Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity

Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity

Over the centuries, the town of Banská Štiavnica was visited by many outstanding engineers and scientists who contributed to its fame. The old medieval mining centre grew into a town with Renaissance palaces, 16th-century churches, elegant squares and castles. The urban centre blends into the surrounding landscape, which contains vital relics of the mining and metallurgical activities of the past.

Ville historique de Banská Štiavnica et les monuments techniques des environs

Au cours des siècles, la ville a reçu la visite de nombreux ingénieurs et scientifiques qui ont contribué à sa renommée. L’ancien centre minier médiéval s’est transformé en ville dotée de palais Renaissance, d’églises du XVIe siècle, de places élégantes et de châteaux. Le centre urbain se fond dans le paysage environnant qui comporte des vestiges très importants des activités minières et métallurgiques du passé.

مدينة بانسكا ستيافنيكا التاريخية والنصب التقنية المجاورة

زار هذه المدينة على مر العصور عدد من المهندسين والعلماء الذين ساهموا في خلق سمعتها. وقد تحول المركز المنجمي القديم العائد الى القرون الوسطى الى مدينة مزودة بقصر بُني حسب طراز عصر النهضة وبكنائس من القرن السادس عشر وساحات أنيقة وقصور. ويندمج المركز المدني في الطبيعة المحيطة بما يتضمنه من آثار لنشاطات منجمية وعدانية اتسمت في الماضي بأهمية بالغة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

历史名城班斯卡-什佳夫尼察及其工程建筑区

几个世纪以来,许多著名的工程师和科学家到访此地,让这个城镇名气大增。这个古老的中世纪采矿中心,逐渐演变成为一个城镇,有文艺复兴时期的宫殿、16世纪的教堂、 精致的广场和城堡。城镇的中心和周围的环境融为一体,还保留着过去采矿和冶金活动的重要遗迹。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Город Банска-Штъявница

На протяжении столетий город Банска-Штъявница посещали многие выдающимиеся инженеры и ученые, которые приумножали его славу. Средневековый горняцкий центр превратился в город с особняками в стиле Возрождения, церквями XVI в., изящными площадями и замками. Городской центр гармонично вписан в окружающий ландшафт, в котором сохранились свидетельства прошлой горнометаллургической деятельности.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad histórica de Banská Štiavnica y monumentos técnicos de sus alrededores

En el transcurso de los siglos, acudieron a esta ciudad numerosos ingenieros y científicos que contribuyeron a darle fama. El antiguo centro minero medieval se transformó en una ciudad con palacios renacentistas, iglesias del siglo XVI, elegantes plazas y mansiones señoriales. El centro urbano se integra perfectamente en el paisaje circundante, donde se hallan vestigios importantes de las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas de antaño.

source: UNESCO/ERI

バンスカー・シュティアヴニツァ歴史都市と近隣の工業建築物群

source: NFUAJ

Historische stad Banská Štiavnica en nabijgelegen technische monumenten

In de loop der eeuwen werd de stad Banská Štiavnica bezocht door vele buitengewone ingenieurs en wetenschappers, zij hebben bijgedragen aan de bekendheid van deze historische stad. Het oude middeleeuwse mijnbouwgebied groeide uit tot een stad met paleizen uit de Renaissance, 16e-eeuwse kerken, sierlijke pleinen en kastelen. Het stadscentrum gaat over in het omringende landschap, dat essentiële overblijfselen bevat van de mijnbouw en metaalindustrie uit het verleden. Banská Štiavnica en de technische monumenten vormen een unieke symbiose van technische landschap en stedelijke omgeving, het gevolg van de minerale rijkdommen van het gebied en de daaruit voortvloeiende welvaart.

Source: unesco.nl

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Banská Štiavnica © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection
Long Description

The town of Banská Štiavnica and the technical monuments in its vicinity represent a unique symbiosis of the technical landscape and the urban environment resulting from its mineral wealth and the consequent prosperity that this engendered.

Banská Štiavnica is the oldest mining town in Slovakia; its town seal of 1275 is the earliest known bearing a mining emblem. It lies on the steep slopes of the Glanzenberg and Paradajz mountains. The ore deposits were probably already being exploited in the late Bronze Age, and again in the Iron Age. They were certainly being worked in the Great Moravian period (9th century AD), and this activity continued in the Middle Ages: a document of 1156 refers to it as the 'land of miners' (terra banensium ), when miners from the Tirol settled in the area. Banská Štiavnica was granted town and mining privileges by Adalbert IV in the first half of the 13th century. The 15th century saw the beginning of a time of immense prosperity for the area: defences were built round the town, the parish church was rebuilt and fortified, and many new residences were built. These were originally detached structures, but in the 16th century they were either converted into Renaissance 'palaces' or combined to form rows or terraces. Trinity Square, at the heart of the town, was a planned development of this period. However, a slow decline began at the end of the 15th century because of problems of water in the mines and a slump in precious-metal prices, exacerbated by political strife. Nonetheless, technological progress continued, and in 1627 Banská Štiavnica saw the first use of gunpowder in mining, an important breakthrough. Paradoxically, this contributed to the economic decline by rapidly exhausting the surface ore deposits. However, much important work in the field of the application of water power in deep mining and ancillary processes was carried out, particularly in the 18th century: this included the invention of a dam-and-weir system for ore dressing that quickly became used throughout the world. During this period, which saw an upturn in mining profitability and Banská Štiavnica becoming the most important centre for precious-metal mining in the Habsburg Empire, many leading engineers and metallurgists from all over Europe were working in the town. Banská Štiavnica was also a European centre of mining education from the late 16th century; the Mining Academy founded in 1762-64 was the principal one in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the cessation of mining operations at the end of the 19th century, the town retained this pre-eminence in education until the Academy was transferred to Sopron (and later Miskolc) in Hungary after the First World War.

The historic centre of the town is a compact unit that has developed in an organic manner. Among the major monuments, dating from the High Gothic to Baroque and later periods, are the Renaissance Old and New Castles, built to resist the Turkish invaders, Town Hall (16th-18th centuries), churches of St Catherine (late Gothic), the Blessed Virgin Mary (neoclassical), and Blackfriars, dome of the Evangelical Church, buildings of the Mining Academy (1892-1912), and the Baroque Calvary complex on Scharfenberg hill. The town is rich in burgher houses, the earliest dating back to the 15th century.

The whole surrounding area contains important remains of early mining and metallurgical operations. There are no fewer than 30 reservoirs, the oldest of which, Velkà Vodarenska, was built before 1510. There is an elaborate series of dams, the longest 774.7 m long and collecting channels.

Remains of mining operations include the Voznickà drainage gallery, at 1.65 km the longest in the world when it was completed in 1878. The Bieber drainage gallery, begun in the 14th century, is the oldest known, and the earliest references to the Weiden and Terezia shafts date from 1519 and 1571 respectively. There are also several large opencast ore pits. The shaft building and machine room of the Mayer shaft (begun in 1805) still survive. The silver-lead smelting plant, originating in the first half of the 17th century and modernized in 1872, is still extant, as is one of the buildings of the first factory in the world for producing machine-made wire cable. The mining museum contains many items of equipment from the area.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Banska Stiavnica is the oldest mining town in Slovakia; its town seal of 1275 is the earliest known bearing a mining emblem. It lies on the steep slopes of the Glanzenberg and Paradajz mountains.

The ore deposits were probably being exploited as early as the Late Bronze Age (10th-8th centuries BC), and again in the Iron Age (3rd-2nd centuries BC). They were certainly being worked in the Great Moravian Period (9th century AD), and this activity continued in the Middle Ages: a document of 1156 refers to it as the "land of miners" (terra banensium), when miners from the Tirol settled in the area. Banska Stiavnica was granted town and mining privileges by Adalbert IV in the first half of the 13th century.

The 15th century saw the beginning of a period of immense prosperity for the area: defences were built round the town, the parish church was rebuilt and fortified, and many new residences were built. These were originally detached structures, but in the 16th century they were either converted into Renaissance "palaces" or combined to form rows or terraces. Trinity Square, at the heart of the town, was a planned development of this period.

However, a slow decline began at the end of the 15th century because of problems of water in the mines and a slump in precious metal prices, exacerbated by political strife. Nonetheless, technological progress continued, and in 1627 Banskd Stiavnica saw the first use of gunpowder in mining, an important breakthrough. Paradoxically, this contributed to the economic decline by rapidly exhausting the surface ore deposits. However, much important work in the field of the application of water power in deep mining and ancillary processes was carried out, particularly in the 18th century. l this included the invention of a dam-and-weir system for ore dressing that quickly became used throughout the world. During this period, which saw an upturn in mining profitability and Banskd Stiavnica becoming the most important centre for precious metal mining in the Habsburg Empire, many leading engineers and metallurgists from all over Europe were working in the town. Banskd Stiavnica was also a European centre of mining education from the late 16th century; the Mining Academy founded in 1762-64 was the principal one in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the cessation of mining operations at the end of the 19th century, the town retained this pre-eminence in education until the Academy was transferred to Sopron (and later Miskolc) in Hungary after World War I.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation