Mountain Railways of India

Mountain Railways of India

This site includes three railways. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was the first, and is still the most outstanding, example of a hill passenger railway. Opened in 1881, its design applies bold and ingenious engineering solutions to the problem of establishing an effective rail link across a mountainous terrain of great beauty. The construction of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 46-km long metre-gauge single-track railway in Tamil Nadu State was first proposed in 1854, but due to the difficulty of the mountainous location the work only started in 1891 and was completed in 1908. This railway, scaling an elevation of 326 m to 2,203 m, represented the latest technology of the time. The Kalka Shimla Railway, a 96-km long, single track working rail link built in the mid-19th century to provide a service to the highland town of Shimla is emblematic of the technical and material efforts to disenclave mountain populations through the railway. All three railways are still fully operational.

Chemins de fer de montagne en Inde

Ce site comprend trois liaisons ferroviaires. Le premier, et jusqu’à présent le plus exceptionnel exemple de chemin de fer de montagne pour passagers, est le Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. Inauguré en 1881, sa construction a nécessité des solutions ingénieuses et audacieuses pour résoudre les problèmes liés à l’établissement d’une ligne ferroviaire à travers un terrain montagneux d’une grande beauté. La construction du Chemin de fer des montagnes Nilgiri, une ligne à voie unique d’un mètre d’écartement et de 46 km de long dans l’État du Tamil Nadu, fut d’abord proposée en 1854 ; mais face aux difficultés présentées par ce site montagneux, les travaux ne démarrèrent qu’en 1891 pour s’achever en 1908. Ce chemin de fer, qui part d’une altitude de 326 m pour atteindre 2 203 m, représentait la technologie de pointe de son époque. Enfin, le Chemin de fer de Kalka à Shimla, une ligne à voie unique longue de 96 km, fut construit au milieu du XIXe siècle pour desservir la ville de Shimla. Il illustre les prouesses techniques et matérielles réalisées pour désenclaver les populations montagnardes grâce au chemin de fer. Ces trois chemins de fer sont toujours parfaitement opérationnels.

السكك الحديد في جبال الهند دلهي

يتضمّن الموقع سكة حديد الهملايا دارجيلينغ التي أُدرجت على قائمة التراث العالمي عام 1999 وتشمل الآن سكة حديد نيلغيري وهي سكة باتجاه واحد ذات تباعد يبلغ متراً ويبلغ طولها 64 كيلومتراً في ولاية تاميل نادو. تمّ بدايةً اقتراح بناء الموقع عام 1854 ولكن نظراً للصعوبات التي سبّبها هذا الموقع الجبلي، لم تنطلق ورشة البناء إلا عام 1891وأُنجزت بحلول عام 1908. كانت السكة الحديد هذه، التي انطلقت من ارتفاع يبلغ 326 متراً لتبلغ 2203 أمتار والتي لا تزال قيد الاستعمال، تدلّ على التكنولوجيا المتطورة في عصرها آنذاك. ولعبت دوراً حاسماً في تسهيل تحرّكات الناس وتحقيق التنمية الاجتماعية الاقتصادية للمنطقة خلال فترة الاستعمار البريطاني.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Горные железные дороги Индии

Объект включает три железные дороги.

Гималайская железная дорога Дарджилинг была построена самой первой. Она и поныне является выдающимся образцом пассажирской железной дороги, проложенной в горах. Открытая в 1881 году, дорога  отличается смелыми и остроумными инженерными решениями, примененными для  обеспечения эффективного железнодорожного сообщения в чрезвычайно живописной горной местности.

Первоначально строительство горной железной дороги Нилгири -   одноколейного пути длиной в 46 км  в штате Тамил Наду -  предполагалось завершить в 1854 году. Однако в связи с трудностями строительства в горной местности работы были начаты только в 1891 году, а завершены в 1908 году. Эта железная дорога с перепадом высот от 326м до 2203м строилась в соответствие с самыми высокими требованиями железнодорожного строительства того времени.

Одноколейная железная дорога Калка-Шимла длиной в 96 км, заканчивающаяся у высокогорного города Шимла,  была построена в середине 19 века.  В ней воплотились технические и материальные усилия,  позволившие преодолеть изоляцию местных  жителей от остальной части страны.

Все три дороги все еще находятся в нормальной эксплуатации.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ferrocarriles de montaña indios

Al ferrocarril de Darjeeling, situado en el Himalaya e inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial desde 1999, se ha añadido ahora el que circula por los Montes Nilgiri en el Estado de Tamil Nadú. Se trata de un ferrocarril de cremallera que transita por una vía única de un metro de ancho y cubre un recorrido de 46 km. Esta línea ferroviaria se proyectó en 1854, pero debido a las dificultades planteadas por el trazado de la vía en una zona sumamente escarpada su construcción comenzó tan sólo en 1891 y terminó en 1908. El ferrocarril, que trepa por las laderas de la montaña salvando un desnivel de 1.877 metros (de 326 m a 2.203 m de altitud), sigue funcionando todavía y es representativo de la tecnología de vanguardia de su época. En tiempos del colonialismo británico en la India desempeñó un papel muy importante, facilitando los desplazamientos de la población y contribuyendo al desarrollo socioeconómico de la región.

source: UNESCO/ERI

インドの山岳鉄道群
麓は香り高い紅茶ダージリンの産地として名高い。標高2,200mを走るダージリン・ヒマラヤ鉄道(トイ・トレイン)は1881年に茶の運送用に建設された。世界初の、そして今なお最も傑出した山岳輸送鉄道である。勇壮な景観を誇る屈曲の多い山岳地帯を走るため、レールの接続に大胆かつ独創的な技術を開発した。1999年登録の「ダージリン・ヒマラヤ鉄道」に、ニルギリ山岳鉄道を新たに含んで拡大登録。標高326~2203mの高地を、46㎞にわたって走るニルギリ山岳鉄道は、メーター・ゲージ(軌間が1mの鉄道)の単線。着工は1891年で、山岳地域を縫う難工事のため1908年に竣工した。建造時に最新技術を用いたニルギリ山岳鉄道は、今も現役で走り続けている。その後、ダージリン・ヒマラヤ鉄道とニルギリ山岳鉄道からなる「インドの山岳鉄道群」に、カルカ・シムラ鉄道が追加された。標高656mのカルカと、標高2075mの高地であるシムラを結ぶこの鉄道は、総延長が96.6㎞。19世紀半ばに、シムラを避暑地としていた英国の高官を運ぶために建設されたもので、1903年に完成した。988の橋、917のカーブ、107のトンネルがあるこの鉄道は、山岳鉄道の先駆けとなった。

source: NFUAJ

Bergspoorwegen van India

De Darjeeling Himalayan Railway – geopend in 1881 – was de eerste (en meest opmerkelijke) bergoplopende passagiersspoorweg. Het ontwerp zat vol gedurfde en ingenieuze technische oplossingen, om een effectieve spoorverbinding te realiseren over het mooie, bergachtig gebied. De Nilgiri Mountain Railway – een 46 kilometer lange monorail in Tamil Nadu – werd in 1854 ontworpen, maar de locatie was zo bergachtig dat de bouw pas in 1891 kon beginnen en voltooid werd in 1908. De Kalka Shimla Railway – een 96 kilometer lange monorail – werd halverwege de 19e eeuw gebouwd voor de hooggelegen stad Shimla. Alle drie de spoorwegen zijn nog volledig operationeel.

Source: unesco.nl

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Mountain Railways of India (India) © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Mountain Railway of India consists of three railways: the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway located in the foothills of the Himalayas in West Bengal (Northeast India) having an area of 5.34 ha., the Nilgiri Mountain Railways located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu (South India) having an area of 4.59 ha. and the Kalka Shimla Railway located in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh (Northwest India) having an area of 79.06 ha. All three railways are still fully functional and operational.

The Mountain Railways of India are outstanding examples of hill railways. Opened between 1881 and 1908 they applied bold and ingenious engineering solutions to the problem of establishing an effective rail link across a mountainous terrain of great beauty. They are still fully operational as living examples of the engineering enterprise of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway consists of 88.48 kilometers of 2 feet (0.610 meter) gauge track that connects New Jalpaiguri with Darjeeling, passing through Ghoom at an altitude of 2258 meters. The innovative design includes six zigzag reverses and three loops with a ruling gradient of 1:31.
The construction of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 45.88 kilometer long meter-gauge single-track railway was first proposed in 1854, but due to the difficulty of the mountainous location the work only started in 1891 and was completed in 1908. This railway, scaling an elevation of 326 meters to 2,203 meters, representsed the latest technology of the time and uses unique rack and pinion traction arrangement to negotiate steep gradient.

The Kalka Shimla Railway, a 96.6 kilometer long, single track working rail link built in the mid-19th century to provide a service to the highland town of Shimla is emblematic of the technical and material efforts to disenclave mountain populations through the railway. The world's highest multi-arc gallery bridge and the world's longest tunnel (at the time of construction) of the KSR were the a testimony toof the brilliantce engineering skills applied to make thisa dream a reality.

These railways are outstanding examples of innovative transportation systems built through difficult terrain, which had great influence on the social and economic development of their respective regions.

Criterion (ii): The Mountain Railways of India are outstanding examples of the interchange of values on developments in technology, and the impact of an innovative transportation system on the social and economic development of a multicultural region, which was to serve as a model for similar developments in many parts of the world. The Mountain Railways of India exhibit an important cultural and technologicaly transfer in the colonial setting of the period of its construction, particularly with regard to the eminently political function of the terminus station, Shimla.. The railway then enabled significant and enduring human settlement, of which it has remained the main vector up to the present day.

Criterion (iv): The development of railways in the 19th century had a profound influence on social and economic developments in many parts of the world. The Mountain Railways of India are outstanding examples of a technological ensemble, representing different phases of the development in high mountain areas. The Mountain Railways of India are outstanding examples of how access has been provided to the plains and plateaus of the Indian mountains. They are emblematic of the technical and material efforts of human societies of this period to disenclave mountain populations through the railway. They are well-maintained and fully operational living lines. They are used in a spirit and for purposes that are the same as those at its their inception.

Integrity

The entire length of all three railways including the stations is included within the property boundaries. The boundaries of the property are adequate. The structural integrity has been maintained and the general infrastructure of the lines is today very close to the characteristics of the lines as they originally were. The functional integrity has been preserved though the lines have been systematically repaired and maintained. The integrity of use has been maintained and from the outset the lines have been used for large-scale and permanent transport, with all the characteristics associated with railway disenclavement of mountain areas. Traffic has been regular and continuous up to the present day, and it provides the whole range of initial services, particularly for passengers and tourists. The property is in a generally good condition with regard to infrastructure, technical operation and social use that enables it to adequately express its values. The main threats to the properties are the climatic and geological risks, which however have always formed part of the everyday operation of the three railways. All three areas might be considered areas for potential earthquakes. There is however also the risks of unauthorized encroachment close to the Kalka Shimla Railway, particularly in the buffer zone.

Authenticity

The tracks have been re-laid and retaining walls rebuilt at various points during the highly eventful history of the railways’ operation, regularly disturbed by monsoon rain, landslides and rock-falls. Various station buildings on the three railways have undergone reconstruction during the course of the century, especially those destroyed by earthquake or fire. These buildings are being restored and maintained in their latest form. Further railway related structures have been restored and maintained in their original form. Though new rolling stock and engines have been introduced, the remaining original ones have also been maintained. This includes the famous B-class steam engines of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. Original 4-wheeled carriages and bogie-type carriages are still in use. The vulnerabilities are clearly linked to the fact that these properties are functioning railways which require constant repair and the changing of parts. However care has been given to ensure that these parts retain the design and quality of the original.

Protection and management requirements

The owner of the three properties is the Railway Ministry of the Indian Government. All the laws of the Indian Union relating to railways apply to the property, in particular: the Railway Act (1989), for technical protection measures and the Public Premises Act (1971) which in particular provides the right to expel unauthorized occupants. The legal protection in place is appropriate and the Ministry of Railways is making efforts to apply the legal provisions against unauthorized occupation of land within the boundaries properties as well as the buffer zone.

The management is guaranteed by the Ministry of Railways and the relevant branch offices. There is a Property Management Plan, which deals with the management of the land, the buildings, the track, the bridges, and the tunnels for two of the three lines (i.e. Nilgiri and Kalka Shimla) however recommendations have been made to strengthen these in relation to architectural features and encroachments on the property boundaries. The resources are provided by the Indian Ministry of Railways. Train services, station facilities, platforms and passenger amenities are provided for visitors and commuters. In addition, special tourist trains are promoted. The professional personnel of the three railways, and the technical assistance departments of Indian Railways, are fully operational, and are well prepared for climatic and geological risks. Over a century of operation, they have always managed to restore the integrity of the line. They generally intervene within a short lead time, which contributes to the monitoring of the state of conservation of the property. The three railways have the technical documents necessary for the maintenance of track, infrastructure, rolling stock and stations. Indian Railways has a central research department that considers climatic and geological effects with an impact on mountain lines (RDSO). It recommends protective action, particularly to prevent landslides.

The three mountain railways have been in service continuously from theirits inception. They are in a good state of general conservation, and are maintained on a regular and permanent basis.. The traditional arrangements for track maintenance by railway personnel are considered satisfactory to ensure the present and future conservation of the line.. Both the Nilgiri and Kalka Shimla Railway Lines have Management Plans which outline the processes and practices that ensure the ongoing conservation of the lines and their conservation values. However the first of the lines to be listed i.e the Darjeeling Railway still does not have an endorsed Conservation Management Plan. In addition, the architectural management of the Kalka Shimla Railway station buildings and their annexes, to ensure respect for the property's Ooutstanding Uuniversal Vvalue, has not been sufficiently taken into account, and a medium-term project should be drawn up for this purpose. The management authorities should step up control of encroachment on land in the nominated property zone and in the buffer zone.

In regard to the Nilgiri and Kalka Shimla Railways the management plans should be substantially improved in terms of architectural conservation and condition monitoring, and by involving the territorial authorities, particularly in relation to visitor management to ensure that the Outstanding Universal Values are protected.