State of Conservation (SOC)
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Serbia)
Factors affecting the property in 2009*
- Civil unrest
- Legal framework
- Management systems/ management plan
- Other Threats:
e) Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Lack of legal status of the property;
b) Lack of legislative protection of buffer zones;
c) Lack of implementation of the management plan and of active management;
d) Difficulties to monitor the property due to political instability, post-conflict situation (visits under the Kosovo Stabilisation Force / United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (KFOR / UNMIK) escort and lack of guards and security);
e) Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
- Lack of legal status of the property;
- Lack of legislative protection of buffer zones;
- Lack of implementation of the management plan and of active management;
- Difficulties to monitor the property due to political instability, post-conflict situation (visits under the Kosovo Stabilisation Force / United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (KFOR / UNMIK) escort and lack of guards and security);
- Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2009
Total amount provided to the property: USD 699,335 following the Donors Conference for the Protection and Preservation of Cultural Heritage in Kosovo, May 2005; USD 503,500 by the Italian Government, USD 75,335 by the Czech Government and 121,000 USD by the Greek Government.
International Assistance granted to the property until 2009
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 0USD
|2003||Preparation of the nomination of the monastery of Decani for ...||0 USD|
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
a) Full and permanent protection of the property in a secure and stable political environment;
b) Agreed medium-term plan for the restoration of wall paintings (including preventive conservation regime) and conservation and rehabilitation of the property;
c) Implementation of the management plans, and full establishment of buffer zones and boundaries including their legal protection.
Missions to the property until 2009**
January 2007: UNESCO intersectoral mission to Kosovo; July 2008: UNESCO (BRESCE mission), 19-22 January 2009: UNESCO (BRESCE) mission;
Corrective Measures for the property
Urgent / short-term corrective measures:
a) Put in place appropriate guarding and security arrangements for the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša;
b) Prepare a conservation status report including a condition survey for the wall paintings and the status of the conservation works and take temporary measures where there is an urgent need (for example the lead roof of the west bay of the nave of the Church of Virgin of Ljeviša, that was partly removed);
c) Prepare a risk preparedness study, in conformity with Paragraph 118 of the Operational Guidelines and Decisions 28 COM 10B.4 and 30 COM 7.2.
Long-term corrective measures:
d) Ensure the adequate long-term administrative, regulatory protection and management of the property, in conformity with Paragraph 97 of the Operational Guidelines;
e) Put in place strong protective regimes for the buffer zones;
f) Adequately delineate the boundaries (e.g. extend the boundaries of the Patriarchate of Peć to include more of its riverside-valley settings);
g) Prepare detailed state of conservation reports as a basis for adapted monitoring, preventative conservation measures, and specific conservation projects to reverse decline;
h) Ensure appropriate and timely implementation of the management plan.
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
a) Urgent / short-term corrective measures to be taken by the State Party, in cooperation with UNESCO programmes, UNMIK and Provisional Institutions of Self Government in Kosovo;
b) Regarding the long-term corrective measures to be taken by the State Party, in co-operation with UNESCO programmes, UNMIK and Provisional Institutions of Self Government in Kosovo no specific timeframe can be given at this stage due to the political situation.
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2009
Note: The Secretariat was informed by the Legal Advisor that “The UNESCO Secretariat follows the practice of the United Nations, which considers that the Security Council Resolution 12.44 (1999) continues to be applicable to the territory of Kosovo until a final settlement be achieved”.
The World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008) acknowledged the continuing difficulties to monitor the property and the challenges to the follow-up to the intersectoral mission of January 2007 and recalled its request, in cooperation with UNESCO programmes, the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Institutions of Kosovo, as well as future European arrangements, to continue to take long-term corrective measures, including: ensuring adequate long-term legislative, regulatory protection and management of the property and strong protective regimes for the buffer zones, adequately delineated boundaries and the timely implementation of the management plan.
Following the discussion on these issues at the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee (Quebec City, 2008) and as suggested by the Chairperson in her conclusions, the World Heritage Centre addressed a request for clarification to the Legal Advisor of UNESCO about the international “legal framework” of this matter. A Circular Letter dated 31 March 2009 entitled “Final Decision 32 COM 7A.27 concerning the “Medieval Monuments in Kosovo” was sent to all States Parties to the World Heritage Convention and to the Advisory Bodies including the finalized decision.
a) Statement of Outstanding Universal Value/Significance
Concerning the development, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, of a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value/Significance including the conditions of integrity and authenticity, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session in 2009, the draft statement which was received in 2008 was reviewed by ICOMOS International and is being presented in Working Document WHC-09/33.COM/8E for examination.
b) Update on the state of conservation and international cooperation
An update report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the Permanent Delegation of Serbia on 30 January 2009, which indicated that the last monitoring at Decani Monastery took place on 17 January 2009, which noted that the monastery church is in good condition. However some deterioration at the facades has been noticed due to the lack of drainage and water gutter systems. It mentioned also the “boiler room” located in the buffer zones where structures were built. Concerning Gracanica Monastery the monitoring was carried out on 18 January 2009, it was noted that it was in a good condition with similar water effects on the lower walls. Several structures were built in the buffer zones, including residential wings, a new bell tower, a boiler room and garage. The threatened facade sculptures and wall painting are subject to conservation works carried out in stages and with NGO support. A workplan is suggested which includes the survey of the monastery complex, assessing priorities for projects, performing the works and monitoring and evaluation. In addition systematic excavation investigations should be performed. Concerning the Church of the Virgin of Ljevisa in Prizren, the structure is in good condition and the roofs and domes were covered in 2008 with lead metal plate. The Facades of the Patriarchate of Pec were restored in 2008 in accordance with the 2006 project.
As a follow up to the International Donors Conference (May 2005) and the 2007 Intersectorial mission and at the request of the Director General of UNESCO, the UNESCO Venice Office (BRESCE), in cooperation with UNMIK, organized an international expert mission to Kosovo from 19 to 22 January 2009.
The mission had the opportunity to update the information about the situation of the serial World Heritage property in Kosovo and visited the following parts of the property:
- Gracanica: The mission noted changes since the last mission at the monuments including certain construction activities in the compound of the Monastery. The technical experts notified some damages on the frescos surveyed and a more detailed report is about to be elaborated. The restoration of the frescos of the monastery may be proposed for financing through the contribution which the Russian Federation announced to the Director General of UNESCO;
- Decani: Special attention should be paid to the proposal of the Monastery authorities related to the re-construction of the dormitory that was burned down in 1946, as the plan proposed is not being cleared by the Institute for Protection of Monuments from Belgrade. In the case of further attempts related to the construction of this building an ICOMOS expert mission could be sent to review the plans and proposed solutions;
- Pec: The mission noted that the facade of the three churches was recently repainted in dark red color. No information on this development was received by the World Heritage Centre in compliance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
- Church of Bogorodica Ljeviska, Prizren: No changes have been noted by the mission since the last mission in July 2008. Although the keys of the completed monument were supposed to be handed to the Church representatives, this has not happened. At the moment UNESCO; is organizing the activities related to the restoration of the wall paintings; it is important to underline that the project should also include restoration of some external elements. Further works on the wall paintings could not be initiated prior to being sure that the architectural works are correctly performed and that no frescos could be endangered any more by atmospheric influences.
The mission noted that both the Director of the Center of Monuments from Serbia and the Director of Cultural Heritage in Kosovo did cooperate with the mission team.
In addition, the Assistant Director General for Culture and Chief Europe and North America of the World Heritage Centre met with the staff concerned with Kosovo at the European Commission Offices in Brussels (EC – DG Enlargement) on 3 April 2009. Cooperation opportunities related to the Forum for Technical Information Exchange on Cultural Heritage in Kosovo were discussed. Launched on 28 January 2009, the Forum is open to all relevant technical stakeholders with the common objective of preserving and promoting cultural heritage. Its main purpose is to facilitate information exchange in view of a coordinated approach of the cultural heritage in Kosovo, including with UNMIK and UN Habitat. The Forum is not a decision making body. The European Commission emphasized UNESCO’s unique expertise in the field of cultural heritage and requested the participation of UNESCO at the technical level.
c) Reinforced monitoring mechanism
The entire mission of January 2009 concluded that the monitoring of the World Heritage property in Kosovo has to be reinforced. Due to the complex situation of the protection of heritage in Kosovo, underlining that the Church is the owner of this heritage, but considering the real will of all the parties to support and improve their efforts to protect World Heritage in Kosovo and the evolution of the cooperation among the managers of heritage, more frequent reporting could be developed as an intermediate solution.
On 29 October 2008 the Republic of Serbia wrote to the Director General of UNESCO and requested to “approve reinforced monitoring of the “medieval monuments in Kosovo ”in order to ensure timely implementation of the World Heritage Committee’s decisions relating of these monuments in danger”.
Following the January 2009 mission and the finalization of the Decision of the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee and its transmission to all State Parties on 31 March 2009, the Director General of UNESCO decided to activate the Reinforced monitoring mechanism carefully considering the specific circumstances of this property.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2009
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Serbia) (C 724 bis)
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Decides to adjourn debate on this agenda item until its next ordinary session, it being understood that the report and Decision presented at the present 33rd session will continue to be before the Committee for debate at its next ordinary session, as indicated in documents:
WHC-09/33.COM/7A, Paris, 11 May 2009;
WHC-09/33.COM/7A Add, Paris, 29 May 2009;
WHC-09/33.COM/7A Corr, Seville, 23 June 2009.
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-09/33.COM/7A, WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Add and WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Corr),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 33 COM 7A.20)
- Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 33 COM 7A.21)
- Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.1)
- Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 33 COM 7A.28)
- Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.2)
- Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 33 COM 7A.3)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.4)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.5)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.6)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.7)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 33 COM 7A.8)
- Ecuador, Galápagos Islands (Decision 33 COM 7A.13)
- Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 33 COM 7A.15)
- Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.9)
- India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 33 COM 7A.12)
- Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 33 COM 7A.16)
- Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 33 COM 7A.17)
- Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 33 COM 7A.22)
- Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 33 COM 7A.18)
- Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 33 COM 7A.10)
- Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 33 COM 7A.23)
- Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 33 COM 7A.29)
- Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 33 COM 7A.24)
- Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.11)
- Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 33 COM 7A.27)
- United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 33 COM 7A.14)
- Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 33 COM 7A.30)
- Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 33 COM 7A.19 )
Draft Decision: 33 COM 7A.27 Corr
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Documents WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Add and WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Corr,
2. Recalling Decisions 30 COM 8B.54, 31 COM 7A.28 and 32 COM 7A.27, adopted at its 30th (Vilnius, 2006), 31st (Christchurch, 2007) and 32nd (Quebec City, 2007) sessions respectively,
3. Acknowledges the information provided by the state of conservation report of January 2009 and the results of the mission of the UNESCO BRESCE Office to the property in January 2009;
4. Notes that the draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value has been submitted and has been reviewed by ICOMOS;
5. Welcomes the Decision by the Director General to apply the Reinforced monitoring mechanism to this property on 1 April 2009;
6. Reiterates its request to the State Party, in cooperation with UNESCO programmes, the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Institutions of Kosovo, as well as future European arrangements, to continue to take long-term corrective measures, including: ensuring adequate long-term legislative, regulatory protection and management of the property and strong protective regimes for the buffer zones; adequately delineated boundaries and the timely implementation of the management plan;
7. Also reiterates its requests, in cooperation with UNMIK, to continue efforts in completing the short-term and long-term corrective measures to address the Desired state of conservation defined, for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
8. Requests the submission, in cooperation with UNMIK, to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2010,of an updated report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session in 2010;
9. Decides to retain the Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Serbia) on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and to continue to apply the Reinforced monitoring mechanism until the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2010.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).