Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak

Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak

Discovered in 1944, this tomb dates from the Hellenistic period, around the end of the 4th century BC. It is located near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seutes III, and is part of a large Thracian necropolis. The tholos has a narrow corridor and a round burial chamber, both decorated with murals representing Thracian burial rituals and culture. These paintings are Bulgaria’s best-preserved artistic masterpieces from the Hellenistic period.

Tombe thrace de Kazanlak

Découvert en 1944, ce tombeau date de la période hellénistique, vers la fin du IVe siècle av. J.-C. Il est situé près de Seutopolis – capitale du roi thrace Seutes III – et fait partie d’une grande nécropole thrace. Le tholos comprend un étroit corridor et une chambre funéraire ronde, tous deux décorés de peintures murales représentant les rites funéraires et la culture thrace. Ces peintures sont les chefs-d’œuvre artistiques les mieux préservés de la période hellénistique en Bulgarie.

ضريح كازانلاك التراقي

إكتُشف هذا الضريح في العام 1944 وهو يرقى إلى الحقبة الهيلينية، قرابة نهاية القرن الرابع قبل الميلاد. يقع بالقرب من مدينة سيوطوبوليس، التي كانت في ما مضى عاصمة الملك التراقي سيوطس الثالث، ويشكل جزءاً لا يتجزأ من مقبرة تراقية كبيرة. يتألف القبر المقبّب من دهليز ضيق وغرفة دائرية لدفن الموتى، كلاهما مزيّن برسومات جدارية تصوّر طقوس دفن الموتى والثقافة التراقية آنذاك. وتعتبر هذه الرسومات من أفضل التحف الفنية المحافظ عليها من الحقبة الهيلينية في بلغاريا.

source: UNESCO/ERI

卡赞利克的色雷斯古墓

卡赞利克的色雷斯古墓发现于1944年,其历史年代可追溯到古希腊时期,即公元前4世纪末左右。古墓位于色雷斯王修瑟斯三世时期的都城修瑟波利斯(Seutopolis)附近,是色雷斯王国大片墓地中的一部分。该古墓内有狭长的地道和圆形墓室,均以壁画装饰。这些壁画代表了卡赞利克的墓葬仪式和文化。古墓中的绘画作品是保加利亚保存最完好的古希腊时期艺术杰作。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Фракийская гробница в городе Казанлык

Обнаруженная в 1944 г. гробница датируется эллинистическим периодом, приблизительно концом IV в. до н.э. Она располагалась около Севтополиса – столицы царя Фракии Севта III, и представляла собой часть крупного фракийского некрополя. Округлое здание гробницы – «фолос» – имеет узкий коридор и круглую погребальную камеру со стенными росписями, изображающими фракийские похоронные церемонии и культуру. Эта живопись – наиболее хорошо сохранившиеся художественные произведения периода эллинизма в Болгарии.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Tumba tracia de Kazanlak

Descubierta en 1944, esta tumba data del periodo helenístico (hacia finales del siglo IV a.C.). Está situada cerca de Seutópolis, capital del rey tracio Seutes III, y forma parte de una gran necrópolis. El tholos comprende un corredor angosto y una cámara mortuoria circular con frescos que representan ritos funerarios. Estas pinturas son las obras de arte del período helenístico mejor conservadas en Bulgaria.

source: UNESCO/ERI

カザンラックのトラキア人の墳墓

source: NFUAJ

Thracische tombe van Kazanlak

Dit graf werd ontdekt in 1944 en dateert uit de Hellenistische periode, rond het einde van de 4e eeuw voor Christus. Het bevindt zich in de buurt van Seuthopolis - de hoofdstad van de Thracische Koning Seuthes III - en is onderdeel van de grote Thracische begraafplaats. Het graf staat op de top van een rotsachtige heuvel en is geconstrueerd zonder diepe funderingen. De tholos heeft een nauwe gang en een ronde begraafkamer, beiden versierd met wandschilderingen van de Thracische begrafeniscultuur en bijbehorende uitvaartrituelen. De schilderingen behoren tot de best bewaarde Hellenistische meesterwerken van Bulgarije.

Source: unesco.nl

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Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak © Yvon Fruneau
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Thracian tomb of Kazanlak is a unique aesthetic and artistic work, a masterpiece of the Thracian creative spirit. This monument is the only one of its kind anywhere in the world. The exceptionally well preserved frescos and the original condition of the structure reveal the remarkable evolution and high level of culture and pictorial art in Hellenistic Thrace.

Criterion (i): The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak is the masterpiece of the Thracian creative spirit.

Criterion (iii): The Kazanlak frescoes testify to high level of culture and pictorial art in Thracia.

Criterion (iv): The Kazanlak frescoes represent a significant stage in the development of Hellenistic funerary art.

Integrity

The integrity of the site is intact. The defined boundaries and buffer zone, and the location of the Tomb in a park area, provides a secure environment for the property. The property encompasses within its boundaries all the components that convey the outstanding universal value. The Tomb is protected from the negative effects of visitors, through offering access to the nearby museum that contains a copy of the tomb architecture and its fresco decoration.

Authenticity

The Tomb meets the requirements for authenticity as the construction and walls remain in their original condition, without modification or addition, and its frescoes are very well preserved. At the time of inscription, the Tomb was secured under a permanent protective building, and its principle cultural value - the exclusive mural decoration - was fully preserved. In this process, the murals were cleaned and strengthened. Using techniques that did not violate their authenticity, they were not retouched or additionally filled. Air conditioning was installed to ensure a constant temperature.

Protection and management requirements

The management is implemented by virtue of:

- Cultural Heritage Law (Official Gazette No.19 of 2009) and subdelegated legislation. This law regulates the research, studying, protection and promotion of the immovable cultural heritage in Bulgaria, and the development of Conservation and Management plans for its inscribed World Heritage List of immovable cultural properties;

- the Tomb's preservation and visiting regime prescribed by the National Institute for preservation of the immovable cultural properties. 

Long Description

In 1942 a tomb dated to the 3rd century BC was discovered near Kazanlak in the romantic Valley of Roses, near the ancient city of Teutopolis. The Kazanlak Tomb is a peak in the development of Hellenistic art; it is a significant contribution to the art of the entire Hellenistic world.

The numerous burial mounds in the Kazanlak area (more than 500), together with the remains of Thracian settlements, including Seuthopolis, the only Thracian city that has been completely excavated, preserved and researched, show that the area was inhabited by a large Thracian population, which reached the height of its cultural development during the 5th to 3rd centuries BC.

Seuthopolis was founded by the Thracian King Seuth III at the end of the 4th century BC. The city was fortified, with a layout based on the principles of the Greek polis. Monumental works of Thracian architecture have been found in Seuthopolis, such as the palace-temple, with interiors decorated with murals, and the temples of Dionysius and the Great Thracian Gods. Seven brick tombs were discovered in the necropolis, four of which are of the beehive type. The use of brickwork in the making of tombs is typical for the area of Seuthopolis: nowhere else in Thrace were bricks used so widely in building.

The tomb stands on top of a rocky hill, and has been constructed without deep foundations. It comprises the three chambers required by the Thracian cult of the dead: an antechamber for the chariot, horses, or slaves which accompanied the dead man in the after-life; a corridor (dromos), which was a small room for the things needed in the after-life; and a burial chamber for the body itself. The three components have different shapes and dimensions.

The murals are the chief asset of the Kazanlak Tomb, because they are the only entirely preserved work of Hellenistic art that has been found in exactly the state in which it was originally designed and executed. They start from the antechamber. The walls are of a light ochre colour, against which large stones are outlined with dark-blue lines, in imitation of squared stonework, thus creating a solemn atmosphere before entering the corridor and burial chamber. Only a small part of this decoration is preserved, high on the east wall of the antechamber. The entrance to the corridor has a painted dark-ochre frame.

The painting in the corridor and the burial chamber in fact represent a monumental facade. It begins with a high podium, above it follows the neutral load-bearing wall, and then the composition ends in architectural details with pictures between them.

The artworks in the Tomb reach their peak in the burial chamber. The floor is coloured in Pompeian red. The podium stands on the circle of the plinth and is covered on the top with a wide black band. The plinth imitates pink marble with light blue veins. The podium consists of eight squares divided with grooves imitating marble facing. The load-bearing wall coloured in Pompeian red follows above the black band. The composition in the burial chamber is designed with great skill and knowledge of the architectural elements of the Ionic entablature. The painter, however, has intentionally infringed the Ionic proportions with the large figure frieze. He thus achieved an exceptional impact by enclosing the entire composition in a colourful frame of architectural motifs.

The murals were executed on the basis of a preliminary design drawn upon the final fine layer of plaster. Even today faint lines incised on the wet plaster can be distinguished, marking out the plinths and the contours of the vault. The pattern of the Kazanlak Tomb murals shows that they were not painted spontaneously: the paintings are a result of carefully premeditated artistic composition executed in accordance with a precise project. The architecture and the pattern of the composition were prepared together as an integrated work of art. It is clear that both were the work of one person - an artist-architect.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC