Brasilia

Brasilia

Brasilia, a capital created ex nihilo in the centre of the country in 1956, was a landmark in the history of town planning. Urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer intended that every element – from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves – should be in harmony with the city’s overall design. The official buildings, in particular, are innovative and imaginative.

Brasilia

Brasília, capitale créée ex nihilo au centre du pays en 1956-1960, a été un événement majeur dans l’histoire de l’urbanisme. L’urbaniste Lucio Costa et l’architecte Oscar Niemeyer ont voulu que tout, depuis le plan général des quartiers administratifs et résidentiels – souvent comparé à la forme d’un oiseau – jusqu’à la symétrie des bâtiments eux-mêmes, reflète la conception harmonieuse de la ville dont les bâtiments officiels frappent par leur aspect novateur.

برازيليا

تشكّلت مدينة برازيليا، العاصمة المؤسسة من العدم في وسط البلاد بين الأعوام 1956-1960، حدثاً مفصلياً في تاريخ التمدن البرازيلي. وحرص كلّ من المهندس المديني لوسيو كوستا والمهندس المعماري أوسكار نايميير على أن يكون كلّ شيء في تلك المدينة، بدءاً بالتصميم العام للأحياء الإدارية والسكنية-الذي غالباً ما يتم تشبيهه بشكل الطائر- وصولاً إلى تماثل الأبنية نفسها، مرآةً للتصميم المتناغم للمدينة التي تلفت الأنظار من خلال المظهر المبتكر لأبنيتها الرسمية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

巴西利亚

始建于1956年的巴西利亚位于巴西的中心,是城市规划史上的里程碑。城市规划师卢西奥·科斯塔(Lucio Costa)和建筑师奥斯卡·尼迈尔(Oscar Niemeyer)认为城市中的一切元素都应该与城市的整体设计相吻合,巴西利亚城的城市布局常常被形容为“飞翔的鸟”,因为城市的行政管理区域和居民住宅区域布局对称,同时城中的每个建筑物也都是对称的,特别是政府办公楼,体现了极强的创新精神和丰富的想象力。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Город Бразилиа

Бразилиа, столица, основанная на ранее пустовавшем месте в самом центре страны в 1956 г., стала значимым объектом в истории градостроительства. Специалист по городскому планированию Люсиу Коста и архитектор Оскар Нимейер считали, что каждый элемент, начиная от планировки жилых и административных районов, и заканчивая симметричным решением самих зданий, должен находиться в гармонии с общим проектным замыслом города (своей планировкой город напоминает летящую птицу). Впечатляет новаторская архитектура официальных построек столицы.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Brasilia

Construida ex nihilo en el centro del paí­s entre 1956 y 1960, Brasilia es un hito de gran importancia en la historia del urbanismo. El propósito de sus creadores, el urbanista Lucio Costa y el arquitecto Oscar Niemeyer, fue que todo reflejara una concepto armonioso de la ciudad, desde el trazado de los barrios administrativos y residenciales –comparado a menudo con la silueta de un pí¡jaro– hasta la simetrí­a de las construcciones. Los edificios públicos asombran por su aspecto audaz e innovador.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ブラジリア

source: NFUAJ

Brasilia

Brasilia is een hoofdstad die in 1956 uit het niets werd opgebouwd in het midden van het land. Het was een mijlpaal in de geschiedenis van de stedenbouw: op de stad zijn de 20e-eeuwse principes van stedenbouwkunde – van Le Corbusier – toegepast, wat zelden gedaan is op hoofdstedelijke schaal. Volgens stedenbouwkundige Lucio Costa en architect Oscar Niemeyer moest elk element in harmonie zijn met het algemene stadsontwerp; van het ontwerp van de woon- en werkgebieden (in de vorm van een vogel in vlucht) tot de symmetrie van de gebouwen zelf. Met name de regeringsgebouwen zijn innovatief en spreken tot de verbeelding.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

Brasilia, a capital created ex nihilo in the centre of the country in 1956, was a landmark in the history of town planning. The 20th-century principles of urbanism, as expressed by Le Corbusier, have rarely been applied on the scale of capital cities. Only two noteworthy exceptions exist: Chandigarh and Brasilia. Its creators intended that every element, from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves, should be in harmony with the city's overall design. The official buildings, in particular, are innovative and imaginative.

The idea of building a capital in the interior of Brazil is an old one, having been proposed on various occasions since the end of the 17th century. When elected president of the Republic of Brazil in 1955, Juscelino Kubitschek made the creation of the capital city a symbol of his policy to upgrade the image of the entire country, to expand industry, and to undertake major construction projects. In 1956 he appointed a commission to determine an exact location for the city and set up an executive body to carry out the construction work. In the same year, Oscar Niemeyer was made Director of the Department of Architecture and Urban Affairs, and Lucio Costa won the competition held for the plan of Brasilia. This choice brought back together the members of a team that had already proved its worth, Le Corbusier having previously been consulted for this project.

The definition of an urban ideal based on the separation of functions, the incorporation of vast natural spaces, and a street plan whose wide traffic lanes broke with the tradition of narrower streets, was implicit in the theoretical training of Costa and Niemeyer. However, the practical development of their own style meant that the primary functionalism of the International Style would be rejected in favor of solutions better adapted to the Brazilian context. In this regard, it may be recalled that Niemeyer had built, in 1942-44 at Kubitschek's request, the group at Pampulha, after having designed, in collaboration with Costa, the Brazilian pavilion at the New York World's Fair in 1939.

The 'pilot plan' that Costa drew up for Brasilia was one of great expressive power. As he himself described it, it was born of the initial gesture of someone designating a place and taking possession of it: a cross formed by two bars intersecting at right angles. This figure was then adapted to the topography and the natural slope of the ground: its orientation was improved by curving the arms of one of the crossbars. The curving north-south axis traces the layout of the wide transportation artery. Along it are the residential zones separated into superquadrats, all practically self-contained, and each possessing its own commercial and leisure centres, green spaces, schools, churches, etc.

The perpendicular east-west axis, known as the Monumental Axis, links the administrative sections of the new city, which became the official capital in 1960. Oscar Niemeyer's most renowned edifices were built there. They are noteworthy for the purity of their forms and their obvious monumental character, the result of an intelligent balance between horizontal and vertical buildings, rectangular volumes and curved surfaces, and the raw, unfinished materials and polished exteriors of certain structures.

Among the most beautiful buildings in the urban landscape of Brasilia are those sited around the Plaza of Three Powers, the Planalto Palace, or the Hall of Government, the Congress, with its twin skyscrapers flanked by the cupola of the Senate building and by the inverted cone of the House of Representatives, and finally the Supreme Court. Other structures of an exceptional artistic quality are the Esplanade of the Ministers, the cathedral, the Pantheon of Juscelino Kubitschek and the National Theatre.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC