be the Gupta King Chandragupta II (375-413). Of the other monuments, the Tomb of Iltutmish was built in 1235 by the ruler himself and Alai Darwaja was built in 1311 by Alauld-Din Khalji, who also began the construction of the Alai Minar.

The Quwwatu'l-Islam mosque consists of a courtyard, cloisters, and a prayer hall. The high arched screen facing the prayer hall was added in the 14th century. The Qutb Minar is a column built from red and buff sandstone blocks rising to a height of 72.5 m, tapering from 2.75 m diameter at the top to 14.32 m at the base, making it the highest stone tower in India. In addition to its traditional use for calling the faithful to prayer, it also has a monumental purpose, since a later Nagari inscription calls it Alauld-Din's 'victory monument' (Vijava-stambha). In its present form it consists of five storeys, the topmost of the original four storeys having been replaced by two storeys during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Each storey is separated from the next by highly decorated balconies, with pendentives and inscribed bands. The three earlier storeys are each decorated differently, the lowest being of alternating angular and rounded flutings, the second with rounded flutings alone, and the third with angular flutings alone; the same vertical alignment continues, however, through all three storeys. The whole structure was originally surmounted by a cupola, which fell during an earthquake and was replaced by a new cupola in late Mughal style in the early 19th century. This was so incongruous that it was removed in 1848 and now stands on the lawns to the south-east of the minaret.

The Iron Pillar is 7.02 m long, 0.93 m of which is below ground. It is built up of many hundreds of small wrought-iron blooms welded together and is the largest known composite iron object from so early a period. The remarkable lack of corrosion is attributable to the combination of several factors, among them the high corrosion-resistance of wrought iron, the climatic conditions in Delhi, and the likelihood that it was frequently anointed with ghee (melted butter). The deep cavity at the top suggests that it may at one time have been crowned by a Garuda image. The ornate Tomb of Iltutmish is in the north-west corner of the mosque. It consists of a square chamber of red sandstone with the tomb itself in the centre on a raised platform. The lower part of the interior is covered with fine Islamic carvings and arabesques. There is a marble mihrab (prayer niche) in the centre of the interior west wall. The Alai Darwaza, built from red sandstone and elaborately carved, is the southern entrance to the enlarged enclosure of the Qutb complex. The Alai Minar, to the north of the enclosure, is the base of a second minaret which was to overtop the Qutb Minar. It was begun by Alau'd-Din-Khalji, but he died before it reached the first storey and work on the structure was abandoned.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC