Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos

Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos

Many civilizations have inhabited this small Aegean island, near Asia Minor, since the 3rd millennium B.C. The remains of Pythagoreion, an ancient fortified port with Greek and Roman monuments and a spectacular tunnel-aqueduct, as well as the Heraion, temple of the Samian Hera, can still be seen.

Pythagoreion et Heraion de Samos

Dans cette petite île de la mer Égée proche de l'Asie Mineure, plusieurs civilisations se sont succédé depuis le IIIe millénaire avant l'ère chrétienne. Il y subsiste notamment les vestiges de Pythagoreion, ancienne ville portuaire fortifiée avec ses monuments grecs et romains et son spectaculaire aqueduc en tunnel, et l'Heraion, sanctuaire d'Hera samienne.

بيتاغوريون وهيرايون دي ساموس

تعاقبت حضارات كثيرة منذ الألف الثالث قبل الحقبة المسيحية في هذه الجزيرة الصغيرة من بحر إيجة، وبقيت بصورة خاصة آثار بيتاغوريون المدينة المرفئية القديمة المحصّنة بنصبها اليونانية والرومانية، وقناة النفق الرائعة ، وهيرايون معبد الإلهة هيرا من ساموس.

source: UNESCO/ERI

萨莫斯岛的毕达哥利翁及赫拉神殿

公元前3000年,这个靠近小亚细亚的爱琴海小岛上就有了文明。毕达哥利翁是一个古老的要塞,有着希腊和罗马建筑以及壮观的隧道和高架渠。赫拉神殿则是萨摩斯人赫拉的神庙。它们的遗址至今可见。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Пифагорея и храм Геры на острове Самос

Многие цивилизации обживали этот маленький остров в Эгейском море вблизи побережья Малой Азии начиная с 3-го тысячелетия до н.э. Здесь находятся руины Пифагореи – древнего укрепленного порта с древнегреческими и древнеримскими памятниками и поразительный туннель-акведук, а также храм Геры – Герайон.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Pitagoreion y Hereo de Samos

Esta pequeña isla del Egeo, próxima al Asia Menor, fue el lugar de asentamiento sucesivo de varias civilizaciones desde tres milenios antes de nuestra era. Todavía se pueden contemplar en ella vestigios de los monumentos griegos y romanos del antiguo puerto fortificado de Pitagoreion, un espectacular túnel-acueducto y el Hereo, santuario dedicado a Hera Samia.

source: UNESCO/ERI

サモス島のピュタゴリオンとヘラ神殿

source: NFUAJ

Pythagorion en Heraion van Samos

Vele beschavingen hebben dit kleine Egeïsche eiland in de buurt van Klein-Azië, bewoond sinds het derde millennium voor Christus. De overblijfselen van de oude stad Pythagorion – een oude versterkte haven met Griekse en Romeinse monumenten en een spectaculair tunnelaquaduct – en het Heraion, tempel van Hera van Samos, zijn nog steeds te bewonderen. Pythagorion is een klassieke plaats uit de periode van de Griekse kolonisatie. Het ligt rond een natuurlijke haven op een schiereiland dat beschermd wordt door steile bergen. De vroegste vondsten dateren uit het 4e of 3e millennium voor Christus, maar de belangrijkste nederzetting begon in de 16e eeuw voor Christus.

Source: unesco.nl

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Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos
Long Description

Samos was the leading maritime and mercantile power in the Greek world in the 6th century BC, and this importance is reflected in the extent and richness of the archaeological remains, which are largely untouched by subsequent developmentThe site is an area on the north-east coast of the island that is clearly defined by the surrounding mountains. It consists of the ancient city (Pythagoreion) and the classical Temple of Hera (Heraion). Pythagoreion is a classic site from the period of Greek colonization, situated round a good natural harbour on a peninsula that is protected by steep mountains behind it. It also had the advantage of being very close to the mainland of Asia Minor. The earliest finds are pre-classical; dating back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, but the main settlement began in the 16th century BC, when it was colonized by Minoans from Crete, later to be supplanted by Mycenaeans.

The ancestors of the classical Samians arrived from the Epidauros region in the 11th century BC, following the turmoil of the Trojan War. By the 6th century BC, Samos had become a major nautical power in the eastern Mediterranean, with close trade links with Asia Minor and the Greek mainland. It was strong enough to establish trading colonies on the coast of Ionia, in Thrace, and even in the western Mediterranean. Samian political influence waned after the island was conquered by the Persians at the end of the 6th century BC, but it continued to be an important mercantile city throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The city was sacked by Germanic peoples in the 3rd century AD and never properly recovered thereafter. Samos alternated between Byzantine, Turkish, and Venetian rule for many centuries, not being fully united with Greece until 1910.

The fortifications round the ancient town date back to the classical period, with Hellenistic additions. Excavations over many years have revealed a great deal of the street plan of the ancient city, together with its aqueduct, sewage system, public buildings, sanctuaries and temples, agora, public baths (Roman), stadium and town houses (Roman and Hellenistic). One of the most famous features is the Eupalineio, a tunnel running for 1,040 m through the mountainside to bring water to the city, the work of Eupalinos of Megara in the 6th century BC.

The great Temple of Hera (Heraion) had its origins in the 8th century BC, when it was the first Greek temple to be surrounded by a peristyle of columns; its 7th-century successor was also innovatory in that it was the first temple to have a double row of columns across the front. These were both surpassed by the temple begun around 570 BC by Rhoecus and Theodorus, who built a colossal structure measuring some 45 m by 80 m, the earliest in the new Ionic order. It was supported by at least 100 columns, whose moulded bases were turned on a lathe designed by Theodorus. Thirty years later this temple was destroyed in a Persian raid and a replacement was planned on an even vaster scale, but it was never to be completed. The complex around the Heraion includes altars, smaller temples, stoas, and statue bases, all located inside the sanctuary, along with the remains of a 5th-century Christian basilica. The temple is fundamental to an understanding of classical architecture. The stylistic and structural innovations in each of its successive phases strongly influenced the design of temples and public buildings throughout the Greek world. The technological mastery of the Eupalineio similarly served as a model for engineering and public works.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The nomination is for an area on the NE coast of the island that is clearly defined by the surrounding mountains. It consists of the ancient city (Pythagoreion) and the classical temple of Hera (Heraion).

Pythagoreion is a classic site from the period of Greek colonization, situated round a good natural harbour on a peninsula that is protected by steep mountains behind it. It also had the advantage of being very close to the mainland of Asia Minor. The earliest finds are pre-classical, dating back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, but the main settlement began in the 16th century BC, when it was colonized by Minoans from Crete, later to be supplanted by Mycenaeans.

The ancestors of the classical Samians arrived from the Epidauros region in the 11th century BC, following the turmoil of the Trojan War. By the 6th century BC Samos had become a major nautical power in the eastern Mediterranean, with close trade links with Asia Minor and the Greek mainland. It was strong enough to establish trading colonies on the coast of Ionia, in Thrace, and even in the western Mediterranean. Samian political influence waned after the island was conquered by the Persians at the end of the 6th century BC, but it continued to be an important mercantile city throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The city was sacked by Germanie peoples in the 3rd century AD and never properly recovered thereafter. Samos alternated between Byzantine, Turkish, and Venetian rule for many centuries, not being fully united with Greece until 1910.

The fortifications round the ancient town date back to the classical period, with Hellenistic additions. Excavations over many years have revealed a great deal of the street plan of the ancient city, together with its aqueduct, sewage system, public buildings, sanctuaries and temples, agora (market place), public baths (Roman), stadium, and town houses (Roman and Hellenistic). One of the most dramatic and famous features is the Eupalineio, a tunnel running for 1040 m through the mountainside to bring water to the city, the work of Eupalinos of Megara in the 6th century BC. It is described by one authority as "a miracle of ancient surveying [which] was begun at both ends running level, and the miners met in the middle with only the smallest of errors."

The great Temple of Hera, or Heraion, had its origins in the 8th century BC, when it was the first Greek temple to be surrounded by a peristyle of columns; its 7th century successor was also innovatory in that it was the first temple to have a double row of columns across the front. But these were surpassed by the temple begun around 570 BC by Rhoecus and Theodorus, who built a colossal structure measuring sorne 45 m by 80 m. the earliest in the new Ionic order. It was supported by at least 100 columns, whose moulded bases were turned on a lathe designed by Theodorus. Thirty years later this temple was destroyed in a Persian raid and a replacement was planned on an even vaster scale, but it was never to be completed. The complex around the Heraion includes altars, smaller temples, stoas, and statue bases, all located inside the sanctuary, along with the remains of a 5th century Christian basilica.

 

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation