Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

The four edifices of the site reflect the high points of the Byzantine-Romanesque ecclesiastical culture, with its distinct style of wall painting, which developed in the Balkans between the 13th and 17th centuries. The Dečani Monastery was built in the mid-14th century for the Serbian king Stefan Dečanski and is also his mausoleum. The Patriarchate of Peć Monastery is a group of four domed churches featuring series of wall paintings. The 13th-century frescoes of the Church of Holy Apostles are painted in a unique, monumental style. Early 14th-century frescoes in the church of the Holy Virgin of Ljevisa represent the appearance of the new so-called Palaiologian Renaissance style, combining the influences of the eastern Orthodox Byzantine and the Western Romanesque traditions. The style played a decisive role in subsequent Balkan art.

Monuments médiévaux au Kosovo

Les quatre éléments du site reflètent l'apogée de la culture ecclésiastique byzantine et romane avec un style particulier de peintures murales qui s'est développé dans les Balkans entre les XIIIe et XVIIe siècles. Le Monastère Dečani a été construit à la moitié du XIVe siècle par le roi de Serbie Stefan Dečanski ainsi que son mausolée. Situé à la périphérie de Peć, le Patriarcat du Monastère de Peć se compose d'un groupe de quatre églises avec dômes et comportant des peintures murales. Les fresques du XIIIe siècle de l'Eglise des Saints-Apôtres reflètent la phase mature d'un style de peinture monumental sans équivalent. Les fresques du début du XIVe siècle de l'Eglise de la Sainte Vierge de Ljeviša marquent l'apparition d'un nouveau style, le style de la Renaissance des Paléologues de Byzance, qui combine des éléments orthodoxes orientaux et romans occidentaux. Le style a joué un rôle décisif dans le développement de l'art dans les Balkans.

أبنية كوسوفو العائدة الى القرون الوسطى

تشهد عناصر الموقع الأربعة على ذروة ثقافة الكنسية البيزنطية والرومانية بلوحاتها الجدراية ذات الطراز المميز الذي تطوّر في البلقان بين القرنين الثالث عشر والسابع عشر. وقد بني دير ديتشاني في منتصف القرن الرابع عشر على يد ملك صربيا ستيفان ديكانسكي كما هي حال ضريحه. وتتألف بطريركية دير بيتش القائمة عند تخوم مدينة بيتش من اربع كنائس مزودة بقبة ولوحات جدارية. أما الرسوم الجدارية في كنيسة الرسل والعائدة الى القرن الثالث عشر فتشهد على مرحلة ناضجة من طراز اللوحات الضخمة المنقطعة النظير، في حين تشير جداريات كنيسة السيدة العذراء في لجيفيجا العائدة الى القرن الرابع عشر الى بروز اسلوب جديد يعرف بأسلوب نهضة علماء الآثار في بيزنطة الذي يقوم على مزج العناصر الأرثذكسية الشرقية بالرومانة الغربية، وقد لعب هذا الأسلوب دوراً حاسماً في تطوّر الفن في البلقان.

source: UNESCO/ERI

科索沃中世纪古迹

该遗址的四个组成部分,体现了拜占庭和罗马教会文化鼎盛时期的情景,这种文化于13世纪至17世纪期间在巴尔干半岛发展起来,其壁画具有独特的风格。佩奇修道院主教管辖区位于佩奇市郊,它包括由四座带圆屋顶的、墙上都绘有壁画的教堂组成的一组建筑群。圣·阿皮特勒教堂13世纪的壁画反映出无与伦比的壁画风格。而圣母教堂14世纪初期的壁画则标志着一种新风格的出现,即帕莱奥洛格•德比藏斯文艺复兴时期的风格,它将东方正统观念与西方罗马画法融为一体。壁画风格在巴尔干半岛艺术发展史上曾经发挥了决定性作用。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Средневековые памятники в Косово

Монастырь Дечани у подножья гор Проклетье, в западной части провинции Косово, был построен в середине XIV в. для сербского короля Стефана Дечанского. Это также место его погребения. Монастырь представляет последний важный этап византийско-романской архитектуры в этом регионе и является крупнейшим из всех средневековых храмов на Балканах. В нем находится уникальная, хорошо сохранившаяся византийская живопись, которая покрывает практически все интерьеры церкви, с более чем 1000 изображений отдельных святых. В нем также находится множество романских скульптур. Дечанская сокровищница – богатейшая в Сербии, она включает около 60 уникальных икон ХIV-ХVII вв. Здания, дополнительно включенные в состав этого объекта в 2006 г. отражают высокий уровень византийско-романской религиозной культуры, которая развивалась на Балканах в период с ХIII по ХVII вв. с характерным для нее стилем стенных росписей. Комплекс Патриархии монастыря на окраине города Печ – это группа из четырех купольных церквей, имеющих ряд стенных росписей. Фреска ХIII в. церкви Святых Апостолов выполнена в уникальном монументальном стиле. Фреска начала ХIV в. церкви Богоматери отражает появление нового стиля – т.н. ренессанса Палеологов, соединяющего влияния восточной православной Византии и западных романских традиций. Этот стиль сыграл определяющую роль в последующем развитии искусства на Балканах.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos medievales de Kosovo

Los cuatro componentes del sitio son un testimonio del apogeo de la cultura eclesiástica bizantino-románica de la región balcánica entre los siglos XIII y XVII, que se caracterizó por sus pinturas murales de peculiar factura. El monasterio de Dečani es el mausoleo del rey de Serbia, Stefan Dečanski, que ordenó su construcción a mediados del siglo XIV. El Patriarcado del Monasterio de Peć, situado en los alrededores de la ciudad de este nombre, comprende cuatro iglesias con cúpula ornamentadas con pinturas murales. Los frescos del siglo XIII de la iglesia de los Santos Apóstoles son un ejemplo excepcional del periodo de madurez de un estilo único de pintura monumental. Los frescos de principios del siglo XIV de la iglesia de la Santa Virgen de Ljeviša son representativos del surgimiento de un nuevo estilo denominado paleólogo-bizantino, en el que se mezclan las influencias del arte ortodoxo oriental y las tradiciones del arte románico occidental. Este estilo ejerció una influencia decisiva en el arte balcánico de épocas posteriores.

source: UNESCO/ERI

コソヴォの中世建造物群         

source: NFUAJ

Middeleeuwse monumenten in Kosovo

De vier bouwwerken in Kosovo weerspiegelen de hoogtepunten van de Byzantijns-romaanse kerkelijke cultuur. Het Dečani klooster werd gebouwd halverwege de 14e eeuw voor de Servische koning Stefan Dečanski en is ook zijn mausoleum. Het Patriarchaat van Pec klooster is een groep van vier koepelkerken met een serie muurschilderingen. De kerk van de Heilige Apostelen heeft 13e-eeuwse fresco's in een unieke, monumentale stijl. In de kerk van de Heilige Maagd van Ljevisa tonen de fresco's uit het begin van de 14e eeuw de nieuwe Paleologische renaissancestijl, een combinatie van oosters-orthodoxe Byzantijnse en westelijke Romaanse tradities. Deze stijl heeft een beslissende rol gespeeld in de daaropvolgende Balkan kunst.

Source: unesco.nl

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The Dečani Monastery © UNESCO
Historical Description

Dečani

The Dečani monastic church is the endowment and mausoleum of Serbian King Stefan Dečanski. The original founding charter from 1330 has been preserved. The construction lasted 8 years (1327-1335), and the master builder was Fra Vita, a Franciscan from Kotor. Stefan Dečanski died before the construction was completed, and was buried here. Supervision of the construction works was continued by his son Dušan. The church interior was decorated at the same time, including the icons for the main iconostasis and the church furniture. The wooden throne of Hegoumenos was made around 1335, and the carved wooden sarcophagus of King Stefan Dečanski around 1340.

The writer Grigorije Camblak, author of The Life of Stefan Dečanski, was the head (hegoumenos) of the Monastery at the beginning of the 15th century. Great artistic enthusiasm was brought to life in the monastery during the second half of the 16th century. This is when the painter monk Longin spent here two decades. He created some fifteen icons with depictions of the Great Feast and hermits, but his masterpiece is the icon of Stefan Dečanski with scenes from the life of this sainted king.

At the close of the 17th century, the Turks plundered the monastery, but made no serious damage. During the 19th century, the monastery was restored, and new iconostases were placed on the parekklesions (side chapels) of St. Demetrius and St. Nicholas. At present, the property is used for liturgical purposes, as an Orthodox monastery with all the corresponding functions, and as a cultural and historical monument.

Serbian Medieval Monuments

The flowering of ecclesiastical culture in the area during the 13th century, was fostered by King Milutin (1282- 1321) who as King of Serbia made Serbia the dominant power in the Balkans. Milutin was the most generous monastic benefactor of the dynasty, building as many as forty churches not only in Serbia but also in Jerusalem, Constantinople, Rome, Salonika, Macedonia, and on Mount Athos.

Slightly earlier, the first Nevanjič King Stefan (1166 - 1196), had founded Studenica Monastery, which became the necropolis of the dynasty. (It was inscribed in 1986 on the World Heritage List). And in 1219, the patriarch of Nicea had allowed the establishment of an independent Serbian archbishopric. State and Church joined together to develop a strong identity for Serbia - the first archbishop was from the ruling family. In 1346 an independent Serbian Patriarchate was established by King Dusan, with Peč becoming its centre.

Under Dusan's successor, Serbia became split into several states none of whom could offer resistance to the Turks. In 1389 at the Battle of Kosovo the Serbs lost a critical battle against the Turks, and many Serbs and the centre of their power moved north. In 1459 the capture of the Serbian capital by the Turks bought to an end the medieval Serbian State.

In 1557 with the permission of the Turks, the Patriarchate of Peć was restored. It then once again played a dominant role as a spiritual centre together with the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Monasteries of Mount Athos.

Some time before 1756, after Turkish re-conquest, the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša was turned into a mosque and substantial readjustments were made.

The Patriarchate was again abolished in 1766 when it became part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, and in 1912 was annexed to the Cetinje metropolity. After the liberation of Prizren from the Turks, the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša once again became a Christian place of workshop.

In 1918 the Serbian church was restored with the foundation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians. In spite of heavy conflict in the Balkan region in the past decades, Peć and Gračanica churches have kept alive their monastic function and remain spiritual centres. Gračanica and Peć Patriarchate monasteries were not damaged during the war in Kosovo, largely because of respect of local communities of all ethnic origins.

The function of the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša was disrupted after violence in March 2004. When sufficient safety is ensured, it is intended that the church will once again function as a place of worship.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation