Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora

Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora

This pilgrimage church, built in honour of St John of Nepomuk, stands at Zelená Hora, not far from Ždár nad Sázavou in Moravia. Constructed at the beginning of the 18th century on a star-shaped plan, it is the most unusual work by the great architect Jan Blazej Santini, whose highly original style falls between neo-Gothic and Baroque.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Église Saint-Jean-Népomucène, lieu de pèlerinage à Zelená Hora

À Zelená Hora, non loin de Ždár nad Sázavou en Moravie, s’élève l’église de pèlerinage construite à la gloire de saint Jean Népomucène. Édifiée au début du XVIIIe siècle sur un plan en étoile, c’est l’œuvre la plus originale du grand architecte Jan Blazej Santini dont le style extrêmement personnel se situe entre le néo-gothique et le baroque.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

كنيسة القديس يان نيبوموتسكي، قبلة الحجاج في زيلينا هورا

في زيلينا هورا وعلى مسافة ليست بعيدة عن الجبل الأخضر (جديار ناد سازافو) في مورافيا، ترتفع كنيسة حج شيدت تمجيداً للقديس يان نيبوموتسكي في القرن الثامن عشر. وتشكل هذه الكنيسة التي بنيت وفقاً لمخطط بشكل نجمة التحفة الأكثر غرابة للمهندس المعماري الشهير جيوفانني بلاسي سانتيني الذي يتأرجح أسلوبه البالغ الخصوصية بين القوطي الجديد والباروك.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

泽莱纳山的内波穆克圣约翰朝圣教堂

在泽列纳霍拉(Zelena Hora),离摩拉维亚的萨扎瓦河畔日贾尔不远,坐落着这座为纪念内波穆克圣约翰(St John of Nepomuk)而修建的朝圣教堂。教堂建于18世纪初,为星型式样,是伟大的建筑师扬·布拉泽伊·圣蒂尼(Jan Blazej Santini)大师的举世之作,设计风格承前启后,衔接了新哥特式与巴洛克式两种风格。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Паломническая церковь Св. Яна Непомуцкого на Зеленой Горе (город Ждяр-над-Сазавоу)

Эта паломническая церковь, построенная в честь Св. Яна Непомуцкого, расположена на Зеленой Горе неподалеку от города Ждяр-над-Сазавоу в Моравии. Сооруженная в начале XVIII в. с планом в форме звезды, она является самой необыкновенной работой великого архитектора Джованни Сантини, чей весьма оригинальный стиль сочетает черты неоготики и барокко.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Iglesia de San Juan Nepomuceno, lugar de peregrinación en Zelená Hora

En la localidad morava de Zelená Hora, no lejos de Ždár nad Sázavou, se yergue esta iglesia de peregrinaje construida en honor de San Juan Nepomuceno. Edificado a principios del siglo XVIII con una planta en estrella de cinco puntas, este templo es la obra más original del gran arquitecto Jan Blazej Santini, cuyo estilo sumamente personal oscila entre el neogótico y el barroco.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ゼレナー・ホラのネポムークの聖ヨハネ巡礼教会
ゼレナー・ホラはプラハ南東のボヘミアモラビア高地に位置する。1393年に殉教したプラハ大司教代理の聖ヤン・ネポムクゆかりのベネディクト会カトリック教会で、建築家サンティニにより、18世紀初めに建設された。聖ヤンが没した年齢53歳にちなんで、教会の中央の礼拝堂は五角形の星形ドームに三角形の窓をもつ。

source: NFUAJ

Bedevaartskerk van Sint Jan van Nepomuk in Zelená Hora

De kerk in Zelená Hora werd aan het begin van de 18e eeuw gebouwd ter ere van de heilige Jan van Nepomuk. Hij staat op een stervormige plattegrond en is het meest ongewone werk van de architect Johann Blasius Santini, wiens zeer originele stijl ligt tussen neogotisch en barok. De ingang en de raamopeningen van de kerk hebben spitse gewelven en eenvoudige omlijstingen. Het interieur wordt in tweeën verdeeld door een opvallende galerij aan de basis van het gewelf. De centrale ruimte loopt uit in vijf nissen. De kerk heeft veel van zijn originele meubels behouden, waaronder het hoofdaltaar.

Source: unesco.nl

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Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Pilgrimage Church of St. John of Nepomuk at Zelená hora is situated at Žďár nad Sázavou in western Moravia, in the Vysočina Region, Czech Republic. The church, which was built between 1719 and 1727, is dedicated to the cult of St. John of Nepomuk, a 14th century martyr canonised in the 18th century.

The property consists of a central-plan church surrounded by a circular cloister. It is one of the most original works by the prominent architect of the Baroque period, Jan Blažej Santini Aichel. The ensemble is an outstanding example of architecture of transition between the Gothic and the Baroque styles. The composition of the property is based on the aesthetic concept of a perfect central complex with an explicit central vertical dominant. The centrality of the design is accentuated by the ground plan, which is based on the parallel to two equivalent radials. The number 5, that is a reference to the five stars of the halo of St. John of Nepomuk representing the five virtues of the saint, is dominant in the layout and proportions. The star-shaped ground plan of the church, with five points, is defined by two groups of five radial axes upon which the basic elements of the ground plan and of the composition of the mass are organized. Ten radials, which intersect in the centre of the church itself, determine the arrangement of chapels and gates of the cloister that surrounds the pilgrims' field situated outside around the church that is situated in its centre. The chapels and the church portals are spanned by ribbed vaults with stucco decorations, inspired by late Gothic style. The influence of this period is also demonstrated by the presence of buttresses on the exterior walls and the pointed form of the windows and portals.

The main impression given by the interior is its loftiness and the upward orientation of the space. This space is divided into two by the conspicuous gallery at the base of the vaulting. The central space opens into five niches; of these, four are partitioned horizontally and the fifth, on the east, is filled by the main altar. The church retains many of its original furnishings, which include the main altar, designed by Santini and representing the celebration of St John of Nepomuk in heaven and the four side altars, also designed by Santini and depicting the four Evangelists.

Criterion (iv): The Church of St. John Nepomuk is an outstanding example of an architectural style that spanned the transition between the Gothic and Baroque traditions.

Integrity

All the key elements conveying the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are situated within its boundaries, i.e. the Baroque church, the surrounding pilgrims' field with the church in its centre and the cloister enclosing the ensemble. Since its completion, the basic structure of the church and cloister remained unchanged. The definition of the boundaries of the property and its area are appropriate. None of the attributes of the property is threatened and neither is its visibility in the picturesque landscape of its surroundings. The buffer zone is identical to the protective zone of the former Cistercian monastery and the area of pilgrims' church, which was designated in 1993 by the local authorities, and no changes to the land use plan are expected in the buffer zone

Authenticity

The Church of St. John of Nepomuk, a pilgrimage site at Zelená Hora, meets the requirements of authenticity. Its architecture as a whole and in detail corresponds to the original design. The church was not changed significantly following the fire in 1784 that destroyed a part of the roof and of the facade, components that were rebuilt in 1792 and 1793, and between 1794 and 1802 respectively. Following the inscription of the property, maintenance and repair works have been done both in the interior and exterior of the property; it was carried out in accordance with strict international standards for heritage conservation and with the systematic use of historical materials and techniques. The property has retained its function as a place of worship. The cemetery located inside the cloister is still present. Some graves were moved. A complete restoration of the church is currently underway.

Protection and management requirements

The church is protected under Act No. 20/1987 Coll. on State Heritage Preservation as amended and it is designated a national cultural heritage site; it thus enjoys the highest degree of legal protection as regards heritage preservation. The buffer zone is identical to the protective zone of the former Cistercian monastery and the area of pilgrims' church, which has been defined to protect them in 1993.

The property has been managed by the National Heritage Institute, a state-funded institution which is responsible for the maintenance, protection and promotion of the property. The site has a Management Plan, which is scheduled for regular updates. The work on the property is funded by financial resources allocated from the budget of the institution and by special-purpose financial instruments, such as grant schemes and funding through the programme of the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic allocated to the maintenance and conservation of the immovable cultural heritage, as well as financial resources allocated from other public budgets. The church furniture is the property of the Roman Catholic parish of Žďár nad Sázavou which provides for its maintenance and protection.

In 2013, the Government of the Czech Republic passed a bill on restitution of church property, on the basis of which discussions are held at present whether the Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora will be returned to the Roman Catholic Church. After this issue is settled, it will be necessary to update the Management Plan with regard to the capabilities and intentions of the new owner. Currently, the issue remains open. (In this context it should be noted that even if the compound of the Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora is returned to the Roman Catholic Church, it will not cease to be a property enjoying the highest degree of protection under Czech law.)

Since 2000, annual monitoring reports have been prepared at the national level, to serve the World Heritage property manager, the Ministry of Culture, the National Heritage Institute and other agencies involved.