Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

It represents the addition of three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning to the Ming tombs inscribed in 2000 and 2003. The Three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning Province include the Yongling Tomb, the Fuling Tomb, and the Zhaoling Tomb, all built in the 17th century. Constructed for the founding emperors of the Qing Dynasty and their ancestors, the tombs follow the precepts of traditional Chinese geomancy and fengshui theory. They feature rich decoration of stone statues and carvings and tiles with dragon motifs, illustrating the development of the funerary architecture of the Qing Dynasty. The three tomb complexes, and their numerous edifices, combine traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of Manchu civilization.

Tombes impériales des dynasties Ming et Qing

L’extension ajoute trois tombes impériales de la dynastie Qing à Liaoning aux tombes Ming inscrites en 2000 et 2003. Les trois tombes impériales de la dynastie Qing dans la province de Liaoning comprennent la tombe Yongling, la tombe Fuling et la tombe Zhaoling, toutes construites au XVIIe siècle. Erigées pour les empereurs fondateurs de la dynastie Qing et leurs ancêtres, ces tombes obéissent aux préceptes de la géomancie chinoise traditionnelle et de la théorie du fengshui. Elles offrent une riche décoration de statues en pierre, de bas-reliefs et de dalles ornées de dragons, illustrant l’évolution de l’architecture funéraire sous la dynastie Qing. Les trois complexes funéraires et leurs nombreux édifices conjuguent les traditions héritées des dynasties précédentes et les innovations de la civilisation mandchoue.

المقابر الامبراطورية لسلالتي مينغ وكينغ

تتوزّع مقابر سلاتي مينغ وكينغ على أربعة مجمّعات من المقابر في مقاطعات خمس من الصين الشرقيّة (هوباي، هاباي، حي شانغبينغ في بيجينغ، جيانغسو ولياونينغ). بُنيت هذه المقابر بحسب تعاليم ضرب الرمل الصيني، وهي برهان استثنائي على المعتقدات والتقاليد الصينيّة منذ القرن الرابع عشر كما أنّها أمثلة نفيسة عن الهندسة والفنون المطبّقة في تلك الحقبة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

明清皇家陵寝

位于辽宁省的清朝盛京三陵建于17世纪,是继2000年和2003年列入《世界遗产名录》的明朝寝陵之后的三座清朝皇家寝陵,分别为永陵、福陵和昭陵,是开创满清皇室基业的皇帝及其祖先的陵墓。寝陵遵照中国传统的占卜和风水理论而建,饰以大量以龙为主题的石雕、雕刻和瓦片,展示了清朝墓葬建筑的发展。盛京三陵及其众多建筑将以前朝代的传统和满族文化的新特征融为一体。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Гробницы императоров династий Мин и Цин

Императорские гробницы династий Мин и Цин – это несколько групп погребальных сооружений в разных провинциях Восточного Китая. Гробницы, созданные в соответствии с принципами «фэн-шуй», являются выдающимся свидетельством китайских верований и традиций начиная с XIV в., а также служат ярким примером архитектуры и прикладного искусства того периода. В 2004 г. в объект дополнительно вошли три захоронения династии Цин XVII в. в провинции Ляонин – Юнлин, Фулин и Чжаолин, датируемые ХVII в. Сооруженные для императоров-основателей династии Цин и их преемников, они были богато украшены каменными скульптурами и рельефами, а также изразцами с изображениями драконов, что демонстрировало развитие погребальной архитектуры династии Цин. В архитектуре многочисленных зданий этих трех комплексов объединяются традиции, унаследованные от прошлых династий, и новые черты, свойственные маньчжурской культуре.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Tumbas imperiales de las dinastías Ming y Qing

Este sitio se ha ampliado con la adición de tres tumbas de la dinastía Qing a las sepulturas de los Ming, ya inscritas en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en 2000 y 2003. Las tres tumbas imperiales de Yongling, Fuling y Zhaoling, ubicadas en la provincia de Liaoning, fueron construidas en el siglo XVII para albergar los despojos mortales de los miembros fundadores de la dinastía Qing y sus antepasados. Su construcción se rigió por los preceptos de la geomancia tradicional china y la teoría del diseño de los espacios vitales (fengshui). Están magníficamente ornadas con estatuas de piedra, bajorrelieves y cerámicas con motivos de dragones, que ilustran el auge de la arquitectura funeraria en la época de los Qing. En las tres tumbas, que forman verdaderos complejos arquitectónicos con sus múltiples construcciones, se mezclan los elementos tradicionales de las anteriores dinastías reinantes en China con los nuevos aportes de la civilización manchú.

source: UNESCO/ERI

明・清朝の皇帝陵墓群

source: NFUAJ

Keizerlijke graven uit de Ming en de Qing dynastie

De Ming en Qing keizerlijke graven getuigen van een culturele en architectonische traditie die meer dan 500 jaar dit deel van de wereld domineerde. Eerst werden de Xianling graven van de Ming dynastie aan de Werelderfgoedlijst toegevoegd. De graven stammen uit de vroeg-16e eeuw en zijn gelegen nabij de stad Zhongxiang, in de provincie Hubei, meer dan 1.000 km van Beijing. Het bijzondere is de volstrekte integratie van de graftombes in de natuurlijke omgeving. In 2004 werden ook de Qing graven bijgeschreven. Deze drie keizerlijke graven in de provincie Liaoning zijn het Yongling graf, het Fuling graf en het Zhaoling graf. Ze werden alle drie gebouwd in de 17e eeuw. De graven zijn volgens traditionele Chinese geomantiek en fengshui richtlijnen opgebouwd. Ze zijn rijkelijk versierd met stenen beelden, graveringen en tegels met drakenmotieven, waarmee ze de grafarchitectuur van de Qing dynastie illustreren. De drie grafcomplexen en hun talrijke bijgebouwen combineren tradities van vorige dynastieën en nieuwe elementen van de Manchu beschaving.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties © Lemoncat1
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis 

The Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties were built between 1368 and 1915 AD in Beijing Municipality, Hebei Province, Hubei Province, Jiangsu Province and Liaoning Province of China. They comprise of the Xianling Tombs of the Ming Dynasty and the Eastern and Western Qing Tombs inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000; the Xiaoling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty and the Ming Tombs in Beijing added to the inscription in 2003, and the Three Imperial Tombs of Shenyang, Liaoning Province (Yongling Tomb, Fuling Tomb, and Zhaoling Tomb, all of the Qing Dynasty) added in 2004.

The Ming and Qing imperial tombs are located in topographical settings carefully chosen according to principles of geomancy (Fengshui) and comprise numerous buildings of traditional architectural design and decoration. The tombs and buildings are laid out according to Chinese hierarchical rules and incorporate sacred ways lined with stone monuments and sculptures designed to accommodate ongoing royal ceremonies as well as the passage of the spirits of the dead. They illustrate the great importance attached by the Ming and Qing rulers over five centuries to the building of imposing mausolea, reflecting not only the general belief in an afterlife but also an affirmation of authority.

The tomb of the first Ming Emperor, the Xiaoling Tomb broke with the past and established the basic design for those that followed in Beijing, and also the Xianling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty in Zhongxiang, the Western Qing Tombs and the Eastern Qing Tombs. The Three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning Province (Yongling Tomb, Fuling Tomb, and Zhaoling Tomb) were all built in the 17th century for the founding emperors of the Qing Dynasty and their ancestors, integrating the tradition inherited from previous dynasties with new features from the Manchu civilization.

The Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties are masterpieces of human creative genius by reason of their organic integration into nature, and a unique testimony to the cultural and architectural traditions of the last two feudal dynasties (Ming and Qing) in the history of China between the 14th and 20th centuries. They are fine works combining the architectural arts of the Han and Manchu civilizations. Their siting, planning and design reflect both the philosophical idea of “harmony between man and nature” according to Fengshui principles and the rules of social hierarchy, and illustrate the conception of the world and power prevalent in the later period of the ancient society of China.

Criterion(i): The harmonious integration of remarkable architectural groups in a natural environment chosen to meet the criteria of geomancy (Fengshui) makes the Ming and Qing Imperial Tombs masterpieces of human creative genius.

Criterion(ii): The tombs represent a phase of development, where the previous traditions are integrated into the forms of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, also becoming the basis for the subsequent development.

Criterion(iii): The imperial mausolea are outstanding testimony to a cultural and architectural tradition that for over five hundred years dominated this part of the world.

Criterion(iv): The architectures of the Imperial Tombs integrated into the natural environment perfectly, making up a unique ensemble of cultural landscapes. They are the exceptional examples of the ancient imperial tombs of China.

Criterion(vi): The Ming and Qing Tombs are dazzling illustrations of the beliefs, world view, and geomantic theories of Fengshui prevalent in feudal China. They have served as burial edifices for illustrious personages and as the theatre for major events that have marked the history of China.

Integrity

All attributes carrying the outstanding universal values of the property, including physical evidence, spiritual elements and historical and cultural information, have been kept intact. The boundaries of all property areas are complete; the main buildings and underground chambers are kept in a good condition; the overall layouts remain undisturbed; the buildings and historic sites within the protected areas have not suffered excessive intervention or alteration, and the integrity of the overall layouts of the mausolea in the Ming and Qing dynasties have been authentically presented. The topography and natural settings of the mausolea, which were chosen according to Fengshui principles, are still maintained today. 

Authenticity

The historic condition of the buildings has been preserved to the time they were constructed or renovated in the Ming and Qing dynasties. A few lost buildings were restored in strict conformity with firm historic records and archaeological materials. The inscribed property together with its settings authentically and explicitly conveys the spirit and conception, ancient funeral system, and artistic achievements embedded in the traditional culture. 

Protection and management requirements

Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties have been protected legally by central and local governments. On the basis of enforcing the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics, multi-layered heritage protection authorities and administrations have enacted relevant protection regulations, and delimited protected areas and construction control zones (the buffer zones). No project within or outside the inscribed property that may impact on heritage values can be implemented without the approval of the State cultural heritage administration authority. Environmental capacity and construction activities are effectively controlled to contain adverse impacts from development. Heritage protection is rationally and effectively balanced against tourism development and urban construction.

Based on the current protection and management system, relevant administrative organizations of the Ming and Qing Imperial Tombs will revise and improve the conservation and management plans for the tombs. According to the revised conservation and management plans, the conservation work will be carried out more scientifically; construction activities within the buffer zones will be controlled more strictly, and the cultural heritage sites and their historic landscape and setting will be protected and conserved in an integrated way. The responsible authorities will strengthen daily care and maintenance of the ancient architecture in strict accordance with the principle of minimal intervention, including well-planned restoration. Furthermore, measures will be taken to improve capacity building of related organizations, to set up a coordination mechanism between protection and management organizations of heritage sites and regional administration. By doing so, protection and management on heritage sites will be enhanced with improved means to interpret and promote heritage value.

Long Description

The Ming and Qing imperial tombs are outstanding testimony to a cultural and architectural tradition that for over 500 years dominated this part of the world. By reason of their integration into the natural environment, they make up a unique ensemble of cultural landscapes.

From time immemorial, the rulers of China attached great importance to the building of imposing mausolea, reflecting not only the general belief in an afterlife but also an affirmation of authority. When the Ming dynasty came to power (1368), an overall design was adopted. This was characterized by the attempt to achieve great harmony between a natural site meeting certain precise selection criteria and a complex of buildings fulfilling codified functions. The natural site, a plain or broad valley, must offer the perspective of a mountain range to the north, against which the tombs would be built, with a lower elevation to the south. It must be framed on the east and west by chains of hills, and feature at least one waterway. In order to harmonize with the natural setting, a number of buildings are constructed along a main access road several kilometres in length, known as the Way of the Spirits, which may branch off into secondary Ways leading to other mausolea.

An entrance portico with up to five doors marks the beginning of the Way of the Spirits, which subsequently passes through or alongside a number of buildings, in particular a reception pavilion, a pavilion housing the stele of Divine Merits, stone columns and sculptures representing animals, generals and ministers, in pairs. After one or more stone bridges and a Portico of the Dragon and the Phoenix, the sacred way arrives at a complex of buildings that includes a hall of meditation flanked by side pavilions and a Memorial Tower leading to the walled tumulus under which lie the burial chambers. This cultural landscape is imbued with a form of cosmogony that invests it with sacred status.

The Xianling tombs of the Ming dynasty are situated near the town of Zhongxiang, in Hubei Province, over 1,000 km from Beijing. The first work on the mausoleum was carried out by Xing, who planned to be buried there. On genealogical grounds, he was declared Emperor posthumously in 1519. Further work was then undertaken to bring the tomb into harmony with the standards of the Ming dynasty and to create a second tumulus to house the burial chambers of his family, including the empress.

The western Qing tomb contains fourteen imperial tombs and two building complexes: the Yongfu Tibetan Buddhist temple and the temporary palace where the imperial family resided when it came to honour its ancestors. The natural setting is extremely beautiful, in large part owing to the forest of elegant centuries-old pines.

The site of eastern Qing tombs contains 15 mausolea in which 161 bodies were buried - emperors, empresses, concubines and princesses. Among them are the emperors Kangxi and Qianlong, remembered as great sovereigns who actively promoted the development of China, and the Dowager Empress Cixi, who ruled the empire through intermediaries throughout the second half of the 19th century.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Qing dynasty was established in 1636 by the Manchus to designate their regime in Manchuria. The three Imperial Tombs were built in the period when their capital was in Shenyang. In 1644, the capital was transferred to Beijing and the Manchus established their dynasty for China.

The first phase of building the Yongling Tomb was in the late years of the Ming dynasty; it was used as family graveyard of Emperor Fuman. In 1636, Emperor Huangtaiji of the Qing dynasty conferred the title of Xingjing Tomb on this graveyard. In 1648, emperor Fulin conferred the posthumous title of emperor on the four ancestors and in 1651 named the mountains where the tombs are situated: the Qiyun Mountains. Fuling Tomb was first built starting from 1629 (during the reign of Tiancong in late Jin) to 1644 (reign of Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing dynasty). The site was expanded and rebuilt from 1645 (Emperor Shunzhi) to 1688.

Zhaoling Tomb was first built from 1643 to 1651. It was subject to expansion and reconstruction during the reigns from Emperor Kangxi to Emperor Qianlong, in the second half of the 18th century.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation