Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a)

Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a)

Most of this archaeological site, which started as a Roman military camp and grew to become a town from the 5th century, has not been excavated. It contains remains from the Roman, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods (end of 3rd to 9th centuries AD) and a fortified Roman military camp. The site also has 16 churches, some with well-preserved mosaic floors. Particularly noteworthy is the mosaic floor of the Church of Saint Stephen with its representation of towns in the region. Two square towers are probably the only remains of the practice, well known in this part of the world, of the stylites (ascetic monks who spent time in isolation atop a column or tower). Um er-Rasas is surrounded by, and dotted with, remains of ancient agricultural cultivation in an arid area.

Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa’a)

L’essentiel du site archéologique d’Um er-Rasas n’a pas encore été fouillé. Le site, qui comprend des vestiges des périodes romaine, byzantine et du début de l’islam (de la fin du IIIe au IXe siècle apr. J.-C.), fut d’abord un camp militaire romain puis s’agrandit pour devenir une ville à partir du Ve siècle. Le camp militaire fortifié, a été peu fouillé. Le site comporte également 16 églises dont certaines possèdent des sols en mosaïque bien conservés, en particulier celui de l’église Saint-Etienne qui représente des villes de la région. Deux tours carrées sont probablement les seuls témoignages de la pratique, bien connue dans cette partie du monde, des anachorètes stylites (moines ascétiques qui s’isolaient au sommet d’une colonne ou d’une tour). Des vestiges d’anciennes activités agricoles parsèment le site d’Um er-Rasas et ses environs. 

أم الرصاص

إنّ أهم ما في موقع أم الرصاص الأثري ما لم يتمّ نبشه بعد. فالموقع الذي يتضمَّن آثارًا من العصرَيْن البيزنطي والروماني ومن بدايات الإسلام (من أواخر القرن الثالث إلى القرن التاسع ميلادي)، كان مُعسكرًا رومانيًا، ثمّ توسّع ليصبح مدينةً ابتداءً من القرن الخامس. وقد تمّ استكشاف المُعسكر المحّصن قليلاً. ويحتوي الموقع أيضًا على 16 كنيسةً يملك البعض منها أرضيّاتٍ من الفسيفساء تمّت المُحافظة عليها بشكلٍ جيّد، لا سيّما أرضيّة كنيسة القديس اسطفانوس التي تمثّل مدن المنطقة. والبرجان المربّعان هما على الأرجح الشاهدان الوحيدان على تعابير نسّاك الأعمدة (رهبان نساك ينعزلون على قمة عمود أو برج) المعروفة جيدًا في هذه المنطقة من العالم. وتنتشر آثار النشاطات الزراعيّة القديمة في موقع أم الرصاص وفي ضواحيها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

乌姆赖萨斯考古遗址

乌姆赖萨斯考古遗址的大部分尚未挖掘。该遗址包括罗马、拜占庭和早期穆斯林时期(公元3世纪末到9世纪)的遗迹,起初是罗马的一个军营,后来在公元5世纪发展成为一个城镇。面积为150米×150米的军营要塞基本没有挖掘。另外,还有几个教堂,有些教堂里有保存完好的镶嵌图案地板。特别值得一提的是圣史蒂芬教堂的镶嵌图案地板及其对该地区城镇形象的展示。两座方塔可能是修道士(即单独在柱子或塔上修炼的苦行者 )进行该地区有名的修炼的仅有遗迹。乌姆赖萨斯考古遗址四周零星地分布着古代的农耕遗迹。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Археологические находки в Ум-эр-Расас (Кастрон-Мефъа)

Этот археологический ландшафт включает памятники древнеримского, византийского и раннего мусульманского периодов (конец III-IХ вв.), а также руины укрепленного древнеримского военного лагеря. Здесь находятся 16 церквей, некоторые - с хорошо сохранившимися мозаичными полами. Две квадратные башни представляют собой, вероятно, единственное напоминания о столпниках (монахах-аскетах, проводивших время в одиночестве на вершине колонны или башни). Умм-эр-Расас окружен и расчленен остатками древнего сельского хозяйства, культивирующего эту засушливую территорию.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Um er-Rasas (Kastron Mefa’a)

Este sitio arqueológico está aún por excavar en su mayor parte y posee vestigios que datan de los siglos III a IX, esto es, de las épocas de la dominación romana y bizantina y de los primeros tiempos del Islam. En un principio fue un campamento militar romano, cuyo crecimiento culminaría con la creación de una ciudad en el siglo V. Um er-Rasas posee también 16 templos cristianos con pavimentos de mosaico bien conservados, entre los que destaca el de la iglesia de San Esteban con representaciones de las ciudades de la región. Además, el sitio cuenta con dos torres cuadradas, que posiblemente sean los únicos vestigios de la práctica ascética de los anacoretas estilitas –muy extendida por estos parajes en tiempos pasados– que consistía en aislarse del mundo exterior, instalándose en lo alto de una columna o torre. En el sitio mismo y en sus alrededores hay vestigios abundantes de actividades agrícolas ancestrales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ウム・エル-ラサス(キャストロ・メファ)

source: NFUAJ

Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa’a)

Veel van dit archeologische gebied – dat begon als Romeins militair kamp en vanaf de 5e eeuw uitgroeide tot een stad – is nog niet opgegraven. Um er-Rasas bevat overblijfselen uit de Romeinse, Byzantijnse en vroeg-islamitische periode (eind 3e tot 9e eeuw na Christus) en een versterkt Romeins militair kamp. Het gebied heeft ook 16 kerken, sommige met goed bewaarde mozaïekvloeren. Vooral de mozaïekvloer van de kerk van Sint Stephanus met zijn voorstelling van steden uit de regio is erg bijzonder. Um er-Rasas is omgeven door, en bezaaid met overblijfselen van oude agrarische teelt in een droog gebied.

Source: unesco.nl

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located south-east of Madaba on the edge of the semi-arid steppe, this archaeological site, which started as a Roman military camp and grew to become a town from the 5th century, is largely unexcavated. It comprises remains from the Roman, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods (end of 3rd to 9th centuries AD) including a fortified Roman military camp and sixteen churches, some with well-preserved mosaic floors. Particularly noteworthy is the mosaic floor of the Church of St Stephen with its representation of towns in the region. A tall square tower and associated buildings are probably the only remains of the practice, well known in this part of the world, of the stylites (ascetic monks who spent time in isolation atop a column or tower). Um er-Rasas is surrounded by, and dotted, with remains of ancient agricultural cultivation, including terracing, water channels and cisterns.

The Outstanding Universal Value of the site resides in the extensive settlement of the Byzantine/Umayyad period. These remains occupy the interior of the former Roman fort and also extend outside its walls to the north. They include the churches whose mosaic floors are of great artistic value. Further to the north, in a separate group of ruins associated with quarries and cisterns, is the uniquely complete tower accommodation of the stylite monks.

The picture maps in the mosaic floor of St Stephen's Church of several Palestinian and Egyptian towns in the former Byzantine Empire are identified by their place names in Greek script. These are of particular significance both artistically and as a geographical record. Other mosaic church floors including at the Church of the Lions, the  Church of Bishop Sergius, the Church of the Rivers, the Church of the Palm Tree, the Church of Bishop Paul and the Church of the Priest Wa'il depict birds and animals, fishermen and hunters incorporated into extensive geometric mosaic carpets.

The lifestyle of the stylite monks is conveyed by a 14 meter high stone tower built in the centre of a courtyard adjoined by a small church (the Church of the Tower). A room at the top of the tower, accessible from a door on the south apparently reached by a removable ladder was the monk's living quarters.

The archaeology and inscriptions show evidence that monastic Christianity was tolerated and continued during the Islamic period of the 7th and 8th centuries and testify to the spread of monotheistic beliefs in the region.

Criterion (i): Um er-Rasas is a masterpiece of human creative genius given the artistic and technical qualities of the mosaic floor of St Stephen's church.

Criterion (iv): Um er-Rasas presents a unique and complete (therefore outstanding) example of stylite towers.

Criterion (vi): Um er-Rasas is strongly associated with monasticism and with the spread of monotheism in the whole region, including Islam.

Integrity (2010)

The identified remains of the Byzantine/Umayyad settlement are included within two separate core areas encompassed and linked by the buffer zone. The integrity of these is retained. The standing remains and excavated buildings remain intact as part of an archaeological site containing many ruined structures. Parts of the site are dangerous due to structural collapse in past earthquakes and open trenches. The ruins have been subject in the past to unauthorised investigation and excavation.

The limestone structures, some bearing remnants of painted plaster, and the excavated mosaic floors are vulnerable to general weathering processes and poor drainage. Remedies for this have involved consolidation/reconstruction of standing structures, backfilling of some excavations and the construction of protective shelters over St Stephen's Church and part of the Church of the Lions.

The property is vulnerable to increased and unregulated tourism. Its setting has potential vulnerability from possible future development of the surrounding area, which is at present pastoral and sparsely settled.

Authenticity (2010)

The form, design and materials, location and setting of the ruined and excavated structures continue to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. Their authenticity has, to a degree, been impaired by the use of incorrect repair and maintenance techniques in consolidation work and in the protection of mosaic floors.

The setting is vulnerable to tourism and local community requirements. Access routes within the site, parking areas, visitors' facilities and pathways all require careful design and management, as do any further excavation and stabilization projects that require shelters.

Protection and management requirements (2010)

The property is protected by the Antiquities Law administered by the Department of Antiquities (DOA) under the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities. The site manager and his assistants, an architect and archaeologist from the DOA are permanently present at the site. Five security guards from the local community deal with security issues and the safety of workers and visitors.

A Management Plan (including a comprehensive conservation plan) has been developed by a working group involving representatives from both the DOA and the Ministry. Expert committees involving staff from the DOA, other government agencies and the universities have studied particular issues and contributed to the process, which has been reviewed following recommendations by joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS missions in 2005 and 2006. It will incorporate guidelines and practice standards for maintenance and repair, conservation and archaeological research, together with a monitoring and maintenance programme. Once adopted, it will be implemented by the site manager and trained staff at the site.

Funding has been provided by the European Commission for a site conservation and presentation strategy for Um er-Rasas as part of a wider programme 'Protection and Promotion of Cultural Heritage in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan', aimed at raising the quality of research, restoration and site management, visitor facilities and information. The works will be completed in accordance with revisions agreed with the World Heritage Centre including the visitors' centre, security fencing around the whole site, visitors' pathways and a new shelter over St Stephen's Church.

More land has been acquired by the DOA around the southern part of the property containing St.Stephen's and other churches and also between that and the northern part containing the stylite tower and associated structures, enabling greater protection of the site. The DOA has negotiated with the municipality of Um er- Rasas to apply specific regulations to lands adjacent to the DOA-owned land so as to anticipate and mitigate any negative impacts of future land use change. A revision to the boundaries of the World Heritage Property could be considered in the light of the greater extent of land now owned by the DOA.

The partnership established between the DOA and the local community will continue to involve the community in the protection of the property and enable them to benefit from tourism.

Long Description

Umm er-Rasas is strongly associated with monasticism and with the spread of monotheism, including Islam, throughout the region. The artistic and technical qualities of the mosaic floor of St Stephen's church justify describing Um er-Rasas as a masterpiece of human creative genius. It also presents a unique and complete (therefore outstanding) example of stylite towers.

This is an archaeological site of the Roman, Byzantine and early Muslim periods. The site was founded in the 3rd century AD as a Roman military camp, closely associated with the frontier (limes) of the Roman Empire, the border with the desert and possibly with the eastern branch of the incense route.

The large camp (castrum) gave the site its ancient name - Kastron Mefa'a. The roughly square fortified castrum (about 50 m by 150 m is almost unexcavated. While the castrum itself became the core of the later settlement, the ruins of the Byzantine settlement outside it cover an area of about 200 m by 300 m.

Among the visible and partly excavated structures on the site are several churches. These can be easily identified before excavations, and attracted the main attention of archaeologists working on the site since 1986. For this reason much less is known of the character of housing, town plan and daily life.

Among the extraordinary remains on the site are several mosaic floors, one of which of special importance. The mosaic floor of the Church of St Stephen shows an incredible representation of towns in Palestine, Jordan and Egypt, including their identification. At a short distance from the town, a well-preserved tall tower from the Byzantine period is probably the only existing remain of a well-known practice in this part of the world - of the stylite ascetic monks (i.e. monks sitting in isolation for long periods on top of a column or tower). The tower has no stairs and is in a relatively isolated area.

Um er-Rasas is surrounded and dotted with remains of ancient agricultural cultivation, from water reservoirs to terracing, water channels, dams and cisterns. There are two small cemeteries on the site, one immediately to the west and the other to the east. The Eastern is an old Bedouin cemetery, whereas the Western is a modern one. About 150 m separate the site and the main modern north-south road.

In this area there are several ruins of relatively new structures, from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, but now abandoned.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC