Listes indicatives avec leur description

Chine

Nom du bien : Badain Jaran Desert—Towers of Sand and Lakes

Coordonnées : N39 35 24 - 40 16 12 E101 01 59 -102 53 48
Date de soumission : 30/01/2019
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China

Brève description

Badain Jaran Desert is located in the Alashan Plateau in the hyper-arid and temperate desert region of northwestern China. It is China’s second largest desert. The nominated property of Badain Jaran Desert—Towers of Sand and Lakes concentrates in the central desert area, including unique desert aeolian features of the most concentrated distribution area of mega-dunes and inter-dunal lake basins, constituting irreplaceable natural heritage values. The nominated property contains world’s tallest stationary sand dune Bilutu with an altitude of 1611 metres and a relative height of about 450 metres (Andrew Goudie et al, 2011), so called “Everest of Desert”. The nominated property has as many as 144 lake basins, covering a total area of more than 2300 ha, among which 74 are permanent lakes with water all year around, and 12 are clear fresh-water lakes fed by underground springs with high water quality. This is a unique collection of varied inter-dunal lake basins of great beauty and mystery.

The nominated property of Badain Jaran Desert—Towers of Sand and Lakes has an area of 872,830 ha, and its buffer zone has an area of 486,642 ha. The boundary delimitation is based on the outstanding universal values of the nominated property and its natural geographical attributes, including the concentrated distribution of mega-dunes with a relative height of more than 200 metres, and the inter-dunal lake basins. It also refers to the natural geographical boundaries of the dunes and the boundaries of the autonomous region-level nature reserves. The buffer zone is a peripheral area that has protective and buffering effects on the nominated property. It serves as a foil and assists in the exhibition of landscapes and outstanding universal values of the nominated property. The boundaries of buffer zone are also delimitated in consideration of the continuity, topography of natural components and human activities.

Nom du bien : Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites

Coordonnées : E104 53 57.206 N25 31 36.880
Date de soumission : 30/01/2019
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Guizhou Province

Brève description

Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites World Natural Heritage Nominated Property is located in Guizhou Province, south-western China. The Nominated Property is composed of four components including Panxian Fauna, Xingyi Fauna-Wusha, Xingyi Fauna-Dingxiao and Guanling Biota, covering 82.43 km2 in total with the nominated property and buffer zone of 19.97 km2 and 62.46 km2 respectively.

Area of the component parts of the Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites

Name of Components

Region(s) / District(s)

Area of Nominated Property (ha)

Area of Buffer Zone (ha)

Panxian Fauna

Panzhou City, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province

618

1757

Xingyi Fauna-Wusha

Xingyi City, South-western Guizhou Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province

585

1314

Xingyi Fauna-Dingxiao

Yilong District, South-western Guizhou Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province

118

238

Guanling Biota

Guanling Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Anshun City, Guizhou Province

676

2937

Total Area (ha)

1997

6246


Panxian Fauna (E104 53 57.206 N25 31 36.880)
Panxian Fauna is located in Yangjuan, Xinmin Town, Panzhou City, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province.
It is featured by the oldest marine vertebrate fauna in Anisian, Middle Triassic.

Xingyi Fauna (E104 46 48.633 N25 10 19.303 and E105 0 46.870 N25 8 56.532)
Xingyi Fauna includes two parts, one is Xingyi Fauna-Wusha in Xingyi City, the other one is Xingyi Fauna-Dingxiao in Dingxiao District. Both components are located in South-western Guizhou Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province. It is mainly featured by unique fauna appeared in late Ladinian, Middle Triassic.

Guanling Biota (E105 25 33.328 N25 53 21.192)
Guanling Biota is located in Guanling Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Anshun City, Guizhou Province. It is featured by biota composed of large ichthyosaurs and crinoids in Carnian, Late Triassic. The oldest turtle were also found here.

Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites World Heritage Nominated Property is a series of fossil Lägerstattens composed of rich, complete and well preserved early Mesozoic fossils including marine reptiles, fishes, crinoids, ammonoids, bivalves, brachiopods and arthropods, etc. The nominated property is located in the subtropical region. The whole property shows a unique evolutionary sequence, ranging from Panxian Fauna in Anisian of Middle Triassic, to Xingyi Fauna in Ladinian, Middle Triassic and to Guanling Biota in Carnian of Late Triassic, indicating unique paleontological and paleogeography features. Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites World Heritage Nominated Property is an outstanding physical marker of the evolution of the marine life and the ecosystem after the end-Permian Mass Extinction. The fossils are featured with high diversity, rich species, high integrity and exquisite preservation, presenting a complete evolutionary sequence of marine life in the Early Mesozoic age from the dead dreariness after mass extinction to start recovery, radiating, reaching the peak and establishing stable new Mesozoic ecosystem. Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites, featured with special geographical location, are located at the border of two major oceans: Tethys and Panthalassic Ocean in the world, connecting West Tethys Bio-geographic Realm and east Panthalassic Ocean. The above information indicates that Guizhou Triassic Fossil Sites Nominated Property is the most important fossil origin place in Middle and Late Triassic for marine life in the world and delivers important scientific research and protection value.

Nom du bien : Huangguoshu Scenic Area

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 30/01/2019
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Guizhou Province

Brève description

Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is located in the south of China. It belongs to the watershed region in the karst plateau rising between Sichuan Basin and Guangxi Hill. Since the Tertiary Period, with the strong neotectonic uplift of Himalayan orogeny and tropical and subtropical humid climates, the strong erosion of the northern Yangtze River system and the southern Pearl River system has formed the plateau-gorge landform structure, which is often distinguished by the geomorphological erosion cycle knickpoint type waterfall. The plateau-gorge landform structure is composed of two significantly different but closely related geomorphic units - the plateau area and the gorge area. In the background of the special regional units, Huangguoshu Scenic Area is created with completely different but closely related landform type, development and evolution, landscape characteristics, living environment, human habitation, land use, and regional culture.

Coordinates
Huangguoshu Scenic Spot:
- Huangguoshu Waterfall N 25 57 08 E 105 40 05 
- Dishuitan Waterfall N 25 59 29  E 105 36 21 
- Gaodang Ancient Village N 26 04 02  E 105 40 25 

Getuhe Scenic Spot: N 25 42 21  E 106 15 07 

Tunpu Scenic Spot:
- Yunshantun-Benzhai Ancient Village N 26 17 15  E 106 04 26 
- Baojiatun Ancient Irrigation System N 26 18 57  E 106 06 35 
- Tiantaishan Ancient Temple N 26 21 01 E 106 10 46

Nom du bien : Imperial Kiln Sites of Jingdezhen

Coordonnées : N29 17 52 E117 12 0
Date de soumission : 05/09/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Jingdezhen City, Jiangxi Province

Brève description

The major component of Imperial Kiln Sites of Jingdezhen is the Imperial Kiln Site, which fired, produced and served porcelains for the imperial family during Ming and Qing dynasties. It includes porcelain-firing workshops and kilns ruins as well as those abundant porcelain pieces of Ming and Qing dynasties deposited underground. There also exist several civil kiln sites which reflect the system of “moulding by imperial kiln and firing by civil kiln” as well as other important kiln relics showing the imperial kilns' technical origin. Imperial Kiln Sites of Jingdezhen also include sites of porcelain-making raw materials mining and processing, trade associations guild halls, water transportation docks and other cultural relics, which are related to the production and transportation of porcelains.

These heritage sites, scattered around imperial kiln in Jingdezhen and its surrounding areas, demonstrate a complete course of development of the imperial kiln in workshop layout, kiln structure, processing technique, management system and other aspects, and provide concrete evidence for the highest level of porcelain-making craftsmanship in China and over the world. As a whole, they reveal the features and key contents of Jingdezhen as a world porcelain-making centre and an integrated model of China porcelain-making industry.

Imperial Kiln Site and other major kiln sites in Jingdezhen fully demonstrate the evolution process of China porcelain culture, reflect porcelain-making technique development course from matured to its peak, and genuinely reveal the material and technical foundation of imperial kiln established in Ming Dynasty, as well as its significant influence on the later development of the porcelain industry. The remained porcelain shards existed in the cultural deposits of different historical periods represent the spiritual pursuit of Chinese people and aesthetic taste of different times and uniquely testify the evolution of the Chinese civilization.

The exquisite craftsmanship and products of imperial kilns make great contributions to China porcelain culture as well as the development of human civilization. The large-scale porcelain export promoted intercultural communication and interaction. It clearly demonstrates China's outstanding contributions to the world trade with porcelain production in the Age of Discovery. Therefore, Imperial Kiln Sites of Jingdezhen is the exceptional testimony of the global influence of Jingdezhen porcelain-making industry.

Nom du bien : Guancen Mountain -- Luya Mountain

Coordonnées : E111 49 54 -112 17 3 N38 41 24 - 38 58 10
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province

Brève description

The area of nominated property Luya Mountain component is 343.32 km2, with a buffer zone of 97.72 km2.The area of Tianchi component is 68.61 km2, with a buffer zone of 32.66 km2.

Guanqin Mountain is a mountain extention at the north side of Luliang Mountains in Shanxi, with an average altitude ranging between 1800 m and 2000 m, and an area of 44,000 km2. The Guanqin Mountain region features complex topography and geomorphology, including earth-rocky mountain area, loess hilly area and fluvial morphology.

The nominated property Luya Mountain is located in Ningwu County, Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province. It is the source of Fen River and Sanggan River, also the main peak of Guanqin Mountain. The highest summit of Luya Mountain is Heyeping with an elevation of 2,782 m.

Luya Mountain Component: 111°49′54″-112°9′56″ E, 38°41′24″-38°58′10″ N

Tianchi Component: 112°10′24″-112°17′13″ E, 38°48′19″-38°54′46″ N

Nom du bien : Hulun Buir Landscape & Birthplace of Ancient Minority

Coordonnées : N49 12 37.5 E119 42 25.3
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Hulun Buir Prefecture, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

Brève description

Natural heritage

"Hulun Buir Landscape & Birthplace of Ancient Minority" located in Hulun Buir prefecture, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The natural part of the property is composed of 6 pieces of relatively independent area which are Hanma Nature Reserve, Ergun Nature Reserve & Ergun Wetland Park & Ergun Scenic Area, Hulun Lake Nature Reserve, Huihe Nature Reserve & Honghuaerji Zhangzisong Nature Reserve, Hulun Lake Nature Reserve and Ergun Northern Forest Zone, including three different ecosystems of forest, wetland, grassland.

The property is located in East Siberia Taiga, Temperate Needle-leaf Forests or Woodlands, and Mongolian-Manchurian Steppe, Temperate Grasslands of Palearctic Realm.

The habitats of temperate grassland and flood savanna in Palearctic are not included in world heritage list, which are also the blank of WH Global 200 defined by WWF, are priority areas to nominate world natural heritage recommended by IUCN in recent years. The main geographical units in this region include the Greater Khingan Mountains and the Hulun Buir grassland in northeast Mongolian Plateau, which are all belong to the Ergun river basin. The Greater Khingan Mountains shows north - south orientation is located in the east of this region while the Ergun river is located in the west of the property.The Ergun Rivers flow through Mongolia, Russia and China, which the source is Hailaer river, the downstream is Amur River.

The Ergun river basin in western slopes of the Greater Khingan Mountains formed several rivers flow from east to west into Ergun river, mainly including Kerulen River, Hui River, Gen River. The Landscape features such as mountains, rivers, forests, lakes, wetlands distribute in the space of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers between Ergun River and Greater Khingan Mountains. contains large area of natural habitats without being disturbed by human.

The Hulun Buir maintains the most complete forests, wetlands, grasslands ecosystem in Ergun River basin. The forest in Greater Khingan Mountains is the only outstretched part of Siberian taiga forest of the Eurasian coniferous forests in China. The parts of northeast Mongolia floristic composition, flora composition, polar composition, alpine floristic composition are joined here ,where is rich in plant species. As haven’t been disturbed by any commercial logging and the human activity, the property keep the diversity of the taiga ecosystem in the region. Typical mammal and birds of palearctic taiga forest such as sable, sable bear, brown bear, otter, lynx, red deer, elk, snow rabbit, and black ZuiSong chicken, flower tail hazel hen, black woodpecker, three-toed woodpecker, small spot woodpeckers, north noise crow inhabit the property.

Due to the scouring and silting, the rivers on the western slope of Greater Khingan Mountains formed many river wetlands and lake wetlands. The wetlands with largest area, the most well preserved and the highest level of biodiversity of are along the Ergun river, Hui river, Gen River and the Hulun Lake, which are all located in national nature reserves. Wetlands in Ergun River basin is an important node on the Arctic-Australia migration route, which is an important stopover and breeding spot for variety of birds, is also the key area of birds protection priority area in China. The population of gold spot plovers and small curlew is especially large, quite a proportion of the global population during the migrating season. And also the number of the swan goose which is a threatened birds inhabit in the property is more than 20% of the global population. Due to water level in the wetland is rich in annual and seasonal variations, the wetlands provide different types of habitat for birds. The property has a total of 227 species of bird, including 159 summer residents, 5 winter residents, 19 passing migrant, 44 resident birds. And all kinds of wetlands are respectively inhabited by the hoary head, white-naped crane, the red-crowned crane, demoiselle, and the hoary head, white-naped crane and the red-crowned crane is the threatened species. The area has the most abundant breeding crane species in the world.

The grassland in the property is important habitat of Procapra gutturosa. Procapra gutturosa was distributed in the Altai Mountains which located in Mongolia and Russia to China, and exists only in Inner Mongolia now in line with neighboring Mongolia. The Huangyang Nature Reserves which is a part of the property located in the Xinbaerhuzuoqi County, Hulun Buir is one of the few important sanctuary for Procapra gutturosai in China.

Cultural heritage

The Xianbei was a part of "Donghu" which was one of the three important chinese northern minority nationality, and its reproduction and development have a significant impact on the process of Chinese and global civilization.The monuments of Xianbei in Hulun Buir Prefecture include Ga Xain Cave sites, Zhalai Nuoer tombs, Labradlin tombs, Ihoulah graves, Qika tombs, Chu Lumeng Bei 1st tombs, Meng Gen Chu Wula 1st tombs which are built between 100 BC to 100 AD.These cultural relics are located in the east Greater Khingan Mountains and the forest, wetland, grassland ecotone, built around the end of the first century BC to the 1st century AD. Among them, the Chinese inscriptions on the Gaxian Cave clearly record the historical events that the ancestors sent someone back after the establishment of the Northern Wei Dynasty in the central China, and the cave established the historical fact that the Gaxian Cave was the birthplace of the Xianbei. The tombs in the forest, wetland and grassland of the Greater Khingan Mountains unearthed a large number of sacrificial objects such as pottery, birch bark, bones, bronzes, copper handicrafts and stone vessels. The unearthed cultural relics reflect the process of the development of the Xianbei people after the migrated to the Ergun River basin, adapting to the local natural conditions, forming their own cultural practices, and further developing the productive forces.

The relics reflect the process that Tuoba Xianbei migrated from the origin of Gaxian Cave to the west, from the mountains to the grassland. This process laid the foundation for the Xianbei migration to the south, and then took over the establishment of the Northern Wei Dynasty in the central China. The extremely rich unearthed cultural relics reflect the history of the second stage "moving south to big lake" which embodies the nation's survival in the area, further development of productive forces, and the integration surrounding Murong Xianbei, Yuwen Xianbei and other minorities.

In addition, the Jinjiehao Wall, Bayan Ura Ancient City and other relics of these minorities reflected the establishment of a powerful kingdom in the region to strengthen the military presence, consolidating border activities. All these relics above constitute a historical and cultural evidence of the region, witnessing the development and evolution of ethnic minorities.

Nom du bien : Qinghai Lake

Coordonnées : N36 56 33 E100 13 20
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Qinghai Province, Gonghe County in Hainan Prefecture, Haiyan and Gangcha Counties in Haibei Prefecture

Brève description

(1) Description of boundaries

The nominated property is located completely inside Qinghai Lake National Park, coinciding with the Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve.
The east boundary reaches the eastern end of Qinghai Lake National Park, 36°28′55″N, 100°51′37″E.
The west boundary reaches the western end of Qinghai Lake National Park, 36°56′39″N, 99°34′40″E.
The south boundary reaches the southern end of Qinghai Lake National Park, 36°37′23″N, 100°7′33″E.
The north boundary reaches the northern end of Qinghai Lake National Park, 37°15′30″N, 100°15′41″E.

(2) Area of the nominated property and the buffer zone

The area of the nominated property is 4952 km2.
The buffer zone is at the periphery Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve, between Qinghai Lake National Park and Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve. The area of the buffer zone is 4025.51 km2.

Nom du bien : Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes

Coordonnées : N31 11 45.53 E81 22 35.65
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Burang County, Ngari Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region

Brève description

Located in Burang County, Ngari Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region, at an elevation of over 4,500 m, Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes is adjacent to Zanda County, Gar County and Gya'gya County, bordering on India and Nepal. ‘Two peaks perching to the north and south, two lakes reflecting with each other in the east and west’ describes the basic natural landscape features of the property, comprising a fairly compact geomorphology unit of ‘two mountains with two lakes in between’, also resulting in unique landscape composed of glaciers, lakes, wetlands and grasslands in this region. ‘Two mountains’ means the Sacred Mountain of Gang Rinpoche (6,638m) and the Goddess Peak of Naimona'nyi (7,694m), and ‘two lakes’ refers to the Holy Lake of Manasarovar and the Ghost Lake of Lhanag-tso. Unique natural environment has bred particular and rich religions and cultures, which is of world-class Outstanding Universal Value.

From natural perspective, the landform features of Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes have recorded the comprehensive progress of endogenetic force of the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate and exogenic force of glacier and running water. The Gangdisê Mountains, of which Mount Kangrinboqe is the main peak, are distributed in the direction of NW-SE, parallel with the Himalayas, of which Naimona'nyi is one of the peaks. It is faulted basin in between, with several groups of lakes scattered, and the group including Lake Manasarovar and Lhanag-tso Lake is one of them. As the main peak of Gangdisê Mountains, Mount Kangrinboqe is a pyramidal horn which is formed from the famous ‘Kangrinboqe conglomerate’ under the uplift effect of ‘Karakorum Fault’ and the erosion of glacier, grand and vigorous. Gaint U-shaped valleys formed by Quaternary glaciation are distributed around the pyramidal horn of Mount Kangrinboqe, dislocated by ‘Karakorum Fault’, forming beheaded valley/betrunk gully, with moraines, gullies and alluvial fans widespread at mountain foot. Mount Kangrinboqe, called ‘Handle of stone mill’ by local Tibetan people, looks like ‘Pyramid’ with four symmetric sides, and its shape is totally different from the surrounding mountain peaks. Its famous symbol of Buddhist swastika, formed by a vertical giant glacial valley and a lateral stratum, can be observed from the south. Though Mount Kangrinboqe is not the highest mountain in the region, it is the unique mountain peak which is snow-capped all year round. Wreathed by a sea of clouds and fog, it looks magnificent, unconquerable and mysterious under sunshine. Naimona'nyi Peak is a small subrange of the west Himalayas, where the Himalayas and Gangdisê Mountains are so close that Naimona'nyi Peak sits roughly across Lake Manasarowar from the Mount Kangrinboqe. Glaciated peaks and snow-capped ridges form its east and west wings, which constitute a long wall of ice and snow, standing in the Southern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Both sides of mountain peaks of Naimona'nyi Peak are relatively low and away from the lake, protruding its majesty and magnificence. The sedimentary wide valley by glaciers, running water and lakes between Mount Kangrinboqe and Naimona'nyi Peak has developed large area of Alpine Meadow, with abundant water, meadows, and marshlands. Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes, where Holy Lake of Manasarovar (an interior lake with the largest reserves of freshwater at a relatively high elevation, also the most representative lake wetland in Tibetan Plateau), the source of four great rivers in Asia, and the Ghost Lake of Lhanag-tso are distributed, is also the important demarcation point of the internal and external water system in Tibet. Maquan River flows eastwards, developing into the Yalu Zangbo River, the longest river of Tibet, and then flows into Indian, called the Brahmaputra River; Xiangquan River is called Sutlej River when it flows into India; Shiquan River flows northwards, as a major tributary of Indus River; Majia Zangbo River is the upstream of the Karnali River, a tributary of the River Ganga, when it flows into India. To some extent, the influence of sacred mountains and lakes on surrounding regions is propagated by the flowing around of the four rivers which originate from here. At the same time, typical plateau wetland ecosystems are still kept in the park, and precious plateau biological communities are distributed around the lakes, with abundant and valuable wild lives living here. Distinctive characteristics of geology and landform, combined with ecological diversity, have endowed it outstanding scientific and aesthetic value.

From cultural perspective, Mount Kangrinboqe and Lake Manasarovar are regarded as Sacred Mountain and Holy Lake by Native Bon of Tibet, ancient Jain, Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. Mount Kangrinboqe is a sacred mountain which is universally acknowledged and mentioned by a lot of important writings such as the Indian epic poem of Ramayana, Tibetan historical records of Legends of Gangdisê Mountains and Seas, Puranas and Buddhist work of Great Tang Records on the Western Regions and so on. It is held to be the seat of Olmo Lung Ring of Bon by a lot of scholars, which is both the origin and object of worship as well as spiritual home for Bon. It is also the site where the first Jain Tirthankara, Rishabhadeva, attained Nirvana. According to Hinduism, it is the place that Lord Shiva, the Destroyer, resides in. It is also believed to be the Mount Meru, the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes, by a great many Tibetan Buddhists. Many eminent Monks have undertaken Sādhana beside the Lake Manasarovar, giving initiations and consecrations for it. Ngari Prefecture, where Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes is located in, is the convergence zone of diversified cultures from ancient times, and it has also produced ‘Zhang Zhung civilization’, which is not only the root of ancient Tibetan Plateau civilizations, what is more, it is one of the origins of Chinese multi-cultures. As the cradle of ‘Zhang Zhung civilization’, Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes has witnessed its generation, development, evolution and decline in the process of communication with other civilizations. Furthermore, Ngari Prefecture is located on the key communication routes between northern India, where Buddhism is prevailing, and Tibetan Empire, and it is the vital region for the spread of Buddhism culture through the ages. For its unique religious status, Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes has witnessed the process of mutual exclusion, influence and penetration between Bon and Tibetan Buddhism. It is said that the grand contest of the 11th century between them happened by Lake Manasarovar, ending up with the victory of Tibetan Buddhism. The four great Gompas in four directions of Mount Kangrinboqe, as well as the four holy bath doors and eight grand Gompas in four directions of Lake Manasarovar, have recorded the historical operation process of different religions and sects, and it is a powerful testimony about mutual exclution as well as promotive effects between different religions and cultures. Scenic and historic area of Sacred Mountains and Lakes, together with the magnificent religious buildings, not only reflects the Tibetan customs and cultures, but also bears incomparable religious significance, and it is an important manifestation of Outstanding Universal Value.

Nom du bien : Taihang Mountain

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Henan Province

Brève description

Hebei Section: 113°27′44.30″-115°57′18.02″ E, 36°16′03.96″- 40°21′07.54″N

Shanxi Section: Huangya Cave Scenice and historic area         113° 23′ 37″ E, 36° 46′ 53″ N

Henan Section: Wangwu Mountain Scenice and historic area  112° 17′ 40″ E, 35° 8′ 50″ N

                          Yuntai Mountain Scenice and historic area     113° 21′ 23″ E, 35° 25′ 58″ N

The special relics of geology, stratum, rock, structure, sedimentation, ancient extinct life fossil and hydrology, as well as the unique Zhangshiyan landform of Taihang Mountain have recorded the long geological history and profound changes (several movements of crustal rising, destructive activities, and fault block activities) of the Loess Plateau and step zone of Bohai Bay Basin in eastern Asia for over 2.5 billion years. It is a typical example of mountain range geological evolution in the hinterland of ancient continent (craton).

Located at the intersection of the Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, the Loess Plateau region, the North China Plain region and the Tibet region, Taihang Mountain is endowed with complex biological components. It is an important geographical unit of global biodiversity and one of the central distribution areas of endemic birds in the world, as well as an important corridor for the survival of rare species in Northern China.

Taihang Mountain, represented by the unique Zhangshiyan landform, has towering peaks, deep gorges, continuous waterfalls, peculiar caves. Together with the unique ecological landscape, astronomical phenomena in four seasons and beautiful colors, it has formed a special kind of long painting with mountains and rivers at the turning place of two major tablelands in China.

Different parts of the nominated site are described below:

(1) Taihang Mountains (Hebei Section)

The most typical part of the Hebei section of Taihang Mountains lies in the Zhangshiyan National Geological Park/National Park/Provincial Nature Reserve, located in Zanhuang County on the southwest of Shijiazhuang. The unique red sandstone landform represented by Ω-shaped gorges is known as “Zhangshiyan landform”, forming a “natural geological museum”. As the most intact and complete “natural botanical garden”, the area is home to 654 plant species in 98 families, as well as rare animals such as the black stork (Ciconia nigra).

 (2) Huangya Cave Scenice and historic area, Shanxi

Huangyadong National Forest Park is located in Changzhi, Shanxi in the middle section of Taihang Mountains. The Huangyadong area is famous for the unique palaeontological relics – microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs), formed through the growth, destruction and decomposition of microbial mats. The MISSs in this area show the interaction between microbial communities and the environment, and are highly valuable for microbiological and palaeontological research.

(3) Wangwu Mountain Scenice and historic area, Henan

Wangwu Mountain National Park is located in Jiyuan, Henan in the south of Taihang Mountains. Wangwu Mountains is a distinctive specimen of the geological tectonic movement in ancient North China continent. The products of sedimentation and tectono-thermal events from Archaean Eon to Cenozoic Era are clearly exposed, while the angular unconformity and tectonic relics formed during the Precambrian land formation and mountain formation are well preserved. The distinctive structures formed during the Wangwu Mountain Event such as folds, ancient volcanoes and ancient volcanic remains are direct evidence for the processes of the rifting and collision of North China continent during the Precambrian period.

Wangwu Mountain is a Taoist sacred place, listed as the first of the “Ten Great Grotto-Heavens” during the Han-Wei period. There are now three ancient Taoist temples in Wangwu Mountain: Ziwei Palace, built in 699 A.D., of which only the remains are left nowadays; Yangtai Palace, first built in 727 A.D. and rebuilt in Ming Dynasty; Qingxu Palace, first built in Tang Dynasty, rebuilt in Ming Dynasty and repaird in Qing Dynasty. In the three temples are preserved over a hundred historical stone tablets and tens of Taoist statues, constituting precious material for studies of Chinese Taoist history and history of calligraphy.

 (4) Yuntai Mountain Scenice and historic area, Henan

Yuntai Mountain National Park is located in Jiaozuo, Henan in the south of Taihang Mountains. Yuntai Mountains have unique landforms. The alternates and crossings of peaks and valleys, as well as cliff walls and steps along the cliffs form a secondary landform named Yuntai Landform. Yuntai Sky Waterfall, which has the largest drop (314 m) in Asia, also locates here and forms unique geological scenery. Yuntai Mountains have a wild Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population which locates in highest latitude area in China, and critically endangered invertebrate animals, Craspedacusta xinyangens, as well as more than 400 kinds of seed plants. All of these show a high biodiversity in this area.

Nom du bien : Vertical Vegetation Landscape and Volcanic Landscape in Changbai Mountain

Coordonnées : N42 00 E128 03
Date de soumission : 28/02/2017
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Baishan City, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province

Brève description

The nominated property is a typical long-dormant volcano with obvious volcanic landform group like volcanic lava landform, water landform, Karst landform and glacial and periglacial landform. Meanwhile, Changbai Mountain is a natural museum and a giant gene pool, which gathers a variety of climatic types and biological community types like Temperate Zone and Cold Temperate Zone, Subarctic Zone and Arctic Circle, etc… Its vertical vegetation landscape belt gathers more ecosystems, biological species and typical landforms within a limited geographical area than any other similar properties.

The nominated property is also the most essential habitat for protecting biodiversity in the Northeast Asia. It is endowed with unusual general value in many aspects such as ecology, biology, geology and history. The rare vertical vegetation landscape and volcanic landscape there enjoy inestimable value in terms of ecology, science and aesthetics.

Nom du bien : The Chinese Section of the Silk Roads

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 22/02/2016
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Land Route in Henan Province, Shaanxi Province. Qinghai Province, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; Sea Route in Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province and Guangdong Province

Brève description

Land Route of the Silk Roads

 

Province

City

Name of Property

Coordinates of the Central Point

1.

Shaanxi Province

City of Xi'an

Dagoba of Kumarajiva

N34 1630 E108 44 30

 

2.

Daqin Monastery Pagoda

N34 15 00 E108 31 00

 

3.

Xi'an Mosque

N34 06 34 E108 05 30

 

4.

City of Xianyang

Qian Imperial Mausoleum

N34 34 51 E108 12 53

 

5.

Zhao Imperial Mausoleum

N34 36 13 E108 31 18

 

6.

City of Baoji

The Underground Chamber of Famen Temple

N34 30 00 E107 22 35

7.

City of Xinping

Mao Imperial Mausoleum of Han Dynasty and Tomb of Huo Qubing

N34 19 22 E108 34 08

8.

Henan Province

City Luoyang

Gongyi Stone Cave Temple

N34 48 48 E113 01 25

9.

White Horse Temple

N34 43 27 E112 35 58

10.

Gansu Province

City Jiuquan

Guoyuan-Xincheng Tomb Complex

N39 48 16 E98 25 00

11.

Yulin Grottoes

N39 57 00 E95 57 00

12.

City of Tianshui

Shuiliandong (Water Curtain Cave) Grottoes — Lashao Temple

N34 41 00 E105 40 00

13.

City of Zhangye

Great Buddha Temple in Zhangye

N38 55 48 E100 27 16

14.

Camel City Site and Tomb Complex

N39 20 09 E99 27 26

15.

Mati Temple Grottoes — Jiata Temple and Qianfo (thousand Buddhas) Cave

N38 30 00 E100 19 30

16.

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

Turpan Prefecture

Taizang Tower

N42 52 03 E89 31 36

17.

Bezeklik Grottoes

N42 57 09 E89 33 02

18.

Toyuk Grottoes

N42 51 51 E89 41 40

19.

Aksu Prefecture

Kumtula Grottoes

N41 42 28 E82 41 29

20.

Bedel Pass

N41 23 58 E78 23 40

21.

Simsem Grottoes

N41 51 58 E83 09 43

22.

City of Kaslrar

Mehmud Qeshqeri Tomb

 

23.

Ba YinGuoLeng Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture

Ancient City of Loulan

N40 30 55 E 89 54 50

24.

Hetian Area

Niva Site

N37 58 33 E 82 43 14

25.

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

Guyuan City

Historic City of Guyuan

N36 06 00 E106 28 30

26.

Cemetery of Northern Dynasties and Sui and Tangy Dynasty in Guyuan

N35 58 34 E106 13 59

27.

Site of Kaicheng

N35 57 00 E106 03 30

28.

Mount Xumi Grottoes

N36 00 00 E106 00 00

29.

Qinghai Province

Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Reshui Tomb Complex

N36 10 44 E98 18 00

30.

Xi’ning City

Ancient Path of Mountain Riy ue

N36 20 00 E100 54 05

31.

Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Site of the old Xihai Prefecture

N36 44 03 E100 23 01

32.

Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Site of old Fusi City

N37 04 14 E99 25 43

Sea Route of the Silk Roads

 

Province

City

Name of Property

Coordinates of the Central Point

1.

Fujian Province

City of Quanzhou

Liusheng Pagoda

N24 48 38 E118 43 17

2.

Wanshou Pagoda

N24 43 21 E118 40 21

3.

Stone Inscriptions at Mount Jiuri

N24 57 09 E118 31 17

4.

Kiln Site of Cizao at Mount Jinjiaoyi

N24 51 16 E118 28 02

5.

Tin Hau Temple and Site of Deji Gate

N24 53 52 E118 35 03

6.

Kaiyuan Temple

N24 55 01 E118 34 52

7.

Qingjing Mosque

N24 54 21 E118 35 13

8.

Stone Carving of Mani at Cao'an Temple

N24 46 25 E118 31 47

9.

Islamic Tombs

N24 54 38 E118 36 56

10.

Luoyang Bridge

N24 57 30 E118 40 18

11.

Zhenwu Temple

N24 52 58 E118 37 01

12.

Maritime Market of Tukeng Village at Quan Harbor

N25 09 44 E118 56 31

13.

Kiln Site of Dehua

N25 29 16 E118 15 24

14.

City of Putian

Primary Temple of Mazu at Meizhou

N2 5 23 E118 8 42

15.

Tin Hau Ancestral Temple at Xianliang Harbor

N25 7 49 E119 7 30

16.

City of Zhangzhou

Site of Yue Harbor

N24 25 31 E117 51 06

17.

Kiln Site of Nansheng

N24 13 34 E117 23 09

18.

Zhejiang Province

City of Ningbo

Baoguo Temple

N29 58 57 E121 30 57

19.

Site of Yongfeng Warehouse

N29 52 36 E121 32 36

20.

Asoka Temple

N29 50 54 E121 44 24

21.

Tiantong Temple

N29 48 21 E121 47 27

22.

Guangdong Province

City of Guangzhou

Nanhai Temple and Site of Dock

N23 07 46 E113 15 51

23.

Guangxiao Temple

N23 07 46 E113 15 51

24.

Minaret of Huaisheng Mosque

N23 07 46 E113 15 51

25.

Tomb of Ancient Islamic Savant

N23 07 46 E113 15 51

26.

City of Jiangmen

Shangchuan Commerce Island

N21 44 46 E112 46 46

27.

City of Yangjiang

Site of Nanhai I Shipwreck

N21 34 33 E111 52 10

28.

Jiangsu Province

City of Nanjing

Site of Longjiang Shipyard

N32 03 27 E118 43 55

29.

Tomb of the Boni King

N31 58 55 E118 46 37

30.

Tomb of Zhenghe

N31 54 15 E118 43 55

31.

Tomb of Hongbao

N31 52 49 E118 44 41

The Chinese Section of the Silk Roads includes the Land Route and Sea Route. The Land Route is the ancient trade route that starts from ancient Chang'an, the present-day Xi'an city and the center of politics, economy, and culture in a long period of ancient China. It refers to the overland commercial route connecting Asia. Africa and Europe, which goes over the Longshan Mountain, follows Ilexi Corridor, passes Yumen Pass and Yang Pass, reaches Xinjiang, stretches along the oasis and the Pamir Plateau, enters the Central Asia, crosses Central Asia. Western Asia and Southern Asia, and then leads to Africa and Europe. It also served as an important trunk road where the economic, political and cultural exchanges between the East and the West were taking place. In its very beginning the function of the trade route is to transport silk---the fine, delicate, elegant and portable goods---representing the civilization of ancient China, which enjoyed advanced agriculture and well-developed handicraft industry. Therefore, when the name of "Silk Roads" was first given by the German geographer Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen in the 1870s, it was widely accepted.

The Sea Route of Silk Roads is the maritime trade route connecting the East and the West, by taking advantage of monsoon, ocean currents and traditional navigation technologies. Geographically, the cultural heritage of Sea Route of Silk Roads in China were distributed along the coastal lines and particularly represented by the sea port cities like Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Ningbo and Nanjing. To fulfill its function as ports, these cities had established a comprehensive eco-system including production facilities, docks, shipyards, warehouse, navigational facilities, maritime trade markets, etc. Consequently, considerable cultural monuments and sites were derived from the flourished maritime trade, urban life and cultural exchange. Chronologically, the period of Sea Route of Silk Roads covers from the Qin and Han Dynasties of China (BC 221-AD 220) to middle 19th century, when the steamship began to replace the sailboat and greatly changed the ancient navigational activities.

The Chinese Section of Sea Route of the Silk Roads can be viewed as a cultural bridge linking different regions and nations with rich historical information. Among the heritage sites along the route, the port cities like Quanzhou. Guangzhou, Ningbo and Nanjing stand as the most important junctions. The well preserved monuments and sites in these cities embody the cultural communication among different civilizations, and witnessed the great historical events like Zhenghe's Navigation, Marco Polo's Travel, and Monk Jianzhen's Sailing to ancient Japan, etc..

The Silk Roads had been playing the role of a bridge linking the economies and cultures between the ancient East and West. In the process of its formation and development, the major religions and cultures in the ancient world made plenty of communications, exchanges and amalgamations, which boosted the human being to create splendid and influential civilization and left behind valuable cultural heritage. These heritage sites can provoke and encourage the human beings to better understand the diversity. coexistence and communication of different civilizations along this magnificent route.

Nom du bien : Historic Monuments and Sites of Ancient Quanzhou (Zayton)

Coordonnées : E118 34 51.7 N24 55 02.7
Date de soumission : 20/01/2016
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) : Monuments et sites historiques de l’ancienne Quanzhou (Zayton)
État, province ou région : Fujian Province

Brève description

“Historic Monuments and Sites of Ancient Quanzhou (Zayton)” is a serial nomination of the representative monuments and sites of Quanzhou (Zayton) - an important port city in China in the prosperous period of the Maritime Silk Roads. A total of 16 monuments and sites are nominated, categorised into “historical sites and relics of navigation and trade”, “historical sites and relics of multiculture” and “historical sites and relics of urban construction and land transport”, representing the prosperity of Quanzhou in the Song (960-1279 AD) and Yuan (1271-1368 AD) dynasties as an important hub of the Maritime Silk Roads from multiple perspectives.

Nom du bien : Dunhuang Yardangs

Coordonnées : N40 23 - 40 34 E92 55 - 93 13
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Gansu Province

Brève description

The internationally recognized geomorphic term “Yardang” was originated from Uygur language which means small hill with steep escarpments, and proposed by Swedish explorer Sven Hedin as a formal technical expression when he was exploring the Lop Nor region of Northwest China in the early 20th century. It represents the ridge-like, castle-like, or hill-like erosional landform with considerable scale in extremely arid region, or some basins in arid region, where the non-completely consolidated sediments were sculptured by the wind and flood.

China owns the largest distribution of Yardangs with about 20,000 km2 in total area. The most representative Yardangs on earth are particularly concentrated in basins in Xinjiang and west of Gansu Province, as well as in the Qaidam Basin in Qinhai Province. These basins are located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent under an extremely arid temperate continental climate.

The Basin at the middle and lower reaches of the Shule River and Lop Nor locates in the extremely arid triangle region of the Euroasian continent, one of the most arid regions in the world. The annual precipitation is lower than 50 mm. Climate here is with abundant wind and frequent sand/dust storm. The lithology of Yardang stratum are mudstone with fluvio lacustrine facies, siltstone, evaporate of neogene, middle-late pleistocene and the holocene with light brown, gray, white, khaki, and grey-green intercalary strata in some area. It includes Bulongji Yardang and Qiaowan Yardang in Guazhou County, Beihu Yardang and Dunhuang Yardang Geo-park in Dunhuang City, Loulan Yardang, Longcheng Yardang and Bailongdui Yardang in north and northeast Lop Nur basin.

The Yardangs in Dunhuang Yardang Geo-park with 251km2 in area, are chartered with concentrated distribution and complex formation. They are composed by fluvio lacustrine silty clay with thin silt interlayer of middle-late pleistocene and alternately sculpted by wind and flood in a long time. Meanwhile, the Yardangs here has the best ornamental value than any other places, where all the respective Yardangs, including the ridge-shaped ones in adolescent period, the castle-shaped ones in adult stage, and isolated hill relics ones in late mature and old period can be visited. There are continuously distributed Yardangs that like grand fleets navigating over the ocean, and delicately sculptured Yardangs in peculiar shapes like sphinx, peacock and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. It was in this place that the term “Yardang” was nominated by Sven Hedin.

Nom du bien : Jinggangshan--North Wuyishan (Extension of Mount Wuyi)

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : North Wuyishan Component:Yanshan County, Jiangxi Province Jinggangshan Component:Ji’an City, Jiangxi Province; Yanling County, Hunan Province

Brève description

North Wuyishan Component:N27 56 00 E117 47 00
Jinggangshan Component:N26 30 00 E114 05 00

Description of the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi

At the 23rd meeting of the World Heritage Committee in December 1999, Mount Wuyi was accepted to be inscribed on the World Heritage List. The property meets Criteria iii and vi of world cultural heritage and Criteria vii and x of world natural heritage.

The heritage site is located in Wuyishan city of Fujian province, taking Mount Huanggang, the southeast slope of the main peak of Wuyi mountains in Eastern Mainland China as the main body. Wuyi is a coastal range, which belongs to the eastern monsoon climate zone of Asian Continent. The area of the heritage site is 635.75 km2, while the buffer zone covers 364 km2. The main peak Mount Huanggang with an elevation of 2158 m, falls on the boundary of Fujian Province, which is the highest peak of subtropical regions of Eastern Eurasian Continent, distributing the vegetation types from monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest to sub-alpine meadow, which forms an abundant horizontal and vertical band spectrum, and there is a bio-rich and relatively intact biota and ecosystem.

The cultural heritage within the heritage site mainly includes: the “Gumin nationality ” culture and the later “Min-Yue nationality” culture and “Neo-Confucianism” . Unique highlights include“boat coffins in cliff caves", and burial accessories, Min-Yue King Han City Ruins, the tomb of Zhu Xi and sites of ancient Academies. Mount Wuyi is not only the birthplace of Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, but also the place where it thrives to its peak.

Description of the Nominated Property

Two components, which cover the east slope and west slope in middle section of Luoxiao mountains and the north slope of Wuyi mountains, are proposed to constitute the Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan as an extention of the existing mixed World Heritage site Mount Wuyi. Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan and the existing World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi both belong to the same geotectonics unit , the same physical geography region, and the same general culture, but they are different from each other in terms of their physical geographies, mountain ecosystems, biodiversity, natural landscapes and local culture, and they show different aspects of the outstanding universal values of the Palaearctic Realm Chinese Subtropical Forest province and Southeast China-Hainan Ecoregion. Both together constitute a fuller representation of intact mountain ecological system, habitats of flora and fauna, and local culture. Designation of Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan as an extension will ensure greater habitat integrity and connectivity of Southeast China-Hainan ecoregion.

As a whole, the nominated property and the heritage site including Wuyi mountains on the east and Luoxiao mountains on the west are linked physically via the hills of the Nanling range that forms the headwater of the Poyang Lake Basin and Dongting Lake Basin. Parts of Nanling range may merit addition to the serial site at a future date.

The nominated property Jinggangshan - North Wuyishan consists of two components; Jinggangshan Component and North Wuyishan Component, the total area of the nominated property is 788.68 km², and that of the buffer zone is 536.94km². Among which, Jinggangshan component covers the east slope and west slope of the middle section of Luoxiao mountains, including Jinggangshan region and Taoyuandong region, the area of the nominated property is 629.35 km2,and the buffer zone covers 400.68km². North Wuyishan Component covers the north slope of the middle section of Wuyi Mountains which borders with the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi to the south, the area of the nominated property is 159.35 km2, and the buffer zone covers 136.26 km2.

The two components constitute not only the catchment areas of the first and second freshwater lakes of China (Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake), but also one of the water supply regions of the two major paddy rice production areas in southern China. The two components respectively represent the physical geographies, ecosystems, biodiversity, natural landscapes and local culture characteristics of the north slope of Mount Wuyi and the east and west slopes of Luoxiao range in southeast China, but they are irreplaceable with each other. The nominated property is rich in terms of biodiversity of east Eurasia, and is the important passage for higher plants and vertebrates from south to north immigration and from east to west spread in east monsoon zone of China. It is the outstanding biological refuge of the Tertiary and Quaternary Glacial Age, which is also the cradle for species re-diffusing in the Post Glacial Age. It is internationally listed as an Important Bird Area and Endemic Bird Area. It is the refuge and differenting center for amphibians and reptiles in east Asia. It is one of the “Global 200 Ecoregions” identified by the World Wildlife Fund. It is the key region to study bio-geography, species alternation and differentiation in east Asia. It is the indispensable and important complement to the natural habitat and biodiversity of Mount Wuyi. The nominated property and the World Heritage Site Mount Wuyi together incorporate the extremely diversified, largest and the most representative Chinese middle subtropical forest and southern tropical monsoon rain-forest in the monsoon zone of eastern China mainland. It forms more intact horizontal and altitudinal vegetation spectral bands, which is the typical representative of the integrity of ecological system and natural vegetation zones of east China mainland, belonging to the most outstanding subtropical forest of the world. The nominated property preserves a large number of ancient relict plants species, relict associations, species endemic to China, abundant amphibians and reptiles, birds and mammals, among which many are endemic, rare and endangered species. The nominated property possesses many thermophilic species and associations, such as butterflies, orchids, ferns and mosses, and it also preserves the most diverse coniferous forests in south China. The differences and distribution pattern of species in different mountains and catchment areas provide unique records for the evolution of ecology.

The cultural heritage part of the nominated property consists of two components: North Wuyishan Component and Jinggangshan Component. The former takes Er’hu Academy as the main body. The latter includes Baikoucheng Site, Philosophy Scholars ruins in Ming and Qing Dynasties (including Jinggangshan academy architectures and tombs). The two components and the cultural heritage of Mount Wuyi form serial cultural heritages, which are all belonged to a whole zone of the same natural and cultural heritage.

Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan, as the extention of Mount Wuyi, the declaration way is to extend the region of the property, namely Jinggangshan-North Wuyishan is nominated under common criteria (iii), (vi), (vii) and (x) of World Natural and Cultural Heritage.

Nom du bien : ShuDao

Coordonnées : N32 11 13 E105 32 11
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Sichuan Province, Prefectures: Guangyuan, Bazhong, Mianyang, Deyang, Nanchong and Dazhou;

Brève description

Lying in the South of Daba and Qinling Mountains, Shudao, the ancient road system connecting Central and mountainous Southwest China for more than 2,300 years, is featured by its marvellous paths wriggling in the precipitous mountains in Northern Sichuan. The heritage route system, together with a variety of associative historical towns, Taoism/Buddhism temples, and other cultural relics, are deeply imbedded in the surrounding magnificent hilly landscapes which are also home to extraordinary biodiversity of global significance including giant panda, takin and Chinese Monal, red panda, giant salamander. The property is a reflection of coevolution of Chinese cultures with harsh mountain environment, and a record of people’s adaptation to and interactions with diversified natural systems in thousands of years.

Total area of the property is 3,627 km2, including 2,840 km2 as its buffer zone.  

Nom du bien : Tianzhushan

Coordonnées : N30 35 56 - 30 47 41 E116 21 04 -116 31 29
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Qianshan County, Anqing City, Anhui Province

Brève description

Located in Qianshan County, Anhui Province, Tianzhushan has both pleasant ecological environment and profound historical culture. It is a large mountainous landscape, dotted with granite peaks and caves, waterfalls and springs, which is the most beautiful granite along Tan-Lu fault zone. Tianzhushan is rich in geoheritage such as mammalian fossils and an ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt of eclogite, an unusually dense rock important for driving convection within the solid Earth. Tianzhushan has profound cultural landscapes with a long history. It is the cradle of Hui Culture. Xuejiagang Culture discovered in Xuejiagang site is the only Neolithic culture in Anhui province and the origin of ancient culture of Anhui province. The Cliffside stone inscription recorded the inscription art for 1200 years. Sanzu Temple has an extremely important status and influence in the Tianzhushan religious culture. The nominated property is the area where he first long narrative poem Peacocks Flying Southward took place.

Total area of the property is 338.02 km2, including 225.3 km2 as its buffer zone.  The nominated property is divided into two parts. The northern part is granite Landform Park, with the same boundary as Mount Tianzhu scenic area planning area, an area of 102.72 km2. For the southern part, UHP metamorphic belt, paleontological fossils and XueJiagang site, an area of about 10 km2.

Nom du bien : Tulin-Guge Scenic and Historic Interest Areas

Coordonnées : N31 27 53 E79 40 10
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Zhada County, Ngari Prefecture of Tibet

Brève description

From natural perspective, in the nominated property there is a specific geomorphology type named “forest soil”, which presents outstanding universal value aesthetically and geologically. The lacustrine sedimentary around Zhada Basin and Sutlej River Basin of the nominated property belongs to the forest soil type but exhibits distinctive features, making a “Guge type”. The “Guge type”, composed of semi-consolidated lacustrine fluvial clay, sand and gravel, taking “pagoda forest” as the basic structural unit, was formed under dry climate, dominated by construction joints, affected by river erosion, rain shower eclipse and freezing weathering. The forest soil around Zhada County is tall and straight, composed of varied types, which shows distinctive aesthetical characteristics against the specific extreme natural environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The nominated property shows different hues, bedding structures and physical composition, among which there are a large quantity of fossils, presenting direct or indirect proofs of ancient environmental evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

From cultural perspective, the area around Tulin-Guge cultivated special Guge civilization, with palaces and cave ruins as strong testimony. Guge Kingdom was the most influential kingdom among all the local government in Tibet after the end of Tubo Dynasty. Similar to Pompeii and Maya civilization, Guge Kingdom suddenly came to an end in its highest prosperity. As the origin place of the second bloom of Tibetan Buddhism after the suppression of Buddhism by Lang Darma, Guge relic truly recorded the history of Tibetan Buddhism in the late 10th century AD. Moreover, Guge Art School represents the climax of Tibetan religious art development, which reflected cultural communication between local art and foreign art, as well as between religious culture and secular culture.

Nom du bien : Xinjiang Yardang

Coordonnées : N42 25 - 46 30 E85 30 - 92 45
Date de soumission : 30/01/2015
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Brève description

The internationally accepted landform Yardang has origin in Uygur language, Xinjiang, China; it was Sven Hedin who made it a formal technical expression in the early 20th century; it means a weathing landform, mainly ridge-like, castle-like or hill-like in extremely arid region and some basins in arid region with a considerable scale, where the not totally solidified sediment of the Cretaceous period, the Jurassic period and the Tertiary period (especially from the late tertiary period) will be weathered by the wind and runoff.

China is one of the countries in the world with a large area of concentrated Yardangs, about 20,000 km2. The most typical Yardangs are particularly concentrated in the basins in Xinjiang and Qaidam Basin in Qinhai Province. Xinjiang, located at the hinterland of Euroasian continent, and sparse rain and abundant wind make convenience for the development over 6,000km2 of Yardang. Hami basin, Lop Nur and Junggar basin are where the Yardangs are mainly distributed in Xinjiang, and it is an outstanding example of Yardangs under the temperate continent climate and in the desert of the extremely arid region in central Asia.

The Hami Basin is the largest intermontane lowland fault basin in China where there are large areas of sandstone, mudstone and glutenite of the Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene periods. Under the effects of runoff and wind, a number of types of Yardang groups have developed in an area of 2,500km2, 120km long and 30-50km wide, which are mainly castle-shaped, ridge-shaped and hill-shaped, and light brown or khaki in color mixed with purple stripes, most of the top covered with 2-4m salt crust. The elevation of Hami Yardangs differs greatly, has various monomer positions and magnificent integral sight. The Yardangs in the Hami Basin provide typical examples of water-eroded gullies and wind-eroded trenches at the early developmental stage, bluff-shaped, castle-shaped, ridge-shaped, and peak cluster at the middle stage and hill relics at the late stage. It is where the largest scaled and best-preserved Yardang with the most types can be found in China.

The Junggar Basin is the second largest inland basin in China with a vast area of Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstone, mud stone and conglomerate, gray-greenish, brown-reddish, amaranth and khaki colored Yardangs have developed on a large scale in Urhe. The landform of this area is formed initially by water erosion and then by the wind force, developed castle-shaped and pagoda-shaped Yardangs, belong the middle stage of Yardang development. Strong winds blow through and across the Yardangs in Urhe throughout the year, making a sound like the wail of a ghost. Thus, Urhe is given the name of ghost city. Urhe is home to hill like Yardangs with the purple reddish, yellow and greyish green colored most popular.

Nom du bien : Ancient Porcelain Kiln Site in China

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Zhejiang Province

Brève description

Central Point Coordinates of Yue Kiln Sites at Shanglin Lake: N 30°07′50″, E 121°19'35''

Central Point Coordinates of Longquan Kiln Sites at Dayao:

Dayao (N 27°56′16″, E 119°0′08″)

Xikou (N 27°54′35″, E 118°59′07″)

Jincun Village (N 27°48′50″, E 119°0′03″)

Yangqiaotou (N27°51′10″, E 119°1′55″)

The Ancient Porcelain Kiln Site in China includes the serial representative sites of ancient Chinese celadon-producing kilns from the 1st to the 17th century. They are located in Zhejiang Province, a concentrated area of celadon production in China, with Yue Kiln Sites at Shanglin Lake and Longquan Kiln Sites at Dayao as two quintessence. The colossal scale and profuse historical remains of the sites substantiate the invention and lineage of the time-honored celadon making tradition of China.

The Yue Kiln Sites at Shanglin Lake are situated in the northeast of Zhejiang Province in China’s southeast coastal region. The sites include the Shanglin lake area and Silongkou kiln ruins extending to an area around 231.69 ha, surrounding the water system of the Shanglin Lake and Guyinding Lake, where 116 sites have been discovered so far. There are abundant remains of porcelain shards accumulated on the ground, buried workshops, kilns and other remains of production facilities, as well as historic settings related to porcelain production including porcelain clay zone, firewood resource zone, slopes where kilns were located, water sources and transport waterways. Yue Kiln Sites at Shanglin Lake established in the Eastern Han Dynasty (1st century) was one of the earliest cradles of porcelain making of China, representing the best art form of China’s celadon production during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (8th-10thcenturies), and was celadon production center of the Tang and the Song dynasties. As the extraordinary artisanship of the ancient Chinese porcelain, the Yue Kiln Sites at Shanglin Lake is one of significant kiln complex in Chinese celadon production history, and had a profound impact on the development of celadon making across China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula.

Following Yue Kiln, the Longquan Kiln Sites at Dayao is a celadon production center emerged during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. Occupying an area around 511.9 ha, it is situated in the regions of today’s Xiaomei Town and Chatian Town of Longquan City in Zhejiang Province, where 126 sites have been found by far. There are abundant porcelain making remains including accumulation of porcelain shards, remains of workshops, kilns, porcelain-making tools, and celadon related historic settings including porcelain clay zone, firewood resources zone, slopes where kilns were located, water sources, and transport waterways. They evidence the kiln’s prime time, scattering a broad area, abundant workshops and kilns and other production facilities, as well as large numbers of products of high quality. Flourishing in the Northern Song Dynasty and reaching its prime from the Southern Song Dynasty to mid-Ming Dynasty, it once became the largest porcelain production center of the country, was the mainstream craftsmanship of celadon making summit in Chinese history. Its unique artistic achievement sets an exemplar of intangible cultural heritage of mankind. With the paper-thin body, thick glazes like jade and purple rim and cinnabar base of works, Yue Kiln, known as Ge Kiln and Di Kiln in Song Dynasty, was one of the Five Prestigious Kilns of Song Dynasty.

From the 9th to the 16th century, works of Yue Kiln and Longquan Kiln were not only supplied to the imperial court and domestic folk life, but also exported to other countries and regions of Asia, Africa and Europe. Making great contributions to the development of the world civilization, its craftsmanship and products had exerted a prominent influence on ceramic production in many places of China and other regions in East Asia, Southeast Asia and North Africa.

Nom du bien : Ancient Tea Plantations of Jingmai Mountain in Pu'er

Coordonnées : N 22° 10′ 26″ E 100° 28′ 49″
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Pu'er city, Yunnan Province

Brève description

The region of Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan in China, is a world's biodiversity hot spot and place of origin and reservation for various species. In recent years, wild ancient tea trees of some 2700 years old, half wild-half cultivated ancient tea trees older than 1000 years and well preserved large ancient Pu'er tea plantations with tea trees of 100-1000 years old have been discovered in this area, making it one of the regions that practiced earliest use of tea resource and had significant influence on the tea culture of the world.

The nominated property is located on the Jingmai Mountain in the southwestern border area of Yunnan Province, with widely distributed tea plantations. The Mountain has a declining trend from the northwest to the southeast. In about 180 A.D., a branch of Blang, an ethnic minority group, discovered tea when migrating to the region of Jingmai, and tried to cultivate tea trees in the forest because of limited land and the climate and soil conditions favorable for tea trees. In the 3rd century, Blang people gradually mastered the tea cultivation techniques, and began to domesticate, cultivate tea trees and trade tea products, thus started the 1800 years’ history of tea cultivation, settlement and development in this area and passed on from generation to generation. According to historical records, the earliest recorded tea market in the nominated area came out in 1139 A.D., and the tea trade flourished in the Qing Dynasty.

In the nominated area, the highest elevation reaches 1662 meters (Nuogang Mountain) and the lowest 1100 meters (Nanlang Valley). Ancient tea plantations are mainly distributed in the mountain area of 1250-1550 meters above sea, and concentrates in three areas: Manggeng-Mengben ancient tea plantations, Jingmai Dapingzhang-Nuogang ancient tea plantations and Mangjing ancient tea plantations. In a total area of 1870 hectares, there are about 1.13 million ancient tea trees, of which the oldest tea tree has a history of 1400 years. Less than 10% of the tea trees are aged500-1000 years, about 30% are 300-499 years old, and the average age of the tea trees in the entire biocenosis is about 200 years. The nominated area is not only the largest and the best-preserved ancient tea plantation area of the region, but also the largest ancient cultivated arbor tea plantation of the world.

Ancient tea trees grow extensively in secondary growth tropical monsoon evergreen broad-leafed forests in South Asia. Such forests have the arbor layer at the top, the shrub layer in the middle and the vegetation layer at the bottom. Tall arbors such as toona ciliata and ficus microcarpa grow in the upper layer; the middle layer is dominated byancient tea  trees and decorated with lauraceae, ericaceae and other plants; and the  lower layer is  covered by gramineae and herbs such as ferns, galenicals and wild vegetables. Compared with common terraced tea plantations, such a special multi-layered ecosystem helps ancient Pu’er tea plantations with well-preserved soil fertility and effectively reduced disease and pest. The special way of tea cultivation in forests was created by human through persistent study of the nature.

Over more than one thousand years, native people have built a close and friendly interaction with the ancient tea plantations based on discovery, cultivation and utilization of tea, thus forming a charming mountain settlement landscape and rich regional ethnic culture. The nominated property involves two administrative villages, namely Jingmai and Mangjing, with a total population of about 5,500 from more than 1500 households, respectively belonging to the Dai, Blang, Hani and Wa nationalities. In this region there are eight minority villages with distinctive characteristics generally built in area about 1500 meters above sea with sufficient sunlight, surrounded by forest, farmland, wild tea trees and wild animals. The villages have clear public centers-village heart. Residential houses are mainly two-storied pile-dwellings with a balcony for drying tea. Symbols of tea are often used on buildings as decorative patterns. Rich folk cultures are derived from tea production process, including religion, language, customs, architecture culture, vernacular literature, village regulations and so on. In particular, local people not only believe in Buddhism, but also believe in the "tea ancestor". A grand ritual will be held each year for their ancestors who discovered tea, and in each tea plantation, a most exuberant tea tree will be worshiped and respected as a "tree of tea spirit". A series of village regulations are formulated and played an active role in protection of the ancient tea plantations. Therefore, the nominated area is the most typical place reflecting harmonious relationship between human and land.

Nom du bien : Archaeological Sites of the Ancient Shu State: Site at Jinsha and Joint Tombs of Boat- shaped Coffins in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province; Site of Sanxingdui in Guanghan City, Sichuan Province 29C.BC-5C.BC

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Guanghan City and Chengdu City, Sichuan Province

Brève description

Sanxingdui Site: N 30°59′38″, E 104°11′58

Jinsha Site:         N 30°41′01″, E 104°00′41″

Joint Tombs of Boat-shaped Coffins: N 30°40′00″, E 104°03′19″

According to legends and historical records, there was once an ancient state called “Shu” located in the enclosed Sichuan Basin in Southwest China. In 316 B.C., the ancient Shu State was conquered by the Qin State and the ancient Shu culture had been buried under the mainstream Central Plain (Zhongyuan) culture, only leaving a few reign titles mentioned in the later literatures and tales. Thus, the reconstruction of the ancient Shu history and culture is heavily relied on archaeological materials and references. Thanks to the important archaeological findings in the sites of ancient Shu, a unique and fascinating civilization, which was entirely different from the Bronze Civilization of the Yellow River Valley, was gradually revealed. The Archaeological Sites of the Ancient Shu State is an outstanding representative of the Bronze Age Civilization of China, East Asia and even the world. The nominated Archaeological Sites of the Ancient Shu State consists of Sanxingdui Site, Jinsha Site, and the Great Tomb in the Shangye (commerce) Street, and their natural environment in a total heritage area of 611.3 hectares.

1.  Sanxingdui Site

The Sanxingdui Site is located in the west suburb of Guanghan city, in Sichuan Province. With the ancient city as the core, the site covers an area of 600 hectares. This is a large city site existed for a very long time. It had become the cultural center of Bronze Civilization in Sichuan Basin since around 1800 B.C. The city was enclosed by high earthen city walls in an area of 360 hectares with clear function zoning: taking the east-west direction river across the city as the central line, in the north large palaces were built on the earthen terrace, in the south was the religious area symbolized by sacred temples, while in the northwestern suburb were the tombs. Great changes took place in around 1200 B.C.: temples were buried down and vessels in the temples were damaged and buried, which could be proven by more than 6,000 pieces of valuable cultural relics unearthed from the two sacrificial pits.

2.  Jinsha Site

Located in the west of Chengdu city, the site covers 11 hectares centering the religious and sacrificial area. The site emerged after Sanxingdui in 1200 B.C. and was abandoned in around 650 B.C. The layout of function zoning is similar to that of Sanxingdui ancient city: a west-east river cuts the site into the south and north parts. The palaces were located in the north part and the religious and sacrificial area were in the south. In the west of these two parts, there were populace’s residential areas and the tombs. The religious and sacrificial area was about 1 hectare where a tall wooden sacrificial building has been revealed and over 6000 valuable cultural relics have been unearthed from more than 60 remains of ritual objects. The excavated cultural relics are surprisingly similar to those from Sanxingdui Site in terms of category and style. A large amount of sacrificial objects are buried under the religious and sacrificial area and needs further protection.

3.  Joint Tombs of Boat-shaped Coffins

Located in the central part of Chengdu city, the nominated area is about 0.3 hectare centering the tomb. This is a large tomb with 17 coffins of different sizes dated back to 400 B.C. The tomb pit is in rectangular shape measured 30.5 meters long, 20.3 meters wide and 2.5 meters deep. The bottom of the pit is paved by wood slabs bearing a large boat-shaped coffin of the occupant and smaller coffins in other shapes. All coffins are made of single trunks of trees. The largest boat-shaped coffin is 18.8 meters long and 1.5 meters wide and contains a large number of valuable cultural relics. Above the tomb there are magnificent architectures measured 38.5 meters long and 30 meters wide and consisting the front and rear parts. The rear chamber covers the tomb symbolizing the residence of the dead; the front chamber stuck out of the tomb representing the work place of the tomb owner and the ancestral temple for later generations. It is the earliest physical evidence for Chinese mausoleum system known as “temple in the front and residence in the rear”. Around the tomb, several similar large graves are found underground. According to study on unearthed objects, this is a tomb of the royal family of the ancient Shu State. After Shu was conquered by Qin State, the tomb, just like Sanxingdui Site and Jinsha Site, was long forgotten till they were discovered today.

Nom du bien : Diaolou Buildings and Villages for Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Sichuan Province

Brève description

The North End: N 32°17′, E 104°10′

The South End: N 30°04′, E 101°38′

The East End:   N 32°17′, E104°10′

The West End:  N 31°29′, E 102°12′

The Diaolou Buildings and Villages for Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups are located in the alpine valleys in the east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and include 225 Diaolou buildings and 15 villages distributed in Barkam County, Jinchuan County, Wenchuan County, Li County, and Mao County in Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Region, and in Kangding (known as Tatsienlu in the Western World) County, Danba County, and Daofu County in Ganzi (known as Garz, or Garze, or Kardze in the Western World) Tibetan Autonomous Region, in Sichuan Province in the upper reaches of the Dadu River and the Min River in the Hengduan Mountains. The nominated property includes: Buwa Diaolou Buildings and Village of Qiang in Wenchuan County, including 6 Diaolou Buildings; Luobo Village of Qiang in Wenchuan County; Taoping Village of Qiang in Li County, including 3 Diaolou Buildings; Heihu Village of Qiang and Yingzuihe Village in Mao County, including 7 Diaolou Buildings; Diaolou Buildings and Tibetan Villages in Danba County, including 151 Diaolou Buildings distributed in Kegeyi Village, Xiarenyi Village, Boselong Village, Han'eyi Village, Zuobi Village, Moluo Village, Dongfeng Village, Gongbu Village, and Jiaju Village; Diaolou Buildings  and Tibetan Villages of Zhibo, in Songgang  Village and Zhibo Village of Barkam County, including 4 Diaolou Buildings; Group of Diaolou Buildings of Zengda Pass, in Jinchuan County, including 2 Diaolou Buildings; Ancient Diaolou Buildings of Kangding, including 23 Diaolou Buildings in Kangding County; and Ancient Diaolou Buildings of Daofu, including 21 Diaolou Buildings in Daofu County.

The altitudes of the area where the Diaolou Buildings and Villages for Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups are located are mostly between 1500 to 5000 meters above sea. From west to east, there lie the Great Snowy Mountains, the Dadu River, the Qionglai Mountains, and the Min River. With several parallel valleys in the north-south direction providing passages as part of the Tibetan-Yi Corridor for migrations of the ethnic groups, the area is important in the exchanges between  ethnic groups in West China. The Qiang people is one of the most ancient ethnic groups in China, according to the inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells (Oracle) of the Shang Dynasty (1600BC - 1046BC), and have lived in this region for a long time. The Tibetan people migrated into the region after the 7th Century, and developed into a branch different from that in Tibet through the ethnic fusion with the local people, for example, the Jiarong (Rgyalrong) Tibetan and Zhaba Tibetan Ethnic Groups living in the nominated property are included in this branch. The Qiang and the Tibetan people live together in this region. The folk worship of deities of heaven and mountains, and religions of Bonpo and Tibetan Buddhism prevail in this area. The mode of production is mainly farming supplemented by animal husbandry, which forms a three-dimensional agriculture in the vertical mountainous climatic environment. The Diaolou buildings and residences, farmlands, meadows, and alpine valleys finally compose the cultural landscape of agricultural settlements in the plateau.

The Diaolou buildings are some high watchtowers mostly built with stone, with only a few built of adobe in the areas where Qiang people live. A Diaolou building is usually 10 to 60 meters high and covers an area of 25 to 100 square meters. On each floor, it is designed with openings, floor slabs and a single wooden ladder. There are often embrasures on the exterior wall. Besides the square plan, the floor plans of the Diaolou buildings of Qiang are often in form of equilateral polygons with extra ridges masoned on the outer walls, while the plans of the Diaolou buildings of Tibetan are often star-shaped with 5, 6, 8, 12, or 13 corners. The techniques used in the construction of the Diaolou buildings include the outward masonry, the batteredwall and the use of wooden bars for reinforcement etc., all of which represent the highest level of traditional Chinese stone tower building techniques. The earliest historic document mentioning the Diaolou buildings was the Book of the Later Han written in the 5th Century. However, among extant Diaolou buildings so far, the earliest constructed one dates back to the Tang Dynasty (618-907AD) and the others constructed in later dynasties until the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911AD). The origins of the Diaolou buildings are associated with the nature worship and the defensive demands of the ancestors of Tibetan and Qiang people, with functions of residence, religion, ostentatious display of wealth, and geomancy (Fengshui) emerging later. They finally developed into various types of architecture in combination with folk residences, temples, and military camps (fortresses of tribal leaders).

The residences of the Tibetan and Qiang people are often 2 to 4-storey flat-topped Diaolou buildings with rectangular plans, stone-wood structure and earthen roofs. People rear livestock in pens on the ground floor, live and store on the upper middle floors, and use the top floor as the drying platform. The main living room is equipped with a fireplace and the area of each floor is gradually reduced upwards. White stones are piled up at the four corners of the roof, reflecting the local worship of snowy mountains and white stones.

The villages of Tibetan and Qiang ethnic groups are the agricultural settlements on the plateau, which are usually located on the terraces or gentle slopes between the alpine valleys, abiding by the principles of facing the sun, situated close to water, avoiding the winds, and occupying less arable lands. They are often surrounded with sacred mountains, divine woods, religious and entertaining places. The settlements are diverse in scale, with the different distribution: concentrated, dispersive, or along the mountain ridges. The Diaolou buildings are distributed inside or outside the village or close to the strategically important places according to their various functions. The number of Diaolou buildings varies in different villages, with that of the Tibetan villages relatively larger.

Nom du bien : Dong Villages

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Guizhou Province, Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Brève description

Shudong VillageN 26°06′22″, E 108° 55′21″

Dali Village: N 26°02′26″, E 108° 38′21″

Zadang Village: N 26°00′15″, E 108°38′38″

Village:N 25°57′37″, E 108°44′11″

Zengchong Village:N 25°54′55″, E 108°41′36″

Tang’an Village:N 25°54′03″, E 109°12′40″

Xiage Village:N 25°54′11″, E 109°12′07″

Gaoqian Village:N 25°51′18″, E 108°40′31″

Zhanli Village:25°50′38″N, 108°54′39″E

Ma’antun, Pingyan Village:N 25°53′37″, E 109°38′14″

Pingzhai, Pingyan Village:N 25°54′00″, E 109°38′20″

Yanzhai, Pingyan Village:N 25°54′25″, E 109°38′18″

Gaoxiu Village:N 26°09′26″, E 109°42′11″

Gaoyou Village:N 25°59′02″, E 109°52′35″

Gaoshang Village:N 26°01′37″, E 108°41′26″

Kezhong Village:N 26°01′37″, E 108°41′26″

Gaosheng Village:N 26°01′37″, E 108°41′26″

Yanglan Village:N 26°1.9′, E 109°52.4′

Pingtan Village:N 26°1.9′, E 109°52′

Hengling Village:N 26º04′04″, E 109 º43′18″

Yutou Village:N 26°08′19″, E 109°42′22″

Shangbao Village:N26°22′23″, E 110°07′46″

The nominated Dong Villages were located in southwest China, and under jurisdiction of Liping County, Rongjiang County and Congjiang County in Guizhou Province, Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Tongdao Dong Autonomous County and Suining County in Hunan Province.

Residing close to the water is the most important settlement pattern of Dong Villages. The houses are distributed on mountain slopes along rivers

The drum tower and Sasui (famous heroine of Dong Nationality) altar are the most important basic elements of a Dong village. The multi-storey drum tower, the symbol of a Dong village, is usually built in the flat or high grounds of the village center. A square is built in front of the drum tower, and provides a venue for the entire village to come together for meetings, festival celebrations, and other public activities. The typical residences of Dong people are called “Diaojiaolou”, stilt houses built with Chinese fir wood and consisting of three or four floors. They feature a wood column-tie structure, and a tiled roof, and are surrounded by corridors and railings. In some regions, the corridors and the eaves are respectively connected between houses. A large number of Dong Villages have fish ponds digged out in front and at the back of the houses and build a two-storey granary on stilts beside. The fish ponds are used to rear fish and for fire safety, features a waterside village.

The village road network uses public structures including village gate and drum tower as nodal points, the road between the gate and public structures is the artery with secondary paths leading to every household. The roads are mostly paved with stone slabs or embedded with pebbles. In large Dong Villages located beside the river, there is often a gate that leads to the waterside dock. Some village gates are integrated with drum towers, providing quite a magnificent view. Roofed bridges (Fengyuqiao) are often seen above the river. They are supported by stacked layers of wood that extends outward to widen the span and minimize shear force of major beams. On top of the bridge is a wooden-structure shelter with a tiled roof. Sometimes, pavilions are built on both ends of the bridge or at the location of the bridge piers.

On the periphery of the Dong village, one can usually find rows of wooden stands which are called “Heliang”, used to dry the grain. Outside of the village are usually paddy fields, with fish kept in water and featuring the co-existence of rice and fish. Such agricultural and breeding system achieves the ecological balance and can provide adequate and proper nutrition to villagers.

The intangible cultural heritage of Dong Villages is also remarkable and unique. The “Grand Song” of Dong Nationality has been inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The Dong Medicine and the living and production traditions, the autonomous administration of the villagers, the marriage and courtship customs, the funerary customs, music and drama, traditional costumes, weaving skills, etc. have all been well preserved.

Nom du bien : Lingqu Canal

Coordonnées : N 25° 36’ 10”, E 110° 41’ 10”
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xing'an County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Brève description

The Lingqu Canal, also known as Dou Canal or Xing’an Canal, is located in Xing’an County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is an ancient canal that connects the Xiang River and Li River, joins the Yangtze River Basin and Pearl River Basin and links up Central China and Lingnan region. Its overall length is 36.4 km running through towns of Xing’an, Yan’guan, Rongjiang and Xiang’li. Its main projects include the Canal Head Complex, the South Canal and the North Canal.

After the Qin Empire unified China, Shi Lu was assigned by Emperor Qinshihuang to build a canal for grain transport. The project was completed in 214 B.C., which is known as the Lingqu Canal today. It has directly secured the South China with military significance. The Canal has been in service for over 2000 years as the major water transport route between Lingnan (today’s Guangdong and Guangxi) and Central China till completion of the Yuehan Railway and Xianggui Railway in modern times.

The Canal’s main design philosophy is to use weirs to elevate water level of the Xiang River, and they further divert one stream (today’s South Canal) into an upper branch of Li River and directs another stream through a new canal (today’s North Canal) which meanders into Xiang River. In this way, the two rivers are connected to allow communication between the river systems of the Yangtze and the Pearl River. At the canal head, overflow dams, training dikes and side overflow dams are used to divert water and control flood. Moreover, the Canal was built by combing excavation and dam construction, the degree of slope is eased by curves, use of water was controlled by Doumen(ancient locks) and weirs, and existing natural waterway (former course of Xiang River) was utilized or new canals were dug to discharge flood. This is a comprehensive project with multiple hydraulic facilities and making use of all available natural resources. It exhibits the distinctive style and the scientific achievements of ancient Chinese hydraulic projects.

The Lingqu Canal was also built as an irrigation project which turned Xing’an an agriculturally developed area. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Canal was completely renovated and well preserved as an ancient project. Though it no longer serves navigation and  the irrigation function is weakened, related waterways and hydraulic facilities are preserved. Today, the Lingqu Canal stands as an important cultural heritage and a multifunctional hydraulic project serving irrigation, flood control, water supply and tourism.

The technological system created by the Lingqu Canal is of great significance in the world history of canal. It is the evidence for the unique canal technology of ancient China, and an outstanding example of early canals that reflect the Asian hydraulic technology and navigation technology of ancient civilizations. It has innovative and representative achievements in design of a mountain-crossing canal, curved navigation route with locks, and accurate control over water flow by comprehensive hydraulic facilities. Constructed in 214 B.C., it had vital importance for the success of the Qin Empire's conquest of Baiyue ethnic group and Lingnan region, and helped maintain stability in the southern territory of a unified multinational country. Meanwhile, as a typical example of Chinese ancient canal landscapes, the unique landform and winding waterways as well as the rurality of the Lingqu Canal have great aesthetic value.

Nom du bien : SanFangQiXiang

Coordonnées : N 24°26′51″, E 118°3′43″
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Fuzhou City, Fujian Province

Brève description

SanFangQiXiang, the historic district of the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys, is located in Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province in China. It is situated between the Zicheng (a smaller range of city walls) built in the Jin Dynasty (3rd-4th century AD) and the Luocheng (a larger range of city walls) built in the Tang Dynasty (7th-10th century AD). It is faced with the southern border of the Zicheng to its north, the central axis of Fuzhou to the east, the Antai River and the relic walls built in the Tang and the following Five Dynasties (10th century AD) to the west, and the Wushan hill and Yushan hill to its south. In this beautiful city of Fuzhou with a river and the hills, this site has been where the literati and officialdom resided ever since the Tang Dynasty.

SanFangQiXiang as a relatively independent area in the city has maintained its traditional urban fabric of lanes and alleys shaped in the Jin and the Tang Dynasties. With Nanhou Street as the main north-south axis of this area, the Three Lanes of Yijin Lane, Wenru Lane and Guanglu Lane are situated in the west, while the Seven Alleys of Yangqiao Alley (Road), Langguan Alley, Ta Alley, Huang Alley, Anmin Alley, Gong Alley and Jipi Alley (Road) are in the east, which constitute the structure of the main streets in the shape of a fishbone. The names of these lanes and alleys have been rarely changed since the Jin and the Tang Dynasties. The archaeological sites in this area have revealed the stratigraphically corresponding relationships between the current street pattern and the respective street structures in the Tang and subsequent dynasties (7th-20th century AD), which are evidences for the thousand years' history of this area and evolution process of the Lifang System (an urban planning system for residential area), making the SanFangQiXiang the most integrated ancient urban residential area existing in China.

Due to the unique geographic location and its special setting, the SanFangQiXiang of Fuzhou City has always been the residential area for the literati, officialdom and the wealthy gentry since the Jin and Tang Dynasties. Celebrities include famous scholars, politicians, military strategists, ideologists, and artists. There are more than 200 historical buildings of the Ming (14th-17th century AD) and the Qing Dynasties (17th-20th century AD) well preserved in this area. Most of them are traditional houses with courtyards or private gardens, while the others include community facilities for education, religion, commerce and patriarchal clan management. All these buildings compose a layered spatial structure from urban area to lanes and alleys, and to individual houses and courtyards in a strict order, which emanates an atmosphere of harmony and calm. Inside the houses, the exquisite details of architecture and gardening are hidden behind a simple appearance, which displays diverse tastes, interests, and the rich cultural deposition of those clans in a unified order and a harmonious atmosphere. The historical relics of SanFangQiXiang in various periods jointly constitute a unique residential urban fabric and the cityscape of a traditional Chinese city, which exhibits the authentic life style of the traditional Chinese literati and officialdom class and their profound culture.

Nom du bien : Sites of Hongshan Culture: The Niuheliang Archaeological Site, the Hongshanhou Archaeological Site, and Weijiawopu Archaeological Site

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province; Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

Brève description

The Niuheliang Archaeological Site: N 41°16′15″ , E 119°27′9″

The Hongshanhou Archaeological Site: N 42° 19′ 19″ , E 118° 59 ′29″

The Weijiawopu Archaeological Site: N 42 °08′ 24.6″ , E 118° 57′ 41.3″

The Niuheliang, Hongshanhou and Weijiawopu Archaeological Sites, which could date back to 6,000 – 5,000 years ago, are important representative sites of the Hongshan culture. The Niuheliang Archaeological Site dating back to 5,500-5,000 years ago was a burial and sacrificial center in the late Hongshan period. Compared with other late Hongshan sites so far known, it boasts the greatest scale, the best preservation, the richest varieties of remains, and the largest number of unearthed cultural relics. In addition, the Hongshanhou and Weijiawopu Archaeological Sites, dating back to 6,000-5,500 years ago, were both residential settlements. While the Weijiawopu is a site with the largest number of discovered residential structures, the Hongshanhou Site is the place after which the Hongshan culture was named. In spite of different functions and types of the three sites, they have internal and reciprocal relationships, with which people’s production, lifestyle, burial and sacrificial activities of the Hongshan culture period are explicitly represented. These characteristics of  the Hongshan culture also provide the basis for the exploration of the Chinese civilization.

I The Niuheliang Archaeological Site

The Niuheliang Archaeological site is located at the border of Lingyuan City, Jianping County, and Harqin Left Wing Mongol Autonomous County under the jurisdiction of Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province. As an area with foothills located between the Mongolian Plateau and the offshore zone of the North China Plain, the site is naturally composed of a number of mountain valleys with a northeast-southwest direction, ridges between the valleys, and a natural setting formed by the Nuluerhu Mountains, an extension of the Great Khingan Range. The altitude of Niuheliang ranges between 550 meters and 680 meters, and the archaeological spots are mainly distributed on the hilltop of the mountain ridges. In 1981, Liaoning Province started the second cultural relics survey, and 16 Archaeological spots were discovered and numbered. Between 1983 and 2003, the Liaoning Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology undertook a series of large excavations at Spots No. 2, 3, 5, and 16, and the sites of Hongshan culture within Niuheliang Archaeological Site were divided into the following six categories: the Goddess Temple, the platform, the stone mound, the sacrificial altar, the building foundation, and the cellar. Within an area of 50 square kilometers at Niuheliang Site, no residential settlements have been discovered so far, which indicates that the sacrificial center had been separated from the residential zones then, and the site served as a separate place particularly  reserved  for   constructions  of   temples,  graves  and  cemeteries.  In   this  sense,  the  Niuheliang Archaeological Site is an outstanding example of “holy sacrificial land” of the early period of human civilization so far discovered in Northeast Asia, and boasts the largest scale, the highest rank, and the most prominent expression of beliefs.

The Goddess Temple comprises the temple ruins and its northern platform, surrounded by several sacrificial pits. The temple ruins are semi-subterranean earth-wood structures, composed of a set of interconnected chambers and a single chamber in the south. It measures 25 meters long from north to south, 2 to 9 meters wide from east to west, and covers an area of 75 square meters. Parts of six individual clay figures were unearthed during preliminary excavations, including one life-size statue of human head. All the statues are exquisitely made with female features, being regarded as statues of female ancestors who were worshiped. In addition, animal-shaped sculptures and sacrificial potteries were unearthed at the Goddess Temple. In general, the Goddess Temple reflects an embryonic form of the ancestral temple, and it is hitherto one of the earliest sacrificial temples discovered in the whole region of Northeast Asia.

There are 14 stone mounds ever discovered on the hilltops within Niuheliang Site. Each hill may have a single grave, double graves, or multiple graves. Given the scale, structural form, type and quantity of burial objects, the graves fall into four categories. First, a large grave is located at the center, dominating the other graves. This central grave, spaciously constructed, is deeply anchored into its rock foundation. A stone coffin, whose inner wall is neatly constructed, contains a variety of jade articles without other burial objects such as potteries and stone objects. The second-level graves are large-scale stone coffins, deeply anchored in rock foundation. Some coffins have steps at one side of the grave wall. The coffin is spacious and neatly constructed, with jade articles buried inside only. The third- level graves are constituted by regular stone coffins, constructed with slates or stone blocks, along with a few jade articles buried inside. Lastly, the small-scale stone graves have no burial artifacts inside. In this way, the Niuheliang Archeological Site is a large cluster of prehistoric burial sites, featuring a clear internal hierarchical order and system. Jade artifacts were made in shapes of dragon, phoenix, tortoise, and human beings, and most graves had only jade artifacts inside, which indicates a distinctive prehistoric convention - “buried exclusively with jade articles” and marks the first heyday in development of jade culture during the prehistoric period of China. The emergence of the central grave manifests social differentiation featuring “the supreme power of one person” in the late period of Hongshan culture, and fully reflects the privileged status of the owner of the central grave. In both scale and magnificence, the central grave is equivalent of emperors’ mausoleums of the following periods.

Altars are located next to the stone mounds. Until now, two altars have been discovered, namely, a round altar at Spot No. 2 and a square altar at Spot No. 5. The former is symbolically significant in terms of its plan arrangement, composition, and construction materials. To be specific, it has a nearly circular plan, comprising a three-layered Altar Border and a set of piled stones at its center. The Altar Border is constructed with standing stones arranged in order, which form three concentric circles. Gradually higher from outside to inside, they establish the foundation and make the outline of the altar. Besides, rows of canister-shaped potteries are placed right next to the standing stones. In the center of the inner circle of the altar, there are piled stones. In addition to this unique formation, the piled stones are distinctive for  they are smaller than those of other stone mounds and they are of complex varieties of rocks. Resembling the sacrificial altars in later times that are used to worship Heaven and Earth, the architectural form of altars at Niuheliang is widely believed to be a significant exemplar of embryonic altars in China and even Northeast Asia.

II The Hongshanhou Archaeological Site

The Hongshan Mountain is located on the bank of the Yingjin River, northeast of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The mountain covers an area of 10 square kilometers; and it comprises 9 peaks, among which the main peak is 746 meters above sea level. The Hongshanhou settlement site lies on the southeast slope of the secondary peak, and covers an area of roughly 20,000 square meters. The site was firstly excavated by Japanese in 1935, during which semi-subterranean house ruins and ash pits were discovered, with a large number of cultural relics including potteries, stone artifacts, and bone-made artifacts. The excavation of the Hongshanhou Site for the first time revealed the state of prehistoric human production and lifestyle in the West Liao River Basin 6,000 – 5,500 years ago. Furthermore, the Hongshan culture is named after the Hongshanhou Archaeological Site, and it laid one of the foundations for the Chinese civilization, revealed by series of major archaeological discoveries in later times.

III The Weijiawopu Archaeological Site

The Weijiawopu Archaeological Site is located south of Hongshan District, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, 20 kilometers away from downtown Chifeng City. The site is located on a relatively flat platform, and covers an area of 93,000 square meters in total. In May 2008, based on pottery samples collected on surface of the site, archaeologists confirmed that the site used to be a large settlement cluster during the Hongshan culture period. Between 2009 and 2011, a joint archaeology team consisting of the Inner Mongolia Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Frontier Archaeology Center of Jilin University officially carried out archaeological excavations at  this site, and discovered 103 semi-subterranean house remains, 201 cellars and sacrificial pits, as well as well-preserved trenches. Dating back to 6,000 – 5,500 years ago, the Weijiawopu site is a large-scale settlement cluster that is best preserved and contains the richest varieties and the largest number of unearthed cultural relics, including residential ruins, cellars, sacrificial pits, and trenches.

The discovery and excavations of the Weijiawopu site have supplied rich materials for the study of settlement forms of the Hongshan culture period. The materials are also academically invaluable for the research of the population, society, lifestyle, and human-nature relation during the period. The Weijiawopu Archaeological Site is a relatively high-level residential ensemble with a large size and a great number of well-arranged residential houses. Being settled down, inhabitants of the Hongshan culture developed an advanced agriculture, revealed by the large number of tools for the production. Foods were also provided by hunting, gathering, and fishing. Family became the primarily social unit. In addition, handicraft became increasingly professionalized. In particular, pottery-making was highly developed. Painted pottery characteristic of the Central Plains of China was introduced and widely used. Openness and fusion were the major factor that stimulated the rapid development of Hongshan culture.

Nom du bien : The Central Axis of Beijing (including Beihai)

Coordonnées : N 39°54'56.50''; E 116°23'26.83''
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Beijing, China

Brève description

The old city of Beijing was first built in the Yuan Dynasty (mid-13th Century, formerly known as "Dadu"), and further developed and perfected in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (early 14th Century to early 20th Century). With eight hundred years’ history of urban development, it is now the largest imperial capital city still existing in China and a classic model of ancient Chinese urban planning. As an outstanding example of feudal China’s capital, the old city of Beijing enjoys a prominent position in the world history of urban planning and development.

The Central Axis is the best preserved core area of the old city of Beijing. The Central Axis of Beijing is 7.8 kilometers long starting in the south of the city from the Yongding Gate, running across the Zhengyang Gate, Tian'anmen Square, the Forbidden City, the Jingshan Hill, and ending with the Drum Tower and Bell Tower in the north. Most of the essential buildings in the old city of Beijing are constructed along the axis. The Central Axis ingeniously organizes the imperial palaces, the imperial city, temples and altars, markets, streets from feudal times and the Tian’anmen square complex built after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. As the most representative and important section of the old city of Beijing, it is the core of old Beijing’s spatial pattern and demonstrates the magnificent spatial order of the urban space.

"The Central Axis of Beijing" has its root dated back to the planning and design of the Dadu City in the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty initially determined the location of the Central Axis based on the water system with imperial grain transport capacity (today’s Six Lakes). Along with the natural conditions, the Central Axis was designed and constructed to realize the ideal city plan in traditional Chinese culture. The Ming Dynasty built the Forbidden City on the basis of the Yuan palaces, and erected the symbolic Jingshan Hill in the north, and the new Bell Tower and Drum Tower, Imperial Ancestral Temple, and Altar of the Land and Grain. As the outer city expanded and the new Temple of Heaven and Temple of Agriculture built on both sides, the Central Axis extended further to Yongding Gate in the south, marking the completion of the Central Axis system. The overall layout of Beijing city remained intact throughout the Qing Dynasty. The Central Axis has undergone functional renovation and spatial re-organization during the Republic of China and People's Republic of China. In particular, the renovation and expansion of Tian'anmen Square shifted the spatial and symbolic focus of the Central Axis from the Forbidden City to Tian'anmen Square in the south.

During centuries’ evolution, changes of political regimes as well as social, economic and urban development influenced the architectures and spatial pattern of the Central Axis. However, as the most essential feature and the basis of urban planning, the Central Axis has been given full respect in historical periods and exhibits the capacity of inclusiveness of the ingeniously designed spatial order for social changes, demonstrated by its own evolution. Today, "the Central Axis of Beijing" is not only a representative physical carrier of recalling the traditional urban life, but an urban landscape still in full vigor.

In the context of history, spatial structure and cultural significance, "the Central Axis of Beijing", stretching 7.8 km from Yongding Gate in the south to the Bell Tower in the north, can be divided into the following urban landscape areas: the place of worship in the Outer City between Yongding Gate and Zhengyang Gate; the area from Zhengyang Gate to Tian'anmen Square; the "Halls and Palaces" from Forbidden City to Jingshan Hill; the "Market" area around the Drum Tower and Bell Tower; and the "Six Lakes" water area. These areas make up a full picture scroll of "the Central Axis of Beijing" and reflect the evolution and accumulation of the historic urban landscape.

Important elements include: Yongding Gate, Temple of Heaven, Temple of Agriculture, Tian'anmen Square complex, Imperial Ancestral Temple, Altar of the Land and Grain, the Forbidden City, Jingshan Hill, Bell Tower, Drum Tower, Nanluoguxiang, Yandai Bystreet historic area, and the Beihai water system.

Nom du bien : Western Xia Imperial Tombs

Coordonnées : N 38°26′10″, E 105°59′10″
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

Brève description

Western Xia Imperial Tombs are the royal mausoleums of the emperors in the Western Xia Dynasty (1038-1227). Located at the eastern slope of the Helan Mountains, western suburb about 35km away from Yinchuan City in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the Tombs are the best-preserved historic cultural heritage representing the Tangut civilization at the largest scale and in the highest rank.

Built between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Tombs are connected with the Helan Mountains in the west and with the Yinchuan Plain and the Yellow River in the east. They are situated in a spacious land higher in the west than the east. Occupying an area of some 50 square kilometers, the Western Xia Imperial Tombs include 9 imperial mausoleums, 254 subordinate tombs, 1 site of large architectural complex and more than 10 brick-and-tile kiln sites. The imperial mausoleums are lined up along the eastern slope of the Helan Mountains from north to south. The whole grand burial complex extends like a long and narrow south-north ribbon.

Set in the vast  Gobi  desert in front of the rolling Helan Mountains, the Tombs narrates the unique historical atmosphere and ethnic features of the Western Xia Dynasty by the magnificent layout, tiered tomb walls, high towers and various mausoleum buildings. Many unearthed funerary objects and the remaining cultural relics such as inscriptions, stone statues and building components take on vivid shapes, unique ornamentations, and living nomadic features.

Nom du bien : Wooden Structures of Liao Dynasty—Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian County,Main Hall of Fengguo Monastery of Yixian County

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2013
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Yingxian County, Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province;Yixian County, Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province, China

Brève description

Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian : N 39°33′ 54.12″  E 113°10′ 55.26′′

Main Hall of Fengguo Monastery of Yixian County: N 41° 32′ 34.6″   E 121° 14′ 33.8′′

Wooden Pagoda in Yingxian County, Shanxi Province and the Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery in Yixian County, Liaoning Province are both important single wooden structure of typical style of the Liao Dynasty in People's Republic of China. Built in 1056, the 957-year-old Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian County is the oldest wooden multi-storey structure of the world, and this 67.31m-high and nine-storey building is also the tallest. Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery was constructed in 1020. The 993-year-old Hall has nine bays on its facade (47.6m) and five bays in depth (25.13m). The 24m-high building is the best preserved and largest wooden Buddhist structure with highest rank in China. The two structures represent the outstanding achievements in the design and construction of wooden structure of ancient China.

I. Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian

The Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian County, which is also called the Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple, is located in the northwest corner of the county, Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Completed in the 2nd Year of the reign of Qingning in Liao Dynasty (year of 1056), the 957-year-old pagoda was known as “the first pagoda” during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, which means that “there are large numbers of Buddha pagodas in the world, but the Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian County is the first one”. It plays an important role in the history of ancient Chinese architecture. Also, it is the oldest and tallest wooden multi-storey building of the world. This pagoda embodies the wisdom of ancient craftsmen, and it still stands tall after many seismic tests during nine hundred years. It can be described as a miracle in the history of Chinese architecture. The pagoda is called architectural gems by experts in the architectural field both at home and abroad for its long history, unique design and wonderful construction techniques.

The pagoda is a stereoscopic temple which is built along the vertical space. The pagoda takes the shape of an octagon in the plane with five stories and six eaves and is proped by two circles of columns. The external peripheral column is surrounded by corridor columns, a layout known as Jinxiangdoudicao surrounded by a corridor in Yingzaofashi (Treatise on Architectural Methods). The whole wooden pagoda has nine stories in all, including four blindstories and five clear layers. The pagoda is a double-barrel wooden structure constructed with tenon-and-mortise work. It is composed of three parts: pagoda base, the mainbody and Tasha. The whole pagoda is as high as 67.31 meters from the ground to the top. In 1961, the Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian County was declared by the State Council as among the first batch of state priority protected sites.

II. Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery of Yixian

Located in the northeast corner of the county seat of Yixian County, Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province in China, the Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery was built in the ninth year of Kaitai period of the Liao Dynasty (AD 1020), and is more than 993 years old now.

Among existing Chinese ancient monasteries, the Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery is the biggest and the most integrated building of hall type with one tier of eaves. The whole building is made of high platform, column layer, brackets layer and roof layer. The building is regarded as an art treasury of Chinese culture, including colorful sculptures, paintings, sacrifices, steles, tablets, and so on. In 1961, it was declared by the State Council as among the first batch of state priority protected sites.

The Liao Dynasty established by Khitan had lasted for 300 years, including 90 years of Xiliao Dynasty, and came to an end in Jin Dynasty to Yuan Dynasty (the12th-13th century). As a masterpiece in the history of ancient Chinese wooden structure, the Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery is a vivid evidence of historic culture in Liao Dynasty and an outstanding Buddhist architecture created by Khitan as an ethnic minority living in border areas who inherited and developed the traditional culture of central China.

The Wooden Pagoda of Yingxian and the Main Hall of the Fengguo Monastery are two typical timbers buildings of the Liao Dynasty, which are helpful to have an objective understanding about the uniqueness, development and evolution law of buildings in Liao Dynasty. They provide examples to research the carpentry work, joinery work, paintings on the beam frames, wall construction, rise of the roof, and roof structure, etc., explore the typical feature of Liao architectures, evolution of wooden structure in Tang and Song Dynasties, and understand questions in the book Yingzaofashi of the North Song Dynasty.

Nom du bien : China Altay

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2010
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Brève description

Coordinates:

- Kanas National Nature Reserve: N48 58 E87 18

- Two Rivers' Headwaters Nature Reserve of Altay: N47 30 E89 50

The Altay Mountains extend across China, Kazakstan, Mongolia and Russia in a NW-SE direction. The whole length is 1650 km and the width is about 130-200 km, with an elevation of 1000-3000 m. The altitude of the highest Youyi Peak is 4,374 m and it is located at the boundary of China, Russia and Mongolia. The China Altay is the south slope of the middle segment which extends about 500 km and takes up one third of the total length of the Altay Mountains. Two great rivers originate in the China Altay. One of them is the Ergis River and it is the headstream of the international Erbi River which flows into the Arctic Ocean. The second one is the Ulungur River which is the second longest land-locked river of Xinjiang, and it is the main run-off of the second largest land-locked lake - Ulungur Lake of Xinjiang.

Several glaciations occurred to the China Altay during the Quaternary and multiple glacial erosion features and accumulation landforms were created. Kanas region is located on the south slope of Youyi peak which is the main peak of Altay Mountain. This region is the largest center of glaciation in the Altay Mountains and it has recorded the complete sequence of the glacial geography since the mid-Pleistocene. Key features of the glacial geomorphology are as follows: The scale of modern glaciers is tremendous. There are 210 glaciers with a total area of 400 km2 in the Kanas region which accounts for nearly half of the total area of Youyi peak and is the largest among the whole Altay Mountains. The types of glaciers are varied and typical, such as converging valley glaciers, dendritic valley glaciers, and ice caps. There are three prominent groups of cirques, one totally covered by plants, hollow cirques, and modern glaciers. Together, they reflect the stage and character of the glacial shrinkage and vegetation expansion. Nunataks and knife-edges, as well as huge glacial grooves, have widely developed, and the bedrocks of the glacial pavement and sheep-back rocks (roches moutonnee) outcrop frequently. The glacial lakes are distributed like lines of pearls. The relatively large ones are Kanas, White, Black and Double Lakes, They reflect the stage and extent of the glacial shrinkage. Glacial sediments are widely spread and include moraine hillocks and glacial boulders.

The Altay Mountains underwent long-term tectonic movement, including complicated fold and faults in which huge granite blocks were intruded. Thus, geologic wonders formed of gigantic, intricately carved and unusually shaped rocks have been formed by long-term surface weathering and fluviation. At the Ergis headwaters, there are pyramidal crests, large domes and densely honeycombed cliffs. Together with the sparse taiga forest, thermal springs and river valley, the Altay granite landscape has been constructed to result in a vivid landscape.

The nominated heritage possesses important biodiversity. The site is located in Udvardy Biogeographical Province - "Altay Highlands" and also represents the Altay-Sayan Montane Forests within the system of 200 global bioregions recognized by WWF. This region has been the main habitat for many endemic and endangered plants and animals. The nominated area contains over 1,400 vascular plants species, 193 moss species, 205 lichens species, and 150 macro-fungi species, including endangered plants of Orchis 1atifolia(CITES 2007), Epipogium aphyllum(CITES 2007)etc. and endemic plants of Paeonia sinjiangensis, Salix burqinenisis etc. The nominated area contains over 360 species of vertebrate, 1167 species of invertebrate, including endangered animals of Ursus arctos(IUCN 2009,CITES 2007), Aquila chrysaetos(IUCN 2009,CITES 2007)etc. and endemic animals of Rana altaica, Vipera ursini renardi etc. The major ecological formations in nominated area include Form. Pinus sibirica, Form. Picea obovata, Form. Abies sibirica, Form. Salix spp., Form. Betula pendula,and Form. Populus tremula.

The nominated area, China Altay, involves many kinds of natural wonders, including glaciers, snowfields, high mountains, rivers, lakes, forests, grasslands, wetlands, granite geomorphology and so on. The glaciers on Youyi peak in the Kanas region are grand and spectacular. Several ice tongues descend the peaks. They are majestic and can be regarded as wonders. There are impressive lakes such as Kanas, White, Double and Black lakes, as well as the winding Dragon, Moon and Fairy valleys along the Kanas river. The verdant forests along the banks are reflected in the rivers, forming an essential landscape element in Kanas. The taiga contrasts with the snow-capped mountains in the spring and in summer, it is reflected in the water, in shades of green. In the fall, yellow and red colors are interwoven as the leaves change their hue. In the winter mists, the branches reflect like silver jewelry in the icy water. In spring, the meadows turn green and the flowers add their colors. Herds and flocks, and clusters of yurts turn the alpine pastures into harmonious natural and human mosaic. Kanas Lake is famous for its changing colors. The morning mists, changing skies and evening shadows enrich the natural landscape. The huge granite boulders remind the viewers of fantastic sculptures and mythical figures. Together with the valleys, thermal springs, forests and grasslands, the nominated areas encompass the splendours of the granite geography of the whole Altay Mountains. The native Kazak and Mongolian Tuwa people migrate among the wetlands and the grasslands, living their special folk customs, such as Arken spiccato singing, horse racing, falconry, wrestling, archery, catching sheep and chasing girls. The historical remnants of the nomadic culture, including stone men, pictograms and ancient graves, have also been preserved.

Two nominated districts both represent the natural geographic character and ecosystem of the south slope of the Altay Mountains, but they can not be replaced by each other. Kanas National Nature Reserve is the largest center of glaciation and the most beautiful scenic region in the Altay Mountains. Two Rivers' Headwaters Nature Reserve is the typical shaped rock granite landforms of Altay mountains, and is also the headstream of Ergis River.

Nom du bien : Karakorum-Pamir

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 29/01/2010
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Brève description

The name of serial nomination

Geographical Coordinates

Karakorum-Pamir

Tashkurghan National Nature Reserve

N36 10 E76 30

Pamir Wetlands National Nature Reserve

N75 12 E75 12

The Pamirs are the most famous mountain convergence zone in the world. It is the largest mountain convergence zone that was formed by the convergence of the Tianshan Mountains, the Kalakunlun Mountains, the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush Mountains and the Jierter-Sulaiman Mountains. It lies in the hinterland of Eurasia and extends across China, Tajikistan and Afghanistan with an area of more than 100,000 km2. The Pamir Mountains were created by crustal tectonics. About 60 million to 20 million years ago, the Indian continental plate subducted under the Eurasian plate and, with the effects of extrusion and uplift of the Indian plate, several huge mountains were formed. They spread from the south to the north of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and converged on the Pamirs. These mountains now radiate from the Pamirs and most of them are more than 4,000 m in height. Because of this, the Pamir Mountains are known as 'The Roof of the World'. There are suture lines resulting from the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, which occurred at the closure of the Paleo-Tethys period. The area is also an important tectonic transition zone and several tectonic boundaries converge in this area. Of these, the Maza-Kangxiwar fault belt is the most important tectonic suture zone.

The nominated area includes the highest peaks of the Karakorum and Pamir Mountains. The Karakorums lie to the southeast of the Pamirs and to the northwest of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, along the international boundary of China and Pakistan, India and Kashmir. They are the highest mountains in the world except for the Himalayas. They have a length of more than 700 km and a width of more than 100 km. Topographically, the Karakorums are typical very high mountain, with a relative altitudinal difference of 3,000-5,000 m. The average height of the main ridge is 6,500 m, and the main peak of the Karakorums is K2, which is the second highest peak in the world with an altitude of 8,611 m. There are four mountain peaks of more than 8,000 m and 29 mountain peaks of more than 7,000 m in this area. The nominated 'Pamir Peaks' area lies on the eastern edge of the Pamirs. It is one of the main concentrations of the world's very high mountains. Of them, Kongur Tagh, the Jiubie Mountains and Mt. Muztag Ata are the highest peaks of the Pamirs, with altitudes of 7,719 m, 7,530 m and 7,546 m respectively. These mountains are famous throughout the world. Mt. Muztag Ata is known as 'the Father of Glaciers' and it is a famous mountaineering base.

The nominated area is an important area of especially high mountain glaciers in the world's arid regions. There are 2,991 glaciers in the Karakorum Mountains with an area of 6,295.19 km2 and 1,530 glaciers in the Pamirs with an area of 2,361.4 km2. This area is a concentrated area of modern glaciers of various types and on a huge scale. There are only 8 glaciers in the world that are more than 50 km in length and 6 of these are in the Karakorums. The nominated area contains the main peaks and is the glaciation centre of the Karakorums and the Pamirs. The areas nominated area contains 36% and 48% respectively of the area of glaciers of the Karakorums and the Pamirs. Yinsugaiti Glacier is the longest glacier in China, with a length of 42 km and an area of 379.97 km2. The glaciers in the nominated area are both typical and unique mountain glaciers, such as ice cap, ice field as well as extravasation glaciers. For example, Mt. Muztag Ata's glaciers radiate from the mountain while Kongur's glaciers are penniform. Furthermore, small glacial landforms are abundant with well developed ice ridges, seracs, glacial folds, crevasses and so on.

The biodiversity in the nominated site is obvious. Complex migrations and combinations of biota in this region comprise a unique plateau flora and fauna. The dominant landscapes are desert and steppe. Such high and cold desert and steppe are unique in the world's alpine regions. The nominated site is essential habitat for many endemic and endangered species representative of the plateau fauna of coterminous Himalayas, Karakorums and Pamirs. The nominated site includes Tashkuergan Nature Reserve which is essential habitat for many endemic and endangered species, including rare animals on the IUCN Red List like Uncia uncia, Equus kiang, Canis lupus as well as Ursus arctos. In this area, there are 32 animal species on the 'National Key Protection Wildlife List' of China, including 20 kinds of birds and 12 species of mammals. In this area, there are also 6 species of National Protection Animals Class I, including Uncia uncia, Equus kiang, Ovis ammon, Capra sibirica and Pseudois nayaur. Studies of the changing distribution of fauna and flora form an important part of the understanding of the ongoing ecological processes associated with changing climate.

There are two lakes formed by glacial erosion within the nominated site i.e. Kalakule and White Sandy lakes. They are at 3,652 m altitude with an area of about 10 km2. Mud volcanoes occur in the neighboring Muji valley. There are more than 30 mud volcanoes spread over about 2 km of the valley. These mud volcanoes project mud to heights from a meter or two to as much as 50 m. The heights of the cones are about 1~5 m with diameters from a few meters to 200 m. These mud volcanoes show that neo-tectonic processes still occur in the nominated site.

Nom du bien : Taklimakan Desert—Populus euphratica Forests

Coordonnées : N40 40 - 41 15 E81 30 - 86 05
Date de soumission : 29/01/2010
Critères :
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Brève description

The nominated site is the most typical warm temperate desert in the world. The Taklimakan Desert is located in the largest inland basin in China-the Tarim Basin, which is with an area of 560,000 km2, and surrounded by the Tianshan Mountains, the Kalakunlun Mountains, and the Kunlun Mountains. The whole length from east to west is 1000 km, and the width from south to north is 400 km, with an area of 337, 600 km2. Taklimakan Desert is the largest desert in China and second largest in the world. Taklimakan Desert is a temperate desert, which belongs to typical continental climate. The temperature changes greatly and annual precipitation is low. The average temperature of July is 25 ℃, and that of January is about -9 ~ -10 ℃. The highest temperature is 45.6 ℃ in summer (recorded in 1997), and the lowest below -20 ℃ in winter. Diurnal temperature difference reaches over 40 ℃. The annual precipitation is less than 100 mm, while evaporation reaches 2500-3400mm. Sand movements are frequent and intense throughout the year. The sandstorm days make up one third of a year, and maximum wind speed is up to 300m/s. The geography of the sand dunes in the nominated site is complicated and includes many dune types, for example, crescent dunes, dome-shaped dunes, honeycomb-like dunes, beam-like dunes, dendritic sand dunes, composite longitudinal sand ridge, fish scale-shaped dunes and pyramid-shaped dunes etc. The average height of sand dunes is 100-200m, maximum reaches 300m. The mobile dunes cover over 80% area of Taklimakan Desert. According to research, the low sand dunes move about 20 m/y. The desert has extended about 100 km southward during the last thousand years. There are high mountain chains that enclose the basin and help to create the extremely arid desert climate in which this most typical warm temperate desert environment has been formed.

The nominated area includes the largest exotic (flowing into the inland basin) river of China. The Tarim River is the longest inland river of China, as well as being a famous river that flows into an arid basin. One-hundred-and-forty-four tributaries, attributed to 9 large water systems of the Tianshan and Kunlun Mountains, converge into the Tarim River. The Tarim River runs through the Taklimakan Desert and terminates at Lop Nur. At peak flow, it has a length of 2179 km and a main trunk of 1321 km, with and drainage area of 0.102 billion ha. The Tarim River is famed for its prominent regional character as well as its environment, including large stands of Euphrates poplar trees Populus euphratica. However, during the past 50 years, because of immoderate utilization of water resources by humans, water flows have been reduced in parts of the Tarim River, causing die-offs of poplar trees. At the same time, desertification has been more intensive, biodiversity has been threatened, the ecological barriers against the desert has been weakened and environmental challenges such as airborne dust and dust storms have become more frequent, with implications for the development of human society and economy. Fortunately, since 1990, steps have been taken to address these problems. Increased awareness of the need for environmental protection, the establishment of nature reserves and the implementation of enhanced water management, have enabled the poplar trees to thrive.

The nominated area has "living fossils" that date back to the Tertiary period.  The poplar trees in the vicinity of the Tarim River are the oldest poplar trees in the world, emerging with the upheaval of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. This kind of poplar tree has existed for more than 60 million years. Fossils of this kind of poplar tree have been discovered in the strata of the Tertiary Oligocene located at Kuqa Thousand-joss Cave and Dunhuang Blacksmith Grove. These fossils are about 3-6 million years old. These fossil trees have physiological characteristics that make them very hardy, enabling them to withstand both chilling winters and broiling summers, aridity, waterlogging and high saline-alkali concentrations. Poplar trees are dioecious (self-propagating) plants that produce globular pollen that take root when they meet water. They also have heteromorphism (i.e. the character of the leaves changes with the age of the tree) and an extensive root network with strong ability to absorb water and withstand salt. The trees grow fast when there is enough water and the growth rate decelerates when the water resource is scanty. There is an old saying that poplar trees can thrive for 1000 years, stand firmly for 1000 years after their death and fail to rot after falling down.

The nominated area contains the typical ecosystems of temperate arid deserts. According to recognized global bio-geographical systems (Udvardy 1975), the nominated heritage is a typical representative of the Taklimakan - Gobi Desert Biogeographical Province, and the important bird area (CN115) of Taklimakan Desert within the system of 218 IBAs recognized by Birdlife International in China. Various ecological systems are found in the nominated site, such as typical desert ecosystems, wetland ecosystems and forest ecosystems. The plant and animal species within the poplar forest ecosystem are rare and the poplars are the only tall trees in this ecosystem. The companion plants are mainly halophytes and xerophytic plants, represented by Elaeagnus angustifolia L, Tamarix chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Halimodendron halodendron, Alhagi sparsifolia, bullrush and liquorice etc. The Ferruginous pochard Aythya nyroca, Black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis, Black Stork Ciconia nigra, Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus, and the Tarim Yarkand hare Lepus yarkandensis are among local species identified in the IUCN red list as threatened species. The big-head fish of the Tarim River is a national first-level protected animal of China and Tarim Red deer Cervus elaphus yarkandensis is endemic to this region. The poplar forests can be divided into four formations: young poplar trees on the floodplain, bullrush-jarrah-poplar mix, jarrah-poplar combination, and grass-wild hemp- Halimodendron halodendron,- poplar stands. The poplar forests can be divided into five age-types according to the growth stage i.e. relatively young forest, full-blown forest, excessively mature forest, old forest and withered forest. Poplars are distributed throughout the nominated site with ages ranging up to one thousand years old. The diameter at breast height of poplar trees is between 1cm and 2.7 m. The poplar trees indicate different forests forms with their different ages.

The nominated site has the largest distribution zone of natural euphrates poplars in the world. The Tarim Basin is the world's core area of these poplar trees which cover 352,200 ha, accounting for 90% of their total area in China and 54.29% of the global distribution. The largest natural poplar trees in the world occur in the Tarim River drainage area and large areas of undisturbed poplar forests have been preserved in this region. According to the investigations of Chinese scientists, the continuous distribution of natural poplar forest in the Tarim Basin covers millions of acres, and the volume of wood reaches over 1.5 million square kilometers.

The nominated area records the changing history of the Tarim River. The three main distributional types of natural poplar forests are as follows: the terrace along the river bank, the front edge of the diluvial fan where underground water surfaces, and the regions around lakes and wetlands. The distribution of Tarim poplar trees is mainly discontinuous in a corridor along the river banks. The distribution reflects the temperature, water and edaphic conditions and shows the narrow environmental conditions in which the poplars thrive. There are more than ten belts of poplar forests of differing ages along both the south and north banks of the Tarim River in the nominated site. The belts vary from hundreds of meters to several kilometers in width. The withered poplar forest belts and living poplar belts alternate with each other, reflecting the vicissitudes of the Tarim River.

Nom du bien : The Four Sacred Mountains as an Extension of Mt. Taishan

Coordonnées : N27 02 - 39 40 E109 57 - 113 43
Date de soumission : 07/04/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : Ministry of Construction of P.R.China
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Hunan Provincen, Shaanxi Province, Henan Province and Shanxi Province

Brève description

Application of "Four Sacred Mountains as an Extension of Mt. Taishan" is an extension application of Cultural and Natural World Heritages of Mt. Taishan. "The Five Sacred Mountains of China" is a cultural integration with long history. Mt. Taishan of "The Five Sacred Mountains of China" has already been listed on the World Heritages in 1987. And the four nominated sites for application include: the Southern Mt. Hengshan (Hunan Province), Western Mt. Huashan (Shaanxi Province), Centural Mt. Songshan (Henan Province) and Northern Mt. Hengshan (Shanxi Province). The core scenic area of the four nominated sites is 54769 ha, and total buffering area is 44658 ha.

"The Five Sacred Mountains" has been worship for over three thousand years from Neolithic Age due to its unique geographical locations and majesty of relative altitude over a kilometre. In 219 BC, Qin Shihuang (First Emperor of Qin Dynasty) held a ceremony of offering sacrifices on the top Mt. Taishan when special national sacrifice codes and systems originated, which was followed by later emperors to show their imperial power's validity and authority. Offering sacrifices to Five Sacred Mountains was held to make the emperors'' achievements informed to all the people and Five Sacred Mountains were regarded as boundaries of their reign. Therefore, as an integration which cannot be divided, Five Sacred Mountains symbolizes the unification and territory in the era of Chinese agricultural civilization.

The political position of Five Sacred Mountains makes them become the common target to which different nationalities worship and sacrifice and contributes to national fusion and unification. Meanwhile, Five Sacred Mountains have also gained their fame of cultural meanings. Five kinds of cultures are the most prominent ones. Firstly, the culture of "five elements". The "five elements" consisting of "water, fire, wood, gold and earth" are considered as the basic substances composing everything on the earth and are considered to promote the selection and formation of Five Sacred Mountains. Secondly, culture of "universal unity", a political concept which can be traced back to The Spring and Autumn Period and The Warring States Period, have been considered as the ideal state of dynasts. The "universal unity" has two major connotations: territorial and political unity, ritual and cultural unity. The "universal unity" has boosted formation and development of sacrifice culture and political position of Five Sacred Mountains. Thirdly, the culture of sacrifice. Systems of royal inspection, hunting on mountain, burning for sacrifice, distant sacrifice, fete and sacrifice with the representative of Five Sacred Mountains sacrifice have evolved in the feudal Chinese society and "fengshan" (offering sacrifice to gods) gradually evolved to be the most important national sacrifice ceremony of royal ones in feudal ancient China. Fourthly, the culture of religion. As sacred places of Buddhism, the Southern Mt. Hengshan and the Central Mt. Songshan, have witnessed the spread and development of Buddhism in China and imposed great influence on other countries especially Asian ones. Fifthly, the culture of landscape. A rich collection of stone inscription and literature works is precious fortune for both Chinese and world literature and arts. The five kinds of cultures are interrelated to each other, which advance the selection, formation, development and spread of Five Sacred Mountains.

Abundant cultural heritages have been reserved in Four Sacred Mountains due to their long history and concernful position, among which there are 24 cultural relics under the state-level protection. There into, there are both substantial ones (a large number of temples, palaces, religious sculptures, cliff inscriptions, poems, travel notes, etc.) and nonmaterial ones (sacrificing ceremonies, myth and legends, etc.). Thus Four Sacred Mountains are witnesses of the development of feudal Chinese society from Shang Dynasty (17th-11th century BC) till Qing Dynasty (1644- 1912).

The Four Sacred Mountains are all more than 1200 meters above sea level, the relative elevation is more than 1000 meters, which in the Geological structure belong to the mountains with block up-warping. The Southern Mt. Hengshan is composed of granite formed during the Yanshan Period, 180 million years from now. The framework of the Western Mt. Huashan came into being 2.7 to 2.3 years from now. The Northern Mt. Hengshan is composed of Paleozoic erathem stratum. The Central Mt. Songshan reserves clear signs of the configurations created by the three Pre-Cambrian land-forming and mountain-forming activities taking place 2.3 billion, 1.85 billion, and 570 million years respectively from now. So, as witness of crustal movement during different geological ages, the Four Sacred Mountains are typical examplication of the forming and evolution of the basin edge block cordillera.

The Four sacred Mountains locate in different climate zones and vegetation zones in China, which represent the typical habitat characteristics of different areas in China. Each mountain has a large number of wild animal and plant resources, and preserves some precious and special kinds. The Southern Mt. Hengshan has the special kind of GleditsiavestitachunetHowexB.k.Lee, currently, there are only two ones in Guang ji temple of The Southern Mt. Hengshan; The panther oak is the unique precious kind of tree in The Northern Mt. Hengshan with no record of such kind of tree left in history, also there are only small number of panther oaks in Tianfengling and panther oaks valley.

The unique natural landscapes and rich historical culture make the Four Sacred Mountains as the famous tourist destination home and abroad from the ancient times

 

Nom du bien : Ancient Residences in Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces

Coordonnées : N35 50 E111 30; N31 35 - 35 33 40 E110 28 1 - 110 30 40
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Shanxi province and Shaanxi province

Brève description

1. Ancient Building Cluster in Dingcun Village

Dingcun sits with Mountain Cong in the east and Fen River in the west. Dingcun and Mountain Ba, which was written in the county annals of the ancient Taiping, face each other across the river. In the village, well-preserved civilian residential houses built in picturesque disorder during Ming and Qing dynasties are peaceful and beautiful. It is rare to see such elaborate, skilfully decorated and well-preserved houses that were built in such a large scale with in the north of our country. The discovery and unearth of the site of Dingcun is of great significance to provide the very important real materials for the research into the mid-period culture of the old Stone Age of our country and at the same time fill in the gaps in this period of Chinese history.

The residential houses that were built during Ming and Qing dynasties in Dingcun are with-in the stockade village built in the years of Chongzhen in Ming dynasty. There are 40 houses now. The earliest ones were built in 1593 and the latest ones in the period of the Republic of China. They have a history of more than 400 years. The distribution of the houses stretches from the northeast to the southwest and can be divided into four parts-the north yard, the middle yard, the south yard and the northwest yard. The main part in the north yard is buildings in Ming dynasty and the middle yard has buildings in early or mid-Qing dynasty. In the south yard, a lot of buildings were built in Daoguang and Xiangfen periods in Qing dynasty while the northwest yard has buildings built in Qianlong and Jiaqing periods. The private residential houses were built with a rational layout and imposing style. The houses are either independent on each other or link up. The styles of the buildings are different with one another. In addition to the 40 private residential houses, three temples built in different periods are preserved in Dingcun. One is Sanyi Temple built in the 22nd year of Zhizheng of Yuan Dynasty and the other two belong to the buildings of Ming dynasty and are well preserved.

Among the 40 private residential houses existing now, many of them are Siheyuan. Private houses of Ming dynasty arranged the gate at the southeast corner. These buildings are usually lower with over hanging gable roof and gentle tiles. The materials are bulky and the eaves and lintels are drawn with colours. The woodcarvings are fewer but simple and unsophisticated. The distribution of the whole buildings is in order and the courtyards are not only spacious and comfortable but artistic and pleasing to the eye. Buildings built in the early or mid periods of the Qin Dynasty adopted the shape of ‘日', the middle hall separates the front and back yards and the gate is designed on the axis. The yard is long and narrow and the small yard is deeper. Compared with the buildings in Ming dynasty, they are taller and the materials are used more carefully. The roofs are usually steep, many of which are flush gable roofs. The constructing of the middle hall is stressed and it can be used to go through from the front yard to the back yard. The north hall adopts the style of attic with two or three stories. The layouts of the private houses in the late Qing dynasty tend to be complex. The gate is designed more freely according to the local conditions.  The materials standard is clearly higher than before. The north hall has two spacious attics, with the porch post up to the eaves. The downstairs and upstairs are all decorated with beautiful lattice. The woodcarvings in this period become fewer. The wing-rooms of the private houses in Dingcun have three sections divided into two rooms.  Against the gable heated kang is built. All the wing-rooms are buildings like attic-the upstairs are used as a storeroom and the upstairs are used for living. There is a square mouth between the gable and the front wall corner and a hanging ladder is used by to go up or down the stairs. The hall is larger and the roof beam links up the main ridge, the short pillar and the fork to make it a triangle stable structure. The bottom of the short pillar is connected with the middle part of the main ridge. It is different from the structure of both in Ming dynasty when there are Heta in between and in Qing dynasty when there is camel back to sustain. One kind of the hall is high up to the roof and gives people a feeling of tall and splendour; the other kind is like an attic with the front threshold a dividing line and a layer of board divides the hall into two parts, the upper part is a storeroom. The entire roof is covered with tube-shaped tiles and the mouth of the eaves is designed for water dropping. And there is "Feizi" to sustain. The main ridge is designed on the roof and on both sides of the roof is hanging ridges. The halls in the private residential houses of Dingcun, which were built both in Ming & Qing dynasties, are never used for people to live. The main purpose is to provide places for worship or be used as a storeroom. When there are weddings and funerals, they are places to receive guests. It is absolute different from other places where people have the customs of living in the north house. It is one of the unique local features.

As far as the art of the building is concerned, the characteristics of the private residential houses in Dingcun are evident with flower-decorated eaves, the Queti, the brackets and the ridge beam in the hall, which are striven for perfection painstakingly. The coloured drawings on the buildings of Ming Dynasty use gray, white, blue and yellow as the basic colours to draw patterns like twining lotus, chrysanthemum, flowers, birds and the veined back of tortoise. The carvings of the brackets are such simple pictures as "sea horse and floating clouds (haimaliuyun)", "the water buffalo (which dreads the heat of summer) panting at the sight of the moon (mistaking it for the sun)","the magpie playing with the plum". The way of carving which is bold, unconstrained, primitive and crude is vivid, simple and skilful. During the early and mid-periods of Qing dynasty, all the decorations on the buildings are expressed by wood carvings which reached the detached level and the products are exquisitely carved and show forth among the ridge beams. The craftsmen create these new products such as "happiness, official salary and granting titles and territories to the nobles", "lute-playing, chess, calligraphy, and the painting", "fishermen, woodmen, farmers and scholars", "Three yang begins prosperity-the new year ushers in a renewal and a change of fortune", "the snipe and the clam grapple" and so on to reflect the ideas of the ancient Chinese Confucianism and lucky implications. Particularly, the No.1 yard built in the 54th year of Qianlong has the "Ningwu Strategic Pass", "Yuefei's mother tattoos", "Zhou ren presents his sister-in-law" carved on the board of the middle yard to reflect the contents of loyalty and filial piety. "Riding a bamboo stick as a toy horse", "flying kite", " Tiger dancing", "big head child", "Si maguang breaks the vat to save the drowning little child" are carved on the board of the corridor to show the contents of the folk entertainment. These woodcarvings are the representatives among the woodcarvings in the private residential houses in Dingcun and no other woodcarvings on the private buildings can match them. The stone art in Dingcun's private houses is also important. All the plinths, hammering blocks at the door and the feet stamping stones are deliberately decorated to reach the agreement of the practical use and the beauty of the art with rich contents and unique styles. The stone art in Ming dynasty is small and short, the carving is elaborate; while in Qing dynasty, it becomes bold and unstrained and big with the contents of "money and peach", "pine, bamboo, plum and orchid", " horse, deer", " monkey owns the money (monkey has the same pronunciation with many times)", "Spring arrives at the yard", "the cat springs on the picture of the butterfly", "the picture of nine deer", "five bats hold good fortune and long life (the pronunciation of bat is the same with happiness)".

2.  Ancient Building Cluster in Dangjiacun Village

There are plateaus at the south and north sides of the Dang village, 30-40 meters higher than the village, which can prevent the village from being attacked by the northwest wind in winter. The local-style dwelling houses were built on the calabash-shaped gully. Mishui River, a branch of the Yellow River runs around the south of the village. The village is called "Dust-Preventing Pearl". 2 kilometres east to the village is the Xi'an - Houma railway, and 2 kilometres west of the village is the No. 108 national highway, so the traffic is very convenient.

The ancient residents of Dang's Village are mainly composed of Dang's and Jia's clans. Dang's clan had fled here from famine from the Zhaoyi County of Shaanxi since the 2nd year of Zhishun period of Yuan Dynasty (1332). Around the 15th year of Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty (1750), Jia's clan went to Guotan Town, Tanghe County, Henan Province to be engaged in trade, and the business was flourishing. After going into business for about one hundred years, Dangs became the local tycoons. The large-scale construction of Dang's houses began at that time too. People called Dang's Village as "the village of rich men". Along with the residents' becoming rich, people began advocating culture and following social etiquette. There were Jinshis (doctorates), Jurens (successful candidates in the imperial examinations at the provincial level in the Ming and Qing dynasties) and Gongshengs (senior licentiate in feudal China) in the Ming and Qing Dynasties in the village. There are 6 old-style private schools in the village at the late stage of Qing Dynasty, and 44 Xiucais (title of scholars) in Ming and Qing Dynasty. Up till now, the culture and education there has been prosperous.

The Dang's Village is also called Dang's Gelao (mound). The construction of the ancient group of Dang's Villages is divided into 3 stages: Zhengtong to Jingtai period of Ming Dynasty (1436-1456), the 16th year of Chongzhen of Ming Dynasty to the 50th year of Kangxi of Qing Dynasty (1643-1711), and Qianlong to Xianfeng period of Qing Dynasty (1736-186).There are 123 local style Chinese courtyard dwelling houses and 18 public facilities preserved in the ancient group of Dang's Villages. The public facilities, such as the lanes, roads and sentry doors, etc, were built in an orderly manner. The main lane, the second-class lane, the lane at the ends and the flow direction of the waterway were defined according to the terrain and the ground features. In the first year of Xianfeng period of Qing Dynasty (1851), in order to guard against theft and refuge, the village people raised funds to purchase land, and built the fort making use of the situation on the plateau at the northeast of the village. The site of the ancient group of Dang's Villages was selected in the gully with shelter and countenance surrounded by high and dry plateaus. It conforms to the traditional Chinese geo-mantic omen concept of "gathering water and hiding from wind".

Nom du bien : Baiheliang Ancient Hydrological Inscription

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Fuling District of Chongqing City

Brève description

Baiheliang (White Crane Ridge) is located in middle of the Changjiang River north to Fuling City, Chongqing. The name comes from cranes which used to gather on the stone ridge in the past. The stone ridge is 1600 m long and about 25 m wide, approximately parallel to the south bank. It is submerged under the water all year round and only appears during the low water season of the river in winter. The stone ridge has a leucocratic sandstone surface which is rather flat with a 14.5°northward obliquity. Lying on the main traffic route of the Changjiang River the ridge provides a very good location for inscription.

With the large number of underwater inscriptions, long history, authentic and detailed water level records, rich inscription contents, diversified forms and perfect integration with the Changjiang River and the environment, Baiheliang is called a great underwater wonder.

In 1988, the State Council of the People's Republic of China listed Baiheliang ancient hydrological inscriptions as Key Cultural Relic under State-level Protection. The launch of the Three Gorges Project causes the stone ridge to be submerged under the water surface of the reservoir. To protect this valuable cultural relic and enable the public to see this historical landscape, the authorities concerned have designed Baiheliang site underwater protection project and the plan has been approved. The protection project was launched in 2003. The sectional reinforcement of the carvings and the prevention of the rock from breaking off, as well as accurate mapping, replication and rubbing works have already been accomplished.

Ancient Chinese had used inscriptions to record the water level changes of the Changjiang River in low water seasons over the past one thousand years, and provided a very sound standard for the study of the low water changes of the Changjiang water level. The ridge is divided into the upper, middle and lower sections and the inscriptions concentrate on the 220m-long middle section, especially the eastern part of the middle section. Since the first year of Guangde period of the Tang Dynasty (763 AD), people had started to carve stone fish on this natural stone ridge to record the lowest water level in the year. It was believed that when the water receded and the stone fish appeared the next year would see bumper crops as the saying predicted "out of the water appear the rock fish, out of the field come rich crops." People of different dynasties carved onto the stone ridge the time of the appearance of the stone fish, the distance from the stone fish to the low water line as well as the observers' name and the scene in the form of poems.

According to incomplete statistics: literal inscriptions total more than 160 sections and more than 30,000 words among which 98 sections are inscriptions of the Song Dynasty, five of the Yuan Dynasty, 16 of the Ming Dynasty, 23 of the Qing Dynasty, 14 of the Republic of China, and still there are a few segments with years unknown. There are 18 rock fish carvings, one in relieve, two in bass-relief, and 15 in line engraving. It has recorded the low water level data of the Changjiang River in 72 low water years over about 1200 years since the first year of Guangde period in the Tang Dynasty to the early years of this century.

Since the Tang Dynasty when men of letters, officials, and merchants of different ages traveled via Fuling and the stone fish happened to appear, they would come to the stone ridge by boat, lingering there and writing poems to be inscribed in the middle of the river. There are more than 300 names which could be identified on the stone. Among them people like Huang Tingjian, Zhu Ang, Qin Jiushao, Liu Jia, Huang Shou, Wang Shizhen, Gong Wu etc had all enjoyed the honor of having biographies in official historical records. The inscriptions exhibit a full spectrum of different schools and styles in calligraphic art covering seal, official, running, cursive, and regular scripts, and styles of Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Ouyang Xun, and Su Shi. The inscriptions are in Chinese and Mongolian. In particular, the inscription left by Huang Tingjian, the literary master of the Song Dynasty, when he was demoted and transferred to Fuzhou Prefecture is the most famous. It reads "Old man from Fuling visits here in the Gengchen year of Yuanfu Period (1100 AD)." Though several words, they have passed on the easiness and graceful bearing of the poet.

Nom du bien : Chinese Section of the Silk Road: Land routes in Henan Province, Shaanxi Province, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; Sea Routes in Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province and Quanzhou City, Fujian Province - from Western-Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Land Route in Henan Province, Shaanxi Province, Qinghai Province, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China; Sea Route in Ningbo City of Zhejiang Province and Quanzhou City of Fujian

Brève description

Land Route of the Silk

Henan Province N 34 37 59-34 45 0, E 112 26 45-113 2 12 1

Gongyi Stone Cave Temple - Luoyang City N 34 48 47.57, E 113 01 4.47

Luoyang city of Han and Wei Dynasties - Luoyang City N 34 43 11-34 44 28, E 112 34 31-112 40 46

Luoyang City of the Sui and Tang Dynasties - Luoyang City N 34 38 50-34 40 39, E 112 26 45-112 30 20

White Horse Temple - Luoyang City 34 43 27, E 112 35 58

Han'gu Pass and Xiaohan Ancient Path in Han Dynasty

Shaanxi Province N 33 06 12-35 06 12, E 108 01 10-109 01 22

Site of the Chang'an City of Han Dynasty - Xi'an City N 34 17 29-34 21 15, E 108 50 38-108 54 51

Mao Imperial Mausoleum of Han Dynasty and Tomb of Huo Qubing - Xingping City N 34 20 26-34 20 36, E 108 34 05-108 34 10

Tomb of Zhang Qian - Hanzhong City N 33 06-33 09, E 107 17, E 107 19

the Dagoba of Kumarajiva - Xi'an City N 34 16-34 17, E 108 44-108 45

Site of the Chang'an City of Tang Dynasty - Xi'an City N 34 17-18 30, E 108 56 30-58 30

Xingjiao Temple Pagoda (Xuan Zang's Dagoba) - Xi'an City N 34 8, E 108 59 45

The Underground Chamber of Famen Temple - Baoji City N 34 30, E 107 22 35

Daqin Monastery Pagoda - Xi'an City N 34 15, E 108 31

Zhao Imperial Mausoleum - Xianyang City N 34 32 26-34 38 59, E 108 26 22-108 36 14

Qian Imperial Mausoleum - Xianyang City N 34 33 49-34 35 28, E 108 12 14-108 13 19

Great Buddha Temple Grottoes in Bin County - Xianyang City N 35 04 24.4-35 06, E 107 59 32-108 01

Xi'an Mosque - Xi'an City N 34 06 8-34 07, E 108 05-108 06

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

Historic City of Guyuan - Guyuan City N 35 34-36 38, E 105 58-106 57

Cemetery of Northern Dynasties and Sui and Tang Dynasty in Guyuan - Guyuan City

Site of Kaicheng - Guyuan City N 35 57, E 105 09-106 58

Mount Xumi Grottoes - Guyuan City N 36, E 106

Gansu Province N 32 11-42 57, E 92 13-108 46

Maijishan Grottoes- Immortal Cliff Grottoes - Tianshui City N 34 21 09, E 106 00 10

Shuiliandong (Water Curtain Cave) Grottoes- Lashao Temple - Tianshui City N 34 44, E 105 40

Bingling Temple Grottoes- Xia Temple - Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture N 35 48 3, E 103 2 56

Site of Yunen Gate and Hecang City - Dunhuang City N 40 22, E 93 54

Suoyang City Site and Tomb Complex - Jiuquan City N 40 15, E 96 12

Camel City Site and Tomb Complex - Zhangye City N 39 16 02-39 24 15, E 99 24 01-99 31 20

Guoyuan- Xincheng Tomb Complex - Jiayuguan City N 39 45-39 52 49.3, E 98 20-98 30

Great Buddha Temple - Zhangye City N 37 28-39 57, E 97 20-102 12

Mati Temple Grottoes- Jiata Temple and Qianfo (thousand Buddhas) Cave - Zhangye City N 38 10-38 50, E 99 54-100 45

Yulin Grottoes - Jiuquan City N39 57, E 95 57

Xuanquanzhi Site - Dunhuang City N 40 20, E 95 21

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Ancient City of Jiao River - Turpan City N 42 25 22-42 25 26, E 89 03 15-89 03 58

Ancient City of Gaochang and Astana Cemetery - Turpan City N 42 50 21-42 51 19, E 89 30 49-89 32 17

Taizang Tower - Turpan City N 42 52 03, E 89 31 36

Buddha Subash Temple Site - Aksu Area N 41 51 20-41 51 40, E 83 2-83 3

Ancient City of Loulan - Ba YinGuoLeng Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture N 40 30 55, E 89 54 50

Niya Site - Hetian Area N 82 43 14.4, E 37 58 32.9

Kizil Grottoes - Aksu Area N 41 46 59-41 47 11, E 82 30 03-82 30 32

Kumtula Grottoes - Aksu Area N 41 41 25-41 42 95, E 82 40 59-82 41 59

Simsem Grottoes - Aksu Area N 41 51 50-41 52 05, E 83 08 31-83 09 55

Bezeklik Grottoes - Turpan City N 89 32 10-89 33 54, E 42 56 41-42 57 37

Toyuk Grottoes - Turpan City N 89 41 39-89 41 40, E 42 51 50-42 51 51

Mehmud Qeshqeri Tomb - Kashgar City

Sea Route of the Silk Road

Ningbo City N 29 46 10-29 58 54, E 121 20 52-121 47 27

Quanzhou City N 24 33 09-25 56 03, E 117 34 25-119 05 26

The Silk Road is the ancient trade route that starts in the old capital of Chang'an, the present-day Xi'an city and the center of politics, economy, and culture in a long period of ancient China. It refers to the overland commercial route connecting Asia, Africa and Europe, which goes over the Longshan Mountain, follows Hexi Corridor, passes Yumenguan Pass and Yangguan Pass, reaches Xinjiang, stretches along the oasis and the Pamir Plateau, enters the Central Asia, crosses Central Asia, Western Asia and Southern Asia, and then leads to Africa and Europe. It also served as an important trunk road where the economic, political and cultural exchanges between the Orient and the West were taking place. In its very first beginning the function of the trade route is to transport silk, the fine, delicate, elegant and portable goods, representing the civilization of ancient China which enjoyed advanced agriculture and well-developed handicraft industry. Therefore, when the name of "Silk Road" was first given by the German geographer Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen in the 1870s, it was widely accepted.

A large number of information in archeology and palaeoanthropology showed that the Silk Road had functioned as the main road for migration and communication before the Western Han dynasty (206 BC - 25 AD). But the well-documented and conscious communications and exchanges between the different civilizations of the East and the West started in the Western Han dynasty of ancient China. In the second year of Jianyuan (139 BC) and subsequently in the second year of Yuanshou (119 BC) of the Western Han dynasty, Liu Che, Emperor Han Wudi, dispatched Zhang Qian as his special envoy to the Western Regions (the areas west of Yumenguan Pass, including present Xinjiang and parts of Central Asia) so that the relations between the people of China's Central Plains and the peoples and states of Western Regions became closer. Such an unprecedentedly great undertaking contributed to the establishment and development of the Silk Road. As a result, the growth of merchandise trade and traveling changed the daily life of the peoples along the road greatly.

In Wei-Jin period (220 - 420), the Central Plains were plunged in war turmoil and thus the direct tour from the Western Regions to Chang'an was on the hazard. But the communications between the political powers of Europe, Africa, Southern Asia and Western Asia and those along the Hexi Corridor that took the responsibilities preserving the essence of Chinese traditional civilization remained unaffected. In fact, it was through the trade with the west that the political powers maintained their continuities. During this period, the Buddhism was introduced along the Silk Road on a large scale. In the areas of Xinjiang and Gansu it was, consciously or unconsciously, altered to suit the local societies in the process of popularization. In the period of the Northern Dynasties (386 - 581), with the strengthening of the unification tendency appearing in both the east and west ends of the Silk Road, and as the powerful empires emerged one after another, the traffic facilities, safety conditions and social order along the Silk Road had been improving continually. Thanks to these, the Silk Road reached its height of power and splendor.

After the Rebellion of An Shi (755-763), the regime of the later Tang dynasty gradually shank into the hinterland and Tubo (ancient name for Tibet) took up the middle section of the Silk Road. The communication between China and Central Asia, Western Asia and the rising Arab Empire, turned to increasingly growing sea route or made a detour through even more northern grassland. At that time the Silk Road entered the period of adjustment, but the friendly exchanges and the national amalgamation tended to be enhanced further. The emergence of Mongol Empire changed the relationship between Asia and Europe in the international arena greatly and objectively speaking, the passage between the East and the West was got through, which made the communications between different peoples more convenient for more options were offered. In this way the Silk Road was no more the only road to transport goods, so its strategic status was less significant.

After the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), the society and culture of China came into a stage of long-time adjustment and inward reflection while the world stepped into the process of modernization. During this process, the traditionally classical states gradually went into decline or desegregation. At the same time, the sea trade developed further and weighed more than the overland trade from both importance and scale. However, even in this period, the use of promoting cultural exchange of the Silk Road had not lost completely. A good example is Islam spreading to the east, which marked the most significant event during this period. Eventually ten Moslem peoples came into being in Xinjiang'Gansu and Shaanxi, ie, the eastern section of the Silk Road. After 1840, China was forced into joining the unfair international order set up by the Western European powers. And the peoples and states along the Silk Road suffered a series of invasions by capitalism powers to different extents. From then on, the Silk Road finished its historical mission finally.

The Silk Road had been playing the role of a bridge linking the economies and cultures between the ancient East and West as well as connecting the friendship of China and Eurasia. In the process of its formation and development, the major religions and cultures in the ancient world made plenty of communications, exchanges and amalgamations, which boosted the human being to create splendid and influential civilization and left behind valuable cultural legacy. Serving as a passage to connect the Eurasia together to exchange cultures, the Silk Road meets well the definition and requirements of the World Heritage Centre (WHC), reading "A cultural route is a land, water, mixed or other type of route, which is physically determined and characterized by having its own specific and historic dynamics and functionality; showing interactive movements of people as well as multi-dimensional, continuous and reciprocal  exchanges of goods, ideas, knowledge and values within or between countries and regions over significant periods of time; and thereby generating a cross-fertilization of the cultures in space and time, which is reflected both in its tangible and intangible heritage."

Since the Chinese section of the Silk Road associates with the vast areas of the following six provinces such as Shaanxi, Henan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang, this section is located in the converging area where the civilizations of agriculture, grassland farming and the oasis meet and the cultures of the East and West intersect. Therefore, as a kind of precious cultural heritage, the Chinese section was characterized by the inseparability between the section and the whole road as well as the unique regional and folk flavors that were deeply rooted in traditional Chinese culture.

Thereby, as the single world heritage, the Chinese section of the Silk Road also has the following characters:

1. Determined by its geographical location and natural environment, the Chinese section of the Silk Road becomes the key and the only section for presenting and preserving the historical process of the cultural exchanges and amalgamations between the ancient East and West in all aspects. The integrity of this section is a unique trait that other sections do not have.

2. The cultural connotation of the Chinese section of the Silk Road shows strong transition features. From the west to the east of it, how the other civilizations met, interacted and merged with the traditional Chinese cultural and how they became an integral part of the great Chinese civilization were clearly displayed.

 3. The Chinese section of the Silk Road presents strong multinational characteristic and multicultural style. In history the ancestors living in this region created brilliant civilization in merging together the cultures of the nationalities of Han, Tibetan, Uighur and Qiang as well as the Western Regions.

4. The Chinese section of the Silk Road shows the historical truth and keeps the records of the dual functions of outputting and learning that the ancient China took during the course of cultural exchanges along the Silk Road. In this course, the great vigor and potentials of Chinese civilizations fully reveal itself by absorbing other cultures, adopting excellent things from them and adapting them to suit the Chinese situations.

Hereby, we shall enumerate the most representative parts in the cultural heritage of the Chinese section of the Silk Road: (48 parts in total)

Nom du bien : City Walls of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Shaanxi , Liaoning, Jiangsu, Hubei Province

Brève description

1. The City Wall in Xingcheng

Xingcheng City Wall is located at the west bank of Liaodong Bay of China, the middle part of Liaoxi Corridor and the central part of Xingcheng city.

Xingcheng City Wall was built during the 3rd year of Xuande Reign of Ming Dynasty (428), completed in the 5th year of Xuande Reign (430), meant to protect and safeguard the city from the intrusion of Wulianghabu from the north, a remaining noble from the Yuan Dynasty.

During the 3rd and 4th year of Tianqi Reign, Ming Dynasty (623 -624), Yuan Chonghuan, the national hero, restored the Ning Yuan City (then name of Xingcheng)in aim to strengthen the protection from the Jin Army.   It was a very important military town. Yuan Chonghuan fought off Nuerhachi, the leading army general of Jin, achieving the "Great Victory of Ning Yuan" during the 6th year of Tianqi Reign (626) with the powerful cannons set behind the strong walls.  The following year, he again drove off Huang Taiji, the army general of Jin and achieved the "Great Cictory of Ning Jin".

Ming Dynasty won its first victory via the Xingcheng City Walls 8 years after non-stop battles between them and Qing; the latter was seriously hurt at that moment. It was also the only city walls except for the Great Walls unoccupied by the Qing army forcedly during the 26 years' hot battles between the Ming and Qing.

2. The City Wall in Nanjing

The City Wall of Nanjing refers to the wall of the ancient capital city of Nanjing built in the early Ming Dynasty. Located by the southern bank of the lower Yangtze River, it is built to protect the only capital of ancient China that had ever been built to the south of the Yangtze River. As a piece of representative work created in the heyday of capital development in ancient China, it represents an important period of urban construction and development in human history. While carrying forward the traditional Chinese thinking about city development, the planners of the City Wall of Nanjing originally integrated the human creation with natural mountains and rivers, thus giving it an important position in China's long history of city planning and city wall construction. All the bricks, totalling nearly 00 million in number, are marked with Chinese characters recording their origin, the official in charge of their making, and the individual maker. They constitute the biggest group of brick records ever found in China. The extensive use of brick and stone structures in urban construction during the Ming and the Qing dynasties, including the use of bricks for the building of parts of the Great Wall, can be traced to the construction of the City Wall of Nanjing. Its total length is 35.267 kilometres. Only 25.09 kilometres of the wall still remains today. Still, it is the most ancient city wall still standing in China and in the world as a whole today. It is witness to the brilliant achievements of ancient China in the planning of urban defence facilities, craftsmanship of city wall construction, and overall development of feudal capitals.

3. The City Wall in Jingzhou

The present brick city wall was built in Ming Dynasty. It is 3.75 kilometres long from east to west and 1.2 kilometres wide from north to south with circle length 11.28 kilometres. Its total area is 4.5 square kilometres. The wall is 9 meters high. There are six Chenglou, three Dilou and 25 gun emplacements altogether.

The Chaozonglou among those buildings above the Arched Door was rebuilt in the eighteenth year of Qing Daoguang (1938).The Bing Yang Building above the Yinbing Door was rebuilt in 1987. All the parts of Jingzhou City Wall has been kept perfect without any damage except for Dilou.

4. The City Wall in Xi'an

The city wall of the Xi'an City is located at the urban district of Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province. It had been built from the 3rd to the th year of Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty (1370-1378). It was extended on the base of Chang'an imperial city of the Sui and Tang Dynasty, as well as the Fengyuan City of the Yuan Dynasty.

In the year of 370, Zhu Yuanzhang sent out imperial decree to build Xi'an City. The city wall Xi'an then utilized the old ramparts of the imperial cities of the Sui and Tang Dynasties at the west and south parts, and extended about /3 to the east and north. It had lasted for eight years, which established the basic structure and scale of the Xi'an City wall.

Xi'an city wall had been maintained well through Ming and Qing Dynasties, with several times reparation, 1 of which were of relatively large scale. The original Xi'an city wall was only made of tamped earth. In the 2nd year of the Ming Dynasty Longqing Period (1568), blue bricks were laid on the top and external side of the walls. In the 46th year of the Qing Dynasty Qianlong Period (1781), the second large-scale maintenance was made. Drainage and crenels, etc were added at this time. The structure of the present city wall of Xi'an mostly came from this reparation. In year 1983, Xi'an's municipal government went through another comprehensive maintenance for the city wall. Part of the building was recovered, such as 1 Yangmacheng (tower where the late sheep and horses can rest at night), 1 Zhalou (the sluice tower), 1 Kuixinglou (the dipper tower), 3 Jiaolou (corner tower) and 3 Dilou (defence tower). The breaking parts of the rampart were changed into gates, and the moat was restored. In May 2005, the Xi'an ramparts were all connected.

On Mar. 4th, 1961, the State Council of the People's Republic of China announced the Xi'an rampart as one of the heritage sites under the national protection of the first batch.

Nom du bien : Expansion Project of Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties: King Lujian’s Tombs

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Xinxiang City, Henan Province

Brève description

As recorded in King Lujian's Mausoleum Constructed by Imperial Orders, the king's tomb was completed in the eighth month of the 43rd year of Wanli's reign in the Ming Dynasty (1615), from which it could be inferred that the second wife's tomb was built in the 30th year of Wanli's reign (1602). The mausoleum was well protected by military and civil officials from its completion to the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644. It continued to be protected in the early Qing Dynasty, after the government issued orders to protect the mansions of the kings of Zheng, Lu and Zhao in the third year of Shunzhi's reign (1646). It was regularly renovated after the structures and the land of the mausoleum were sold to Monk Zhenxi from Mount Wutaishan in the 13th year of Shunzhi's reign (1656), who used the structures as monks' dormitory and prayer halls. From the end of the Qing Dynasty (1911) to 1949, when the People's Republic of China was newly founded, the structures were protected by the people who had moved inside the city walls to live, but some of them were destroyed in the wartime. The mausoleum was closed to the public when North Henan Penitentiary was moved inside the two city walls in 1953. In 1978, when the penitentiary and local residents had moved out of the complex of King Lujian's Mausoleum, the local government set up an office for managing its cultural relics under the Cultural Administration of Xinxiang City, started to repair King Lujian's Mausoleum and the soul path, and opened the mausoleum to the public. The mausoleum was upgraded to be a museum in 1997, a section-level institution under Fengquan District. King Lujian's Mausoleum was listed as key protected historic site at provincial level in 1986 and at national level in 1996. It was included in the tentative list of Chinese world heritage in 2006. After North Henan Penitentiary moved out of the tomb of the second wife in December 2005, the entire structure-covered area was transferred to the Museum of King Lujian's Mausoleum.

The natural surroundings of King Lujian's Mausoleum mainly consist of Fenghuang Hill in the north, Changling Hill and Hutou Hill in the east and west, and the water system of Heilongtan pool in the south. Fenghuang Hill had suffered certain environmental damage due to mining before 1999, but the local government completely banned mining there and seriously started to restore and improve the environment in 2000. The water system of Heilongtan pool, which has dried up because of the change of climate and water level, has been restored by the national project to divert water from the south to the north. The surroundings and topography remain largely intact.

The protective institution for King Lujian's Mausoleum has been constantly protecting and repairing the architectural complex and has recorded such efforts. In the plan for protection reformulated in 2007, the range of protection covers an area of 57.68 hectares, extending 52 meters west to Cunxi Road, 273 north to Lingbei Road, 142 meters east to Fengling Road, and 254 meters south to Liangquan Road. The buffer zone includes Fenghuang Hill, Hutou Hill, Changling Hill and Heilongtan pool, and areas stretching 100 meters outward. The small quarries, cement factories and other polluting companies were all closed and demolished in 2000. The municipal government of Xinxiang twice issued regulations on managing King Lujian's Mausoleum, and the People's Congress of Henan Province passed and issued Regulations on the Protection and Management of King Lujian's Mausoleum in 2007.

Nom du bien : Fenghuang Ancient City

Coordonnées : N27 56 36 - 27 57 41 E109 35 21 - 109 36 34
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Fenghuang County, Hunan Province

Brève description

Fenghuang City is located in the southwest of Hunan Province. It borders Luxi County in the east, Mayang County in the South, Songtao County of Tongren city in Guizhou province in the west and Jishou City and Huayuan County in the north, serving as the strategic gateway connecting Hunan and Guizhou provinces. In the 5th year of Xianqing under the reign of Emperor Gaozong in the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 660), Tian Zongxian the prefecture governor of Qianzhou sent his grandson Tian Yangming on a punitive expedition eastward to suppress the local ethnic groups. Tian Yangming initiated the Xidong (Xi Cave) Five Stockade Villages System ("Wuzhai") here and Tian Kechang, Tian Yangming's son was appointed by the imperial government as "Five-Cave Prefect" (called Wuzhai Prefect later) in Tuojiang Town where the ancient town now lies.

In the 2nd year of Chuigong period under the reign of Empress Wu Zetian in the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 686), Weiyang County was established with Fenghuangshan (today's Huangsiqiao Ancient Town) as the county site. After the chaotic Five Dynasties period, Weiyang County was abandoned and in the 3rd year of the reign of Emperor Jiatai in the Song Dynasty (A.D.1203) the Wuzhai Office was changed into Wuzhai Legionary and Civil Prefect Office. In the 33rd year of the reign of Emperor Jiajin in the Ming Dynasty (A.D.1554), Mayang Deputy Officer was shifted to command Wuzhai Prefect Office. Since Xisuo (today's Jishou County) and Ganziping Prefect Office was directly under its jurisdiction, it was named Zhengan Town. 

In the 39th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign in the Qing Dynasty (A.D.1700) the garrison commander of Yuanzhou was shifted to Zhengan, which was then one of the four towns of the Hu-Guang Prefecture. Then in the 42nd year of Emperor Kangxi's reign (A.D.1703), the replacement of native official by government-appointed ones was enforced and Fenghuang Office was established with its seat at the former site of Weiyang County. In the 46th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign (A.D.1707), the military and political dignitaries of Hu-guang prefecture concluded after an investigation that the Zhengan Town "neighbour Yunnan and Guizhou Province in the west, protrude into the reaches of Chengjiang River and Yuanshui River, connect Sichuan and Hubei Province in the north, and guard Guangxi Province in the south." "With its majestic landscape, it rules numerous towns and villages". Since it was a strategic gateway for Southwest China, the West Hunan Governor of the Chengyuan Jingdao was shifted from Yuanzhou to Zhengan and made it one of the four prefectures of Hunan province. Ever since then the high ranking officials of this prefecture had all stationed in this town. In the 48th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign (A.D.1709), Fenghuang office was also been moved to Zhengan. In the 54th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign, the town was expanded and stone wall city sprang up. A large scale of construction was mounted inside. As a result, as a series of government offices such as of Circuit Intendant's office, Town office, Middle Battalion office, Concurrent Administrator office, etc. The Temple of Literature was built and expended along with the school buildings, academy yards and assembly halls successively, which was to be followed by the shops, stores, and stalls as well as the ancestral temples and other religious buildings.   The ancient town covers an area of 1.8 km.

There remain 20 ancient streets, dozens of ancient lanes and passages and over 200 ancient civil residences.

Nom du bien : Karez Wells

Coordonnées : N42 25 E89 03
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Turfan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Brève description

Historical documents show that the sinking method of the Karez wells inside Xinjiang including the Western Region was introduced by the Han people. The majority of the ethnic minorities of the northwest borderland hadn't mastered the sinking technology by that time. It was Lin Zexu that stood out among all the people who advocated and promoted the Karez wells as the most powerful and influential one in modern times. Ever since then the Karez wells have been part of the irrigation works.  

The Karez wells in the Turfan area totaled up to over 1100 sets, among which 538 sets are in Turfan city, 418 sets in Shanshan and 180 sets in Toksun. The annual runoff volume of these Karez wells amounts to 294 million cubic meters which accounts for 30% of the total irrigated areas in Turfan area.

The length of the Karez wells varies with the geographical environment. A Karez well generally consists of four parts: the open channel, the underground channel, the vertical well and the small reservoir. The underground channel constitutes the main body of the system, which is in fact the underground watercourse. The vertical well functions as the outlet for the shipping out of mud and gravels. The water outlet of the underground channel is called "dragon mouth", which is in connection with the open channels above ground. The water of the Karez wells empties into the small reservoir before it is drawn into the channels.  

Nom du bien : Miao Nationality Villages in Southeast Guizhou Province: The villages of Miao Nationality at the Foot of Leigong Mountain in Miao Ling Mountains

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Autonomous Prefecture of Miao and Dong Nationalities in Southeast Guizhou, Guizhou Province

Brève description

Leishan County, N 26 15-26 34, E 107 58-108 24

Taijiang County N 26 22-26 51, E 108 08-108 28

Jianhe County N 26 20-26 55, E 108 17-109 04

Congjiang County N 23 21-24 04, E 108 13-109 13

As one of the numerous nationalities living in Southwest China, the Miao Nationality has a unique cultural tradition of its own. The Miao Nationality Villages in Southeast Guizhou Province are distributed mainly in Leishan, Taijiang, Jianhe and Congjiang counties. According to legend, the Miao Nationality has originated from a tribe called Jiuli that lived in the lower reaches of the Yellow River more than 5,000 years ago. Later this tribe migrated to areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to form the Sanmiao Tribe. During the Qin and the Han dynasties, they moved to settle down in today's east Guizhou Province. During the Yuan and the Ming dynasties, they moved further to the southwest part of Guizhou Province. By the Qing Dynasty, the Leigongshan area of Guizhou Province became the chief area for the Miao Nationality people to live. Later, some Miao people moved to today's Viet Nam, the Laos, Thailand, Burma, and some European and American countries. The Leigongshan area in the Autonomous Prefecture of Miao and Dong Nationalities in Southeast Guizhou are densely populated by the Miao People, dotted by more than 200 Miao Villages, including 21 that have been included in China's Tentative List of World Heritage.

Distributed in lofty ridges and towering mountains or in the depth of forests, these rationally laid out villages are unique in architecture, ancient and simple in custom, and strong in life flavour. These properties reflect the traditional mode of production and life style of the Miao people, their housing form, and the changes of their society. They also reflect the course of evolution of their culture, the relationship between the unique natural environment and human residences, and the diversity of human culture. Intangible cultural heritage also stands out as an important element. The layout and architectural form of the Miao Villages in the Leigongshan area have the distinctive local style of an ethnic culture, demonstrating the key value of the authenticity of a heritage.

The Miao Villages in Southeast Guizhou Province is an outstanding example of human residences. Being the representative of the Miao culture, they take up an important position in the development of the history and culture of the Miao people. Being influenced by modern civilization, however, the traditional life style and culture here have met with stern challenges.

As a unique architectural achievement and a masterpiece of talented creation, these villages are of great value for scientific study. The Miao culture kept here is the most authentic and integral. The Miao's flying songs, love songs, drinking songs, bronze-drum dances and other art popular in these villages are the important representatives of the Miao culture. The phenomena of the primitive culture kept in these villages are of outstanding universal value.

Nom du bien : Site of Southern Yue State

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province

Brève description

The Archaeological Site of the Palace of the N 23 07 46, E 113 15 51

The Archaeological Site of the Tomb of the Nanyue King N 23 08 26, E 113 15 18

The Archaeological Site of the Wooden Watergate of the Southern Yue Statedom  N 23 08 26, E 113 15 18

The archaeological sites of the Southern Yue State (the palace of the Southern Yue State, the tomb of the Southern Yue King, and the wooden Watergate of the Southern Yue State), situated at Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province P.R. China. The Southern Yue State (203 B.C.-111B.C.) was a vassal state founded in the southern China during the early years of the western Han Dynasty. Its establishment accelerated the leap of development in social history in Lingnan region from the primitive society to the feudal society.

The tomb of the Southern Yue King was discovered in 1983, which ranked one of the top five important archaeological discoveries of China in the 1980's. It's by far the largest intact tomb of colour-painted stone chamber with the richest burial articles. Over 1000 pieces (or sets) of cultural relics were unearthed from the tomb, which were of great variety including ritual and musical instruments, weapons, food vessels, cloths, life utensils, jade carvings and gold and silver works.

The archaeological site of the palace of the Southern Yue State is located in the old city centre of Guangzhou. The sizable stone-structured pond found in 1995 and the artificial stone brook discovered in 1997 were both titled as one of annual top ten archaeological discoveries of China. Composed by the stone pond and the stone brook, the imperial garden of the Southern Yue State was the oldest example discovered so far with complete preservation. It exemplifies a royal gardening of the Qin and the Han period, and pioneers the Lingnan gardening, one of the three gardening schools in China. The various stone posts, rails, pillars, door-heads, and antefixes founded in the garden have revealed the architectural design concept of the earlier palaces.

In 2000, to the west of the imperial garden, relics of two halls of the Southern Yue palace were found. In the site of the Hall No.2, a pottery fragment inscribed with "Hall Huayin" was unearthed. In the year 2004, about 100 pieces of written wooden slips were unearthed from a draining well to the west of the garden. The slips were mainly residence booklets and legal documents. On the slips, we can see chronological records and various systems about the kingdom. Furthermore, the palace and garden were also mentioned, which were strong proofs to the authenticity of the site. Besides, a large amount of renmants of animals and plants were cleared out from the well. All of those are direct evidences to the original scenes of the garden. Among the renmants of plants, a seed of wax gourd was found, which is by far the earliest example known in the world and of great importance to the study of its origin.

The site of wooden Watergate of Southern Yue State unearthed in 2000 is by far the earliest wooden Watergate discovered in the world. It served as part of the city flood control system operating some 2000 years ago. The technical parameters of the Watergate meet the modern standards and requirements in Watergate building in terms of its selection of construction materials, treatment of soft and loose ground sills, treatment of technical lining, overall layout, discharge treatment, and stability treatment of the Watergate chamber. The relic of the Watergate of Southern Yue State embodies the high level of Watergate building during the Qin and Han periods.

The archaeological site of the Southern Yue State is a valuable demonstration in kind for the study of ancient China architecture. The discovery and the protection of the sites is of great significant value to the study of the history of the Qin and Han period, the history of early development of the Lingnan region during this periods, in particular, to the rapid development in politics, economy and cultural during this periods. Meanwhile, the site of the palace of the Southern Yue State is a book of history reflecting the development of Guangzhou during the course of some 2000 years. The site preserved cultural relics of each historical period, from Dynasties of the Qin, Han, Jin, Nanchao, Sui, Tang and Nan Han in Wudai Period, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing and the ROC. The area of the site has been the centre of the city since 2000 years ago. This rare situation of Guangzhou in the development history of Chinese cities reveals the advanced ideas of choosing and planning the capital city of the Southern Yue State. It is of great value for studying the history of Chinese ancient cities, the history of Chinese ancient architecture, and of realistic significance for the modern cities to maintain a sustainable development.

Nom du bien : Sites for Liquor Making in China

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Hebei Province, Jiangxi Province and Sichuan Province

Brève description

This property consists of five different sites for Liquor Making in China, they are:

1. Site of LiuLing Workshop, Xushui County, Hebei Province, N39.00534 E 115.38586

2. Site of Lidu Workshop, Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, N28 0941- 28 46131 E1161 0115 - 116 3338

3. Site of Shuijingjie Workshop, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, N30 42 E104 10

4. Site of Cellar Cluster for Luzhou Laojiao Daqu Liquor, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province, N28 41 60 - 28 57 43 E105 19 36 - E105 33 5

5. Site of Tianyi Workshop for Jiannanchu Alcohol, Mianzhu City, Sichuan Province, N30 09 - 31 42 E103 54 - 104 20.

1. Site of Liuling zui Workshop

Liu Ling Zui Liquor Making Site is located in the first workshop of the Liu Ling Zui Distillery, Xushui County, Baoding City of Hebei Province. It was discovered in July, 1997. According to textual research made by experts, it belongs to Jin or Yuan Dynasty. This site was among the 4th batch of cultural heritage properties announced by the provincial government. In May, 2006, the State Department announced it as one of the 6th batch of national cultural heritage properties of China.The site is 60.5meters in length from south to north, 85meters in width from east to west. The site consists of 6 zymolytic pools and one ancient well. The zymolytic pools are in two lines from south to north, 8 pools either line. The pools are rectangle and built with caesious bricks. They are 1.6 - 1.7 meters in width, 3.45 meters in length and 2 meters in depth. The pools were built with the single-brick-flat-laying style and the middle substrates of the fourth walls are enchased with bamboo strips and the top parts are nailed iron boards which were used to fix the ferment. The ancient well is located to the north of the zymolytic pools. It has a diameter of 1.2 meters and is in the single-brick-laying style. The bricks are 30.5cm in length, 5.5cm in width and 5cm in thickness. The part above 1.6 meters of the well had been demolished when the workshop was rebuilt, but was later restored. In the underground storeroom, there are still wooden cases and green flower water jars of Qing Dynasty with a history of more than 300 years.

During the excavations carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005, the foundation, kitchen range, slot and ash pit were discovered one after the other. Besides these many remnants like cock leg bottles, four tied pots, water crocks, wooden cases were also discovered. The relics and remnants clearly outline one integral liquor workshop. Research done by the expert group of the State Bureau of Cultural Heritage dated the site back to Jin or Yuan Dynasty.

This discovery provides new evidence for the research on social, political and economical status in ancient northern area as well as on the change from making wine to tequila. From the known archaeological information, we can say that Liu Ling Zui Liquor Making Site is one of the cradles of tequila making in China.

2. Site of Lidu Workshop

Li Du Liquor Making Site, with a total area of about 15 km2, is located in Jinxian County of Jiangxi Province. The site is distributed in the area from the old workshop of Lidu to the Longevity palace of Qianjie and Houjie. From June to November in 2002, Jiangxi Provincial Archaeological Research Institute of Historical and Cultural Relics has conducted archaeological excavation of 300 m2 at the site. There are totally 11 cultural accumulated layers spanning six main periods including the Dynasties of South-Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, modern times and the present according to neighboring location and the characteristics of unearthed relics. The relics of the period of South-Song are mainly residential, and those of the following five periods are successive ones of the liquor workshop spanning seven hundred years. The unearthed cultural relics include 350 pieces covering the periods from Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, and Mingguo Period, and are mainly porcelain liquor wares. Among the historic and cultural relics are many ancient architecture complexes of Qing Dynasty, which arose from the industry of liquor making.

This site is the earliest simple liquor making site discovered in China so far. It has a significant position in the field of Chinese alcoholic culture. This site has been ranked as one of the top ten archaeological discoveries of China in 2002. In 2006, it was proclaimed by the State Council as an important national historical site to be given special protection.

3. Site of Shuijingjie Workshop

Shuijing Street Liquor Making Site is located in the place from No. 15 to No.23 of Shuijing Street, Jinjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province. It is about 150 meters away to the west of Fuhe River and about 350 meters away to the north of Jinjiang River, with the eastern boundary extending to Jinquan Street, the south-western boundary extending to Huangshan Alley and the northern boundary extending to Shuijin Street. The location of the site was formerly the liquor workshop of Sichuan Quanxing Distillery. During March to April of 1999, Chengdu Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Sichuan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology jointly launched an all-round archaeological excavation of this site, with an excavated area of 280 square meters, and determined the age of it was from the Ming Dynasty to modern times.

At present, Shuijing Street Liquor Making Site is the first site of ancient spirits brewing workshop that has been scientifically excavated in China. The total area of this site is more than 1700 square meters, with altogether 280 square meters of which has been excavated since 8998. The found relics of brewage facilities have relative complete categories (including 3 air-curing terraces, 8 bodegas, 4 cooking pits, 4 ash pits and some other relics, such as distillatory base, roadbed, wood column, etc.) and are well preserved. Besides, there has unearthed lots of shreds of white-and-blue porcelains. The ages of the air-curing terraces respectively belong to the Ming and Qing Dynasties and even modern times. The fruit of the site excavation indicates that there had appeared considerable mature distilled spirits brewing technology in the Ming Dynasty as the latest.

Shuijing Street Distillery Site is a quite precious material evidence for the research scope of brewage craftwork. From the abundant sorts of brewage traces and numerous relics of food and beverage utensils unearthed from the site, the whole flow of the traditional spirits brewing craftwork can be reproduced. It is also one of the important fruits of Chinese city archaeology in recent years, which has greatly enriched the contents and research subjects of Chengdu's city archaeology. Especially the layout of "store in the front, distillery in the rear" has great academic values for discussing the distribution, special structure and evolving characteristics and rules of the urban handicraft industry of Chengdu in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as well as realizing the development status of city industry and commerce and the society at that time.

4. Site of Cellar Cluster for Luzhou Laojiao Daqu Liquor

Luzhou is situated in the upper Yangtze River, which is one of birthplaces and a major production area for fine liquors. The earliest production of Luzhou Daqu began in 1324, when the Yuan Dynasty ruled. At present, there still remain 1619 Luzhou Daqu cellars, spreading across a 40-km2 area in central Luzhou city. Among them, 4 cellars were built during the reign of Emperor Wanli (1573 -1620) and now have become the cultural relic under special national protection. The remaining 1615 cellars, built and put into use from early Qing Dynasty to early Republic of China, now are the cultural relic under the protection of Luzhou city and are preparing to apply for nationally protected cultural relic. Luzhou Daqu cellars so far have been the most intact and still in-use group of original cellars. Each of these cellars has a capacity of about 22m3 and the wall and bottom are covered by quite elastic dark brownish clay, which contains more than 400 sorts of beneficial micro-organisms. Situated in south-western China, a region blessed by the originality and diversity of brewing-related spirit and folk culture, Luzhou Daqu, in such social, historical and cultural environment, has inherited and followed traditional procedures and techniques. In particular, most cellars have managed to maintain their authenticity, originality and integrity in aspects such as the location, designing, techniques and materials. Liquors produced therein are quite peculiar and can be called as the ancestor and representative of China's Luzhou-flavour liquors.

5. Site of Tianyi Workshop for Jiannanchun Alcohol

Jian Nan Chun is the Da Qu liquor produced in Mianzhu since the Qing Dynasty (A.D 1616-1911), the history of which dates back to the Tang Dynasty (A.D 618-907). Jian Nan Chun "Tian Yi Lao Hao" Distillery, which is still in production, and its surrounding relics, are located west to the downtown Mianzhu City and distributing over several places such as Chapan Street, Qipan Street and Gunzipo.

Jian Nan Chun Liquor Making Site consists of the abandoned part of "Tian Yi Lao Hao" Distillery and the workshop owner's housing architecture. There are varied unearthed relics in aspect of white alcoholic brewage technique: fermentation cellar, oven, well, airing hall, barn, ditch, immersion pool, distillation facilities and wine set, etc. The total area of the relics is about 1,500 square meters. There are also relics of other workshops, which were established at the same time with "Tian Yi Lao Hao" Distillery relics, in an area of 120,000 square meters.

Jian Nan Chun "Tian Yi Lao Hao" Distillery relics is a cluster of broadly-scattering Qing Dynasty featured distilleries, that are well established and carefully maintained, some of which are run down by generations. The well-maintained workshops and relics show us the whole spectacular picture of making Chinese liquor since the early Qing Dynasty: raw material immersion, cooking, ferment preparation, ferment mixing, fermentation, distilling, brewing, discharging waste water, etc. The discovery of the relics not only enriches the archaeological study on Chinese urban industry, also provides concrete proof for the history of brewing the supreme quality liquor, Jian Nan Chun.

Nom du bien : Slender West Lake and Historic Urban Area in Yangzhou

Coordonnées : N32.25 E119
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province

Brève description

Slender West Lake, formerly Baozhang Lake, is located in the northwest of Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, covering an area of two square kilometers. In the mid-18th century, the moats and a large number of suburban villas of salt traders along the moats built in different locations and in different historical period (Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties) were connected elaborately and delicately to welcome the south inspection of Emperor Qianlong, thus forming a beautiful belt of the lake with garden scenery combining natural and human landscapes characterized by the most famous 24 scenes of "rolling stone archway, winding water in west park, spring pillow on the long bank, bright cloud in white pagoda" etc. The typical layout of Chinese scroll-type picture was recorded by royal painters and filed in imperial storehouse due to its unique aesthetic value. Thanks to the impact of the south inspections by Emperor Qianlong and the support of its salt economy, Yangzhou had became the garden-building centre in China, represented by classical garden cluster around the Slender West Lake. As well-known as "Yangzhou Gardens is second to none in South China" and "Yangzhou Gardens is the best in China", it embodies the most advanced art in terms of layout, architecture, stone laying, water conservation, plant arrangement, etc. As a masterpiece in garden-building after Yuanmingyuan Park during the reign of Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, a lot of experiences can be drawn from it in the construction of the Chengde Mountain Resort.

The historic urban area in Yangzhou refers to the Yangzhou City built on the basis of Luocheng City of the Tang Dynasty and Dacheng City of the Song Dynasty in the Ming and Qing dynasties covering an area of 5.09 square kilometers which made great contributions to the economic, political and cultural development of Chinese feudal society and had a significant impact on world culture. Relying on its highly developed salt economy, Yangzhou still kept strong vitality and had a great influence in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The original city layout, streets and lanes, water system, and ancient and elegant city landscape embody the characteristics and styles of water city in South China. A large number of ancient cultural heritages, such as residential houses, gardens, temples, government offices, old stores, ancient bridges, ancient wells and famous trees that are well preserved in the historic urban area display the city's solid cultural background. Till today, quite a few residents in the area are still engaging in the traditional handicraft production and commercial activities, including lacquer, jade ware, paper-cut, etc. Such handicraft as Yangzhou lacquer and Yangzhou jade ware, and such popular entertainment as Yangzhou Ditty, Yangzhou storytelling, Yangzhou puppet show, etc, have been listed as intangible cultural heritage at national level and have been regarded as precious treasures of Chinese nation.

Nom du bien : The Ancient Waterfront Towns in the South of Yangtze River

Coordonnées :
Date de soumission : 28/03/2008
Critères :
Soumis par : State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région : Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province

Brève description

Zhouzhuang Town: Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province, N 31 06, E 120 50

Luzhi Town: Wu County, Jiangsu Province, N 31 17, E 31 17

Wuzhen Town: Tongxiang City, Zhejiang Province, N 30 44 46, E 120 29 44

Xitang Town: Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province, N 30 56 50, E 30 56 50

2500 years ago, when Suzhou became a city, its surrounding areas sprouted a number of half-urban, half-rural towns such as Tongli, Luzhi, Wuzhen, Nanxun, and Xitang. Since ancient times, by making full use of the natural conditions and geographic environment, residents of these towns accumulated rich experience of how to live with rivers and lakes in a harmonious way. With the growth of economy, culture, and productive forces, a network of towns connected by watercourses came into being in the 11th century. In the 13th century those towns began to thrive.

1. Zhouzhuang Town

Zhouzhuang Town lies to the east of the Grand Canal, and is encircled by Jishui River, its ancient sluiceway. The stone wares, wooden wells, remains of ancient animals, and rice seeds excavated at Liangzhu Site in Taishidian, which lies to the north of the town, indicate traces of human activities that dated back to 5,000~6,000 years ago. Driven by social and economic progress, the town was founded in 1086, and the name ‘Zhouzhuang' has been used ever since. Located in the basin of Suzhou section of the Grand Canal, it enjoys a favourable geographic environment, with a well developed watercourse system. Since the 12th century, when ancient residents of the town connected Jishui River with the Grand Canal, Yangtze River and its sluiceways, the town has become a socio-economic centre for trade in daily necessities and social intercourses. Since the 13th century, the town, surrounded by important areas of crops and cotton production and fishery, has been a crucial centre for trade in staple food, cotton cloth, and handicrafts. As rich merchants and men of letters came to settle down in large numbers, waterside structures sprouted, such as arch bridges with stone rails, large houses with spacious courtyards, arcades over streets, riverside galleries and pavilions, and revetment steps, creating an environment for the townspeople to be in harmony with nature. As self-initiated protection has been going on continuously, the town has retained its original appearance, with its #-shaped river system, traditional layout of constructions, and unsophisticated folk customs. It provides important data for research into ancient waterfront towns.

2. Luzhi Town

Subordinate to Wuzhong District, Suzhou City, Luzhi Town is situated in the east of Suzhou; it is 18km to the west of the downtown areas of Suzhou and 58km to the east of Shanghai.

With an area of 54 hectares, Luzhi Town is surrounded by vast lakes, shallow lakes, ponds and pools; inside the town, there is a water system shaped like the Chinese character, which is formed by Dongshi River, Xishi River, Zhongshi River, Nanshi River and Xihui River. A river is usually accompanies by two streets at both sides and crisscross bridges. At the intersection of two rivers, there is usually a quay square, which is the important collecting and distributing centre of the town. There is the "west market", the "middle market" and the "east market". This is the typical characteristic of Luzhi streets.

In the ancient town, bridges are of various styles; mooring stones on the stone-paved revetments are engraved with beautiful designs, featuring various topics; the traditional clothes of women there are of unusual ingenuity and show the unique values of Luzhi's customs and craftwork. This year, women clothes of Luzhi are listed in China's first group of intangible cultural heritage. Along with the development of commercial economy after the 15th century, Luzhi has become a town of significance in the east of Suzhou depending on its water transport advantages.

3. Wuzhen Town

Wuzhen Town is close to Tongxiang City in Zhejiang Province, which is located on a plain within easy reach of cities such as Hangzhou, Jiaxing and Huzhou. The Shi River runs through the town from north to south, linking various tributaries, such as Jinniu pool,baima pool, ziyun pool and so on into a perfect water net in southern China which provides mode of production and living styles based upon water. Wuzhen town,nurtured in a long history.

Stone implement, palaeontologic remains, potteries and rice seeds have been excavated in the Tanjiawan site of eastern suburb of Wuzhen Town which manifest that ancestors of this place began to live here as early as 7,000 years ago. During AD860-874, it was a fortress of military importance. In the 12th century, the South Song Dynasty made Hangzhou(then called Lin'an) its capital, which brought to increasing important economic status owing to its geography environment and developed water system,hence Wuzhen Town became entrepot in Northern Zhejiang area.

The Ming Dynasty witnessed its prosperity as it was regarded as one of the five noted towns in South China. When the Qing Dynasty began to rule the country, Wuzhen, at its height of wealth with its developed agriculture and frequent commercial activities on a fairly large scale, became a magnificent trade centre.

Ever since its establishment of township approximately more than 1,000 years ago, Wuzhen Town has been largely depending on its rivers in developing handicrafts, promoting business, helping its farming. The history of paddy cultivation may trace back to more than 5,000 years ago. Silk was and still is its famous brand, while sun-cured tobaccos, lamb's hides, white chrysanthemums tea-leaf and pastry made by sisters-in-law competing with each other. Silk and satin, the products of the household craftsmanship, favoured by agricultural growth, promoted, in turn, the handicrafts industry worked as the principal economic part. Even during Ming and Qing Dynasties, there were already more than ten thousand households, as if it is a big city .It brought into play connecting function between countryside and city. Wuzhen Town is a model in its fair preservation of its river features and traditional buildings. Criss-cross rivers spread along the streets, roads and houses dotted eighteen bridges built during Ming to Qing Dynasty where a harmonious panorama, an epitome of water culture reflecting its specific features of architecture. Wuzhen is also a town where literator gathered together for common interests. Famous tombs, celebrated tutor's house, the 1,000 years old gingko, noble officials relic, the brave Aga Wu's death ,famous novelist(MaoDun's) former residence all reveal its significant past, while various fairs with local garments and dainties are to dazzle every visitor.

4. Xitang Town

Xitang is located in the north of Jiashan County, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province and at the juncture of the provinces and municipality of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai. A village started to grow here during the Kaiyuan reign of the Tang Dynasty, and it developed into a town in the Song Dynasty. The long-standing South China waterfront landscapes are the rich natural landscape resources of Xitang, which has been boasting of numerous bridges, narrow lanes and canopy corridors since the ancient time. Covering an area of 24 hectares, there are continuous patches of traditional architecture clusters in the ancient town, with the floor space amounting to 110,000 square meters, accounting for 63% of the town's total floor space. It is rare in China that ancient buildings are of such a big scale and have been so well preserved. Buildings in the ancient town of Xitang are mainly from the Ming and Qing dynasties. The locals give special emphasis to pursue buildings on river banks, facing street in the front and backing on rivers at the rear. The dimension and scale of single buildings are not big, the layout seems to be random but delicate, the modelling is simple, neat and pithy, the color is light, elegant and pleasant, and the outline is mild and beautiful. Under the economic factors, buildings were constructed along the streets and rivers, forming a building style of integrating the functions of commerce, residence and production - front houses as shops and backyard houses as residence, lower houses as shops and higher houses as residence, and front houses as shops and backyard houses as workshops. Furthermore, the architectural styles vary a lot. Buildings, low and high and with black tiles and whitewashed walls, are distributed along the rivers, and are of high artistic, architectural and archaeological values. Such huge clusters of traditional buildings are divided into six sections by rivers of Xitang and are connected with numerous bridges. The households are connected with narrow lanes, naturally forming one of the striking features of this ancient town - narrow lanes. The town has a total of 122 lanes, narrow or wide, and long or short. In addition, because trading on waterways in ancient times was fairly convenient and developed, roofed corridors were erected along the rivers by the families, providing a shelter from sun and rain for merchants. This has become one of the major landscapes of Xitang - the long canopy corridor.

Nom du bien : Dali Chanshan Mountain and Erhai Lake Scenic Spot

Coordonnées : 25°25'-25°28' N / 99°58'-100°27' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : (not specified)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région :

Brève description

The Cangshan Mountain and Erhai Lake are located in the western Yunan province within the Cangshan Mountain and Erhai lake scenic spot of 960 square kilometers. In the scenic spot there are an ancient town and pretty and lofty Cangshan Mountain and Erhai lake which is as bright and beautiful as a mirror. There are also more than 100 scenic spot in the area. This scenic spot has wonderful natural scenery, long-standing history and culture, numerous historical relics and sites and strong national custom. The Cangshan Mountain and Erhai Lake lie at the southern end of the Henduanshan mountain range. The geological and climatic condition in the Cangshan mountain that looks like a painted screen are complicated where there is a distinct vertical distribution of vegetation with more than 6000 kinds of plants distributed over all 19 peaks and 18 streams. The primeval forest of alpine azalea rolling for a few kilometers adds to a little charm of grand Cangshan Mountain where the unique fourth century glacier made highland rivers. Rocks, spring, clouds and butterflies add to a little mystery of the mountain. The moon is mirrored on the wide Erhai Lake sometimes dotted white sails, which there is grace on the lake as well as strength in the Cangshan Mountain. All of those have formed strange scenery of wind, flowers, snow and the moon in the Cangshan Mountain and Erhai lake scenic spot. Dali in the scenic spot has a long history. Erhai in the Neolithic Age there were sings of human habitation in Dali. In history the Kingdom of Nanzhao, the Kingdom of Dali, the Kingdom of Dachanghe, the Kingdom of Datianxing and the Kingdom of Dayining all once made Dali their capital, so Dali is also called onetime capital of the five Kingdoms. In the scenic spot there are two national historical and cultural cities which are the Dali ancient town and Weishan ancient town. Besides there are more than 100 historical relics and sites such as Chongshengsi Three Pagodas in Dali, Dehua Tablet of the Nanzhao Kingdom, Shibaoshan Grottoes of the Nanzhao Kingdom and Bai Nationality has been living in compact communities has unique and strong national custom and rich connotation of national culture. In the respects of natural environment, history, culture and national custom the cangshan mountain and Erhai lake show characteristic connotation and value.

Nom du bien : Haitan Scenic Spots

Coordonnées : 119°32'-120°10' E / 25°15'-25°45' N
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(iii) C (i)(iii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
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Brève description

The geological structure of Haitan archipelago is deeply influenced by Yanshan organic and neo-tectonic movements, which induced intensive magma and fault activities there. A variety of geomorphology types, such as hill, platform, lake, bedrock shore, sandy coast and muddy coast, were produced on the archipelago in consequence of widely distributed granite and volcanic rocks and very developed fault and joints. As the bedrock of this archipelago continuously suffers from erosion and generation induced by weathering action, various geological structure landscapes and natural vivid imitative rocky figures are formed. Among them, Shipaiyang, Celestial Being Well and shirentan are named the three unequalled scenic spots of Haitan, and famed as one of the best scenes in the country and marvelous phenomena over the world. The total length of northern, eastern and southern coastline of Haitan Island reaches more than 60km. There are four silver sand beaches, Changjiango, Haitanwan, Tannanwan and Shanqio, with very gentle gradient and loose, soft and clean sand of silicone dioxide content of over 93%. There are rocky ridges as a natural screen in front of the beaches, undulate low hills and fresh green forest in the wide hinterland. In addition, there are some capes distributed alternatively with these beaches, tombolos, submerged sand levees and littoral dunes. All of these constitute a landscape assemblage with wonderful scenes. Clean and no pollution seawater makes this place excellent bathing beaches. Moreover, there is a lake formed from a bay over a long period of geological evolution. Because of rainfall showering continuously, this lake has become a fresh water lake. In a word, the typical geological and gemorphological landscapes of Haitan archipelago have important scientific significance as well as high protective value.

Nom du bien : Heaven Pit and Ground Seam Scenic Spot

Coordonnées : 108°53'-109°11' E / 31°30'-31°40' N
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(ii)(iii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
Liste du PM (nom,id) :
État, province ou région :

Brève description

The Heaven Pit and Ground Seam Scenic Spot is a part of Qiyao Mountain range and the geodetic structure is located in the extension part of the upward and folded zone of Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou at the west edge of Wuyi Mountain-Xuefengshan Mountain folded zone in Neocathaysian structural system. The direction of structural line is NE-SW. It is a typical landform of shallow-medium cut platform peak-cluster depression. The emerged strata are the medium-thick strata in Jialingjiang formation of the lower series in Triassic system, with little thin limestone interbedding, and gradually ascended in three steps from southwest to northeast. The karst hydrogeological system of Xiaozhai Heaven Pit-Tianjingxia Ground Seamis composed of the wider valleys on its upper reaches, the gorges, water discharging holes and ground seam on its middle reaches and the underground river and heaven-window funnel on its lower reaches, the drainage area of the system is 230 km2, the height difference between the head and the tail of the system is 1700m, and the whole length from the head to the tail of the system is about 37km. The wider valley section of the upper reaches is 7.5 km long. Tongshuoba-Maochaoba Basin which was developed along the anticlinal axis is located on the peak -cluster depression in elevation of 1900-2000m, with the elevation at the valley bottom of 1710m and slope descent of 0.02. The section on the middle reaches is featured by gorges and is 13km long, the gorge is 100m-500m wide, with the cut depth of 200m-500m. This section is a section strongly affected by Shuoyuan erosion in the Quaternary period, with the slope descent of 0.04. The ground water flows into underground from several places one-odd kilometer from its lower section, water mainly flows into the black holes at the valley's bottom and always ends at these places in dry and normal-flow seasons. The compound valley section (its lower part is a screen-like valley) of Tianjingxia ground seam is 5.5km long and is a box-type valley with the width of its upper part of 200-400m and depth of 300m-400m, extending towards Chigucao dry valley with its bottom elevation of 1000m. The lower part is the "Tiangjingxia Ground Seam" with the width of top opening of 10m-30m and the width of seam bottom of 1m-15m. The depth is gradually added to 150m-229m and the width gradually gets to be narrower from its upper reaches to its lower reaches, finally, it becomes a "seam" and thus called Tianjingxia Ground Seam. The slope descent of the valley section of the ground seam is 0.07, it is the largest in this hydrogealogical system. The Tianjingxia valley, starting from the south end of Chigucao dry valley, changes into an underground river, which flows through the Xiaozhai heaven pit and ends at the outlet of Migonghe River, with total length of 7.026 km and slope descent of 0.046, this is the section of lower reaches of this hydrogeological system. The width of the underground river cavern is mostly less than 15m, but its height is over 100m. The temperature in the cavern is lower than 10?, annual average flow rate is 8.77 m3/s and the maximum flowrate is 174m3/s. The outlet of the underground river is located on the precipice of Migonghe River, with the waterfall drop of 46m. Xiaozhai Heaven Pit is actually a "heaven window" of the underground river on the lower reaches of this karst hydrogeological system, and is called karst tunnel. Xiaozhai Heaven Pit is close to the edge of the precipitous cliff on the right bank of deep-cut Daxi River. The elevation of the pit mouth is 1330m, and the elevation of the river bed in a shortest distance is 300m, the relative height difference between them exceeds 1000m. The measured data obtained by Wanxian hydrogeological team in 1984 indicate that the elevation of the highest and lowest points on the precipitous cliff at the heaven pit mouth is respectively 1331m and 1188m and there is an underground river flowing through the bottom of the heaven pit, with the elevation of 669m. It can be seen from this that the maximum and minimum depth of the Xiaozhai Heaven Pit is respectively 662m and 511m. In the vertical depth, Xiaozhai Heaven Pit is in double-layer structure, its upper part is a large elliptic pit, with the diameter of 537m -626m and depth of 320m, and its lower part is a vertical rectangle-like well, with the depth of 342m and mouth diameter of 357m in north-south and 268m in west-east, and at the pit bottom, there is a developed inclined slope. The total volume of the heaven pit is 119.348 mm3. Precipices stand on its all sides, just like they are cut by axe or knife. The pit is completely enclosed, if you stand at the pit bottom, you seem to look at the sky from the bottom of a well. This scenic spot is in middle subtropical warm and moist southeast monsoon climate zone, and since it is affected by the terrain rise and the general configuration of the earth's surface, the vertical climate changes greatly, the main climate of mountains is distinct and the rainfall is abundant, which make the animals and plants in middle and north subtropical zones and middle temperate zone able to live and breed. It has beenproved that in this scenic spot there are 224plant families with 1285 species, including the national Class I protected plant dawn redwood, 13 species of the national Class ? protected plants such as gingko, walnut, cucommia and so on ,and 8 species of Class ? protected plants. The coverage rate of vegetation is up to 80% or more. There are the national Class I protected animal golden monky, 15 species of Class II Protected animals such as giant salamander, otter, zibet, clounded leopard, golden pheasant, Chinese pangolin and musk deer, and 14 species of Class III protected animals. Owing to the particular geography and land form, here live many unique wild animals, including the Yang fish and glass fish in the underground river, the white tadpoles in the hidden river of the ground seam, the white crickets in deep caverns and the rare flying squirrels in the caverns, etc.

Nom du bien : Hua Shan Scenic Area

Coordonnées : 110°05' E / 34°29' N
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(iii) C (i)(vi)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Brève description

HuaShan has long been regarded as the most precipitous mountain in China, edged with sheer granite rock face, rugged cliffs and deep valleys. Its pathway is also one of the most treacherous, winding its way two thousand feet high to a narrow ledge on the rockface. In spite of or perhaps because of this inhospitable landscape, HuaShan is rich in flora and fauna. Taoist knows this as the mountain of wealth, and according to tradition, wealth is measured by the diversity of species living on the land. Consequently HuaShan has been worshipped as a site of natural abundance for many centuries, possibly for millennium. The beauty and rich terrain of Huashan is enhanced by its profound historical and cultural significance. It is one of the five Taoist sacred mountains of China. It is a place steeped in legend, where the very rocks are engraved with tales and poems from its long history; where gods are said to have performed magic, where emperors have worshipped and sacrificed; and where forefathers of Taoism have set down their religious legacies. HuaShan is both naturally and culturally a vital national inheritance to China and the world. The range of HuaShan covers an area of 204 square kilometers. This comprises 148 kilometers of protected scenic land and 56 kilometers of peripheral protection area. HuaShan takes its name from the five peaks which, when viewed form afar, resemble a lotus flower. The southern peak is the highest, reaching 2160 meters above sea level. Geographically the area is of rock stratum formation and displays the typical granite faces, which cause its precipitous scenery. There are currently 323 major natural scenic sites in HuaShan. HuaShan began to form about 70 million years ago from granite of the Mesozoic Era. The rock strata and the geographical formation of HuaShan indicate the evolution of the solid earth in the last 300 million years form the late Archean Era to the present geological period. Through analysis of this formation and isotope testing, sufficient evidence has been discovered in the area to reveal its long geological history-for example, the metamorphic rock at the foot of the mountain which is the oldest rock in this area, from the TaiHua group of the late Archean, and the huge granite formed about 220 to 100 million years ago in the five peaks. In front of HuaShan, there is a fault line extending East-West. It separates HuaShan form the Wei River Basin nearby. This fault structure was formed about 100-200 million years ago and not only served as the boundary beyond which HuaShan was lifted and the Wei River Basin subsided, but also explained the present geographical landforms of the mountain. HuaShan is an outstanding example of a well-preserved eco-system. The vegetation has a typical vertical distribution due to the steepness of the mountain. Its diversity has made HuaShan an ideal site for the study and research of biological evolution and the geographical distribution of plants. Its plant species number 1200. The complexity and uniqueness of HuaShan?s environment is very favorable to the differentiation and the development of new species. There are five species endemic to HuaShan and fourteen quasi-unique species. Two species are on the list of plants under first category state protection, and 17 species belong to the second category. There are 474 species of medical plants on HuaShan, and about 200 species of these can easily be collected on the mountain. There are also over 90 species of mutations. HuaShan is an ideal place for the study of plants and soil. Due to the joint landform of granite, the plants on HuaShan show the full process of the evolution from lichen-moss-shrubbery-tress. And the soil illustrates the changes from rock-sand-soil forming parent material-soil. There are a large number of ancient trees on HuaShan. Some of them are very rare and are of considerable value in terms of appreciation of nature. 88 species are treated as either important or endangered and are now under special protection of the mountain management bureau. The joint landform of granite has contributed to the fascinating scenery of trees growing from rock and the rock blossoming with moss on the mountain. HuaShan is inhabited by many species of wild animals.204 species of vertebrate animals have been recorded, belonging to 24 families and 65 orders. These include over 83 species of animals traditionally associated with Chinese medicine. There are122 species of birds, form 14 families and 36 orders, 52 types of mammals from 5 families and 17 orders, 20 species of amphibious reptiles, 9 species of fish and over 1500 species of insects belonging to about 20 families. 123 rare and valuable species have been recorded, including 3 on the list of first category state protection and 20 in the second category and one protected at Provincial level. There are also 15 species protected from trade by the Convention of International Trade for Endangered Species (CITES) 5listed in the first category and 10 in the second. HuaShan is also home to a particular subspecies of the Chinese tiger butterfly, considered of great academic importance. HuaShan has also been an important cultural site for thousands of years. The area around HuaShan is one of the key regions where Chinese civilisation began. It was a place of sacrifice from the earliest times, and as the nearby city Xi'an was made capital to 13 dynasties in Chinese history, it was the main site of sacrifice for most Chinese emperors who wanted to lessen the hardships of travelling. In the spring and autumn and Warring States periods (770-221BC) many kingdoms fought for control of this mountain, and after the unification of the country, the First Emperor Qinshihuangdi made HuaShan the sacrificial site of the state. Ever since then, HuaShan was not treated as the symbol of the God, but also represented imperial power in the eyes of Chinese people. Legends say that the Chinese Ancestors ?the Yellow Emperor, the emperor Yao and Yu-had once climbed HuaShan on a pilgrimage. The Emperor Xuandi in the West Han dynasty made it a rule to undertake regular pilgrimage to the five Taoist Mountains and this practice was continued until the late Qing dynasty. Archaeological excavations have revealed seven sites belonging to prehistory, and eight from the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin and the Han periods. The remains of the great wall of the Wei State and the bacon tower on this site are 145 years older than the Great Wall of Qin period. Within the HuaShan Scenic Area, two historical sites are under state protection, namely the great wall of the Wei State and the Western Mountain temple; three sites are under provincial protection. The total number of cultural relics amount to 1500 sets and pieces. HuaShan has over 300 pieces of stone tablets and about 570 rock inscriptions. The tradition of making stone tablets began to appear in the second century, and the carving of inscriptions on the rock started in the Song Dynasty approximately 1000 years ago. The stone tablet carved with the name of Western Mountain temple, inscribed in 165, is regarded as the No 1 piece in the Chinese official writing system. This piece is now a state treasure. The tablet cared with the same name by the Emperor of the Tang dynasty in 724 is the largest piece of this art in China. There are also many works of the most famous Chinese calligraphers and painters in Chinese history. HuaShan houses some relatively large Chinese ancient buildings and their remains. They are good examples for research and study of the history of Taoism, the art of Chinese ancient architecture and the art of Taoist architecture. The Western Mountain temple, first built in the spring and autumn period, is the largest one in this area. The temple covers an area of 12000 square meters and is one of the biggest and earliest temples for sacrifice in mountain areas. It was built according to the scale of the second category of the imperial architecture. The outlook of this temple resembles the Forbidden City and was also called the Forbidden City in the Shanxi Province. The Jade Spring temple built about 1000 years ago, the Dong Tao temple and the Qinke temple built 1549 are good examples for the research of Chinese Taoism and Taoist architecture. Nowadays three Taoist temples in HuaShan have been listed as nationally famous Taoist temples, namely the Jade Spring temple, the Zhenyue Palace temple and the Dongdao temple. So far HuaShan has listed over 120 ancient architectures, including the temples, pavilions and caves. HuaShan is increasingly well known all over the world for its profound Taoist culture. Records show that Taoist activities began to appear on HuaShan about 1800 years ago in the late East Han dynasty. After that many Taoists flocked here to pursue the Taoism. HuaShan is unique amongst the five great Taoist Mountains in that it is the only absolutely pure Taoist Mountain, free from the intrusion and presence of any other religions. Among the great Taoists associated with HuaShan is Mr. Chenchuan in the northern Song dynasty. He created a profound tradition of internal Alchemy and is honored as one of the Taoist Ancestors. He carved the diagram of the ultimateness into the rock face near where he medicated on the Inner Alchemy. The current president of China Taoism Association Mr. Min Zhitin started his Taoism training in HuaShan and was based here for several decades. Across the whole mountain are scattered 72 caves and 21 remains of Taoist buildings. The caves are the ideal places for the Taoists to meditate since they are completely inaccessible to ordinary people. Taoism believes that the tranquility is an essential prerequisite to the exploration of the Tao. Taoists in HuaShan have made great contributions to the Taoist development. Through their great efforts, a new and independent Taoist sect ---the HuaShan sect was formed. Generally, the Taoism is composed of the QuanZheng and Zhenyi; two major sects, The HuaShan sect is subordinate to the QuanZhen sect.

Nom du bien : Jinfushan Scenic Spot

Coordonnées : 107°05'-107°20'20" E / 28°50'-29°08'49" N
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(ii)(iii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Brève description

Jinfushan Mountain is a national major scenic spot and a national forest park. It has a total mountainous area of 1300 km2, of which 552 km2 is protective area and 441 km2 is scenic area. Fengchuiling mountain, the main peak with the elevation of 2251 meters, is the highest peak of Daloushan Mountain range. Jinfushan mountain is one of four famous mountains in Sichuan and Chongqing Areas. It has a beautiful conception.in magnificent, wonderful, ancient, interesting and green scenery and is a mountainous vegetation scenic spot with a huge volume. 1. Jinfushan Mountain belongs to typical limestone karst topography and Neocathaysian structural system. An integrated geologic history can be seen from its geological structure except the lack of Sinian System, which may be rated as the unique scene in geological structure. The whole mountain body is in mountainous platform structure, with grand mountains, precipitous terrain and large height difference (up to 1600m); the terrain above the platform is relatively gentle and has the geomorphologic characteristics of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Around the mountain body are huge cliffs which extend to about 60km and have relative height difference of 200-300m, countless isolated mountain peaks, strange rock and flying waterfall, and countless dispersal-distributed valleys and gullies, which form an unique landscape of the Jinfushan Mountain. 2. Jinfushan Mountain is located in northern subtropical zone. Since it was not subjected to the direct erosion of northern land glacier in the Quaternary glacial period and mountainous glacial period, it became the refuge of ancient plants, it has very rich special plants and rare plants, such as Cathaya argyrophylla which is called the "live fossil" and about 2000 pieces now exist; other plants, such as dawn redwood, dove tree and so on are also very rich. There are totally 300 plant families with more than 5000 kinds in Jinfushan Mountain, in which, there are about 7 kinds of the Class I national protective plants, 26 kinds of Class II protective plants and 45 kinds of Class III protective plants, so many kinds of plants living in this narrow and long area is seldom seen in the world. 3. Jinfushan Mountain has a vast area of virgin vegetation and its primitive ecology is well preserved, with forest area up to 100000 ha. and forest coverage rate of more than 90% above the elevation of 1400m. Here there is 6700 ha of square bamboo grove and more than 30 kinds of mountain rhododendron spreading all mountains and blossoming one after another. In the large environment of the serious disruption of original ecology, Jinfushan Mountain, "an isolated oasis", becomes more and more valuable. 4. Jinfushan Mountain has 523 species and 113 subspecies of animals, of which there are 10 species of national Class I protective animals, 12 species of Class II protective animals and 15 species of Class III protective animals, such as leopard, clouded leopard, south China tiger, white face black leaf monkey and son on. These animals adds greatly to the vitality of Jinfushan Mountain. 5. Jinfushan Mountain has many karst cave systems, of which the mountainous karst system is mainly featured by its large cave space, high elevation and long formation age. The caves are alternatively connected each other, if they are slightly treated, they can form a large underground traffic network in length of 17km, of which the Jinfu cave has an area of about 90000 m2 and there is a large underground nitre mining site, Gufu cave has an area of 46000 m2 and can accommodate 100000 persons at least. All of these caves were formed 200 thousand years ago, some were formed even 350 thousand years ago. Mr. Andrew Gamgs Eavis, the first deputy Chairman of International Cave Association and Mr. Zhu Xuewen, professor of China Karst Geology Research Institute commented: Jinfushan Mountain, featured by mountainous caves having large internal space and high elevation, the longer formation age of caves, large-scale nitre mining in caves and numerous kinds.

Nom du bien : Maijishan Scenic Spots

Coordonnées : 34°07'-34°28' N / 105°56'-106°10' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : C (i)(ii)(iii) N (iii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Maijishan Mountain is placed on the first list of state key scenic spots by its peculiar grottoes, exquisite clay sculptures luxuriant vegetation, all kinds geologies and landforms, mountain peaks. Its main area is 142km2 including Maijishan Grottoes, the Immortal Cliff, the Stone Gate, Quxi Stream and Jieting Hot Spring. Maijishan Grottoes was first built in Later Qin (384-417.D) constructed successively during the 12 dynasties which are West Qin, Northern Wei, West Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui, Tang, Five Dynasty, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing. Although many earthquakes and conflagration, it still remains 194 caves, 7200 sculpture, 1000 square M fresco which are excatived on the cliff about 30-80m high form the ground, more than 70 percent caves were excavated in the North dynasty. When clay sculpture were popular, well-shaped and excellent art, They reach the climax of sculpture works in early period. Qinling chains in scenic area are the main boundary between North and South nature geography. There are two plant areas, China-Japan, China-Himalayas areas. They include much kind of plants of North China, Central China, and Himalayas. Menxinduo Higher plant 223 genera, 873 categories, 2738 species, of which bryophyte plant has 53 genera, 98 categories, 138 species, pteridophyte 21 genera, 43 categories, 92 species, angiosperm 141 genera, 712 categories, 2456 species, gymnosperm 8 genera, 20 categories, 48 species. Preserving Xyophyta 20 species including metase quoia, kinkgo, white bark pine etc. the rare key protected plant listed by state has 31 species, (1 level 1 species, 2 level 7 species, 3 level 23 species), forestation coverage reaches 76% wild animal, birds 12 classes, 34 genera, 95 species, beast 6 classes, 18 genera, 29 species, the rare animals protected by state, 6 classes.7 genera, 18 species. The scenic spots lies in the joint of QiLian-North Qinlin chains. It forms very complicated geologies and landforms due to movement in Yinzi, Yanshan, and Himalayas. Hot Spring and Quxi Stream is metamorphic rock. Maiji Mountain, the lmmortal clitt, is purple red sandstone rock, while the Stone Gate granite. They have different geology and landform in small area, the abundant forest and flower, the stream and waterfall compose of over 180 scenic spots. They show landscape abundance and variety. The reason of protuberant globular valve: The grottoes kept its fine sculpture of 12 feudal dynasties. It possesses large-scale sculpture museum with 1600 years. It provides precious material studding sculpture, painting, arts and crafts, architecture and religion such as Buddhism. The constructed cave in North Wei (408-534A.D) play an important role for its long history in China even in the world, well preserved well shaped, lively figure. There are biggest palace--shaped building in northern dynasties of Chinese grottoes in these 21 grottoes. Bulding in wall--painting, skill methods and completed methods are both the best important and valuable works. This abundant building material in northern dynasties is the most precious and important illustration in studying grottoes' nationalism, ancient construction, and freseo. There are about 2738 higher vegetation in the scenic spot, of which 60 genus the 3rd Age xylophta 20 genera, the rare vegetation 31 and 18 genera rare animal protected by State. There is such abundant biology in warm temperature Zone of 34 N latitude; its varieties have typical significance. Maijishan Plant is accepted as member by IUCN. Spectacular Maiji peak, exquisite clay carving temple building under cliff, peculiar landform, about plant clear stream and waterfall combine naturally made up a harmonious landscape of mankind and nature.

Nom du bien : Nanxi River

Coordonnées : 28°10'-28°34' N / 120°35'-121°59' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : (not specified)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Nanxi River, a tree-shaped water system with 145 kilometers in length, is the biggest northern branch in the row reaches of Ou River. It flows between Yandang Mountain in the east and Guochang Mountain in the west, both of which have trend of being high in the south and low in the north. The rock stratum of the mountains is mostly made up of tuff, rhyolite, and granit. The river lies in subtropical monsoon zone, while influenced by the maritime climate. It enjoys a warm and moisty climate all the year round and its temperature varies from 4.2 degrees centigrade to 38.2 degrees centigrade, with the average temperature of 18.2 degrees centigrade in a year. In the seenie spots, there are various kinds of plants and some rare trees (such as, Chinese sweet gum, and ginkgo). With charming scernery and simple local custom, Nanxi River was named as the National Tourist Scenic Spot by the State Council in 1988.

Nom du bien : Wudalianchi Scenic Spots

Coordonnées : 48°34'-48°50' N / 126°00'-126°26' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(ii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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The Wudalianchi is one of the first batch of state scenic spots areas approved though the State Council in 1982, and a state-level nature reserve approved in 1996. There are the most typical and perfect vestiges of modern volcanic eruption in China, and the world- known volcano-related mineral spring water. The Wudalianchi volcanic cluster is situated in the E-W tectonic belt at the junction between Xiaohinggan Mts. Uplift and Song-Nen depression. The volanic eruption was related to the faulting activity between the above-mentioned two tectonic units. One of the major sets of fault trends 42 NE,i.e. the Cathaysian lineament, which controls the direction of volcanoes; the other set of fault trends NW-SE, intersecting the former at an angle about 90 ,where the basic lava erupted through their intersections to the surface to give rise to volcanoes. There are totally 14 volcanic cones of the Wudalianchi volcanic cluster, which are distributed mainly along NE direction as two volcanic chains, with the exception of the S. Gelaqiu Mt. and N. Gelaqiu Mt. on the westewnmost place. The volcanic cluster is a product of the repeated volcanic eruptions since the Pleistocene of Quaternary, giving rist to the rocks of volcanic cones and lava flow, all belonging to K-rich alkali basalt. The Laohei Mt. and Huoshao Mt. in the central part were confirmed to have been formed through eruptions in AD 1719-1721, according to the record in the ?Anecdotes on Heilongjiang ? and ?A brief of Ningguta ? in Qing Dynasty. With rocks fresh and lava landforms preserved almost intact, these volcanoes are called new-stage volcanoes; whereas the rest 12 volcanic cones on the periphery and the lava platform around them, which were formed earlier and experienced long-term weathering, are the product of prehistorical eruptions and are called the old-state volcanones. All the 14 volcanic cones, regardless of their age and size, belong to detrital cones, i. e. They were formed of lava fragments e. G. Volcanic bombs, driblets, scria, pumice and lapilli which were thrown out from the vents to the air fell on the ground. Through repeated and intermittent eruptions and layer ?by-layer accumulations, volcanic cones with strata dipping outward were thus formed, which are intermediate degree of explosion and short periods of eruption, belonging to the Strombolian-type of Mediterranean. The vestiges of old-state volcanones are mostly covered under regoliths due to the long-term weathring, and there are only those of new stage, the Laohei and Huoshao Mts., with the age less than 300 years since the eruption, have the volcanic apparatures and the forms of volcanic cones, lava flow and volcanic fragments well-greserved and the major vestiges to be protected in the nature reserve. Their descriptions are given as follows: Vestiges of volcanic cones The laohei Mt. wes formed through the eruptions in 1719-1721. It gained its name (Laihei =old black in Chinese ) owing to the cover of black volcaniclasts on its southern slope. The eruption can divided clearly into two stages. The first state was dominated by eruption of volcanic fragments, and was the very period of the formation of volcanic cone.The second state, by the effusion of lava, when the lava undercut the fractures in the lower partt of cone and f;ew outward. Up till now, two openings for the outlet of lava are still preserved on the northern shope of the cone, and there are tunnels formed after the flo9w of lava. The crater appears in a funnel shape, 350m in diameter, 140m in depth, with steep inside wall. The volcanic neck is coverd by later talus. The volcanic neck is covered by later talus. The volcanic cone is surrounded by spilled-out lava, with a series of small parasite cones spread therein. The Huoshao Mt. had its eruption age and process roughly the same as that of the Laohei Mt. , but the cone is much lower and the crater appear as an oval shape with an N-S macro-axis. The rim of the crater is uneven, with two U-shape gaps on northern and southern sides, which were the positions where the lava was spilled out; and there are protrusions on eastern and western western sides, resulting in the name ?two-half mountains?. On the cone slope there are volcanic bombs of various shape. The lava flew mostly the northern gap, giving rise to a gigantic laca fan. The crater has a relatively flat bottom, with a small scoria cone protruding in the middle and ten odd small explosive pits formed from the local release of gas within the lava. Vestiges of lava flow The lava flow which effused out from Laohei and huoshao Mts. Is exposed on the surface 65km2 in area . The various characteristic shapes and primary structural features appear vividly as if they are frash. The field survey has revealed at least two large-scale effusions. The lava flooded along the old chnnel of Baihe river, giving rise to an elongated lava flow mass, resebling a black-colored dragon creeping on the ground, which is called by local people ?stone dragon?. Being comparable to many other basic lava volcanoes abroad,the lava here appears as two types differing utterly from each other with respect either to shape and to structure, i.e. pahoehoe and aa lavas. The pahoehoe lava, having generally a flat and smooth surface, is the surficial layer of lava whivh solidified earlist in ots flowing process. It has been notably broken, and the cooled surficial crust may have been sometimes plastically deformed when the liquid lava beneath it continued to flow, leaving vaious surficial structural featres, which the common ones are: 1) ropy lava, resulting from curling and torsion of the lava crust; the ?ropes? are mostly bent in arcuate from with the apex of arc pointing to flow direction; 2) wavy lava, with the surface folded into wavy form; 3) bun-like lava, with the ?buns? resulting from from the expansion of gas escaping from the liquid lava beneath the crust; 4) creeping worm-like lava, branches of lava which flew out along slopes at the margin of lava flow mass, with features like lava fall, elephant trunk etc. Reflecting the form of flow at that time. There are still other features like lava tunnel, lava stalactite, lava stalactite, lava outflow dome etc. Which are not to be described in detail here. Aa lava , also called clinkerky or slaggy lava, is composed o9f various-sized blocks and fragments resuting from the brittely or semi-plastically broken lava crust solidified earlier in the process of lava flow. Field observartion has found that the pahoehoe often occurs near the volcanic vent, which grades through a certaigh a certain distance into aa lava. On the rugged surface of the aa ?sea?, there are occasionally blocks in the shape of bear, ape, ox etc. But the strangest feature of all is groups of gas exhalation cones, hundreds in number, standing on the vast aa surfaca on both sides of the 4 th and 5 th Pools (lakes) respectively on eastern piedmont and northwest o9f Huoshao Mt., Their formation was due to intermittent escape of gas carrying some lava throuth the solidified or semi-solidified lava which flew to the swampy zone when the liquid lava in the lower part became vapor-rich, and the cones were thus formed from the layer-by-layer accumulation of lava around the vents. The exhalation cones have multifarious shapes like tower, cone, mound etc., being always hollow inside, with usually an opening on top, which is rarely closed. The inside well of the hollow cone is full of lava stalactites hanging downward resuting from the falling of liqid lava, constituting a marvellous picture. Most of the coneds stand upright, but there are also someones slanting or flat-lying, and someones are brolen in two from top to bottom. These phenomena, though not common, suggest a continued flow of lava during or even after the process of the formation of cones. Accompanying the exhalation cones there are exhalation discs which are the embryonic form of exhalation cones, with only much less times of intermittent liquid eruption, generally consisting of only two to three layers of driblets. If the Wudalianchi is said to be a museum of volcanic geoogy, these exhalation cones and discs are the outstanding ?exhibits?which are rarely seen either at home or abroad regarding to their beautiful apearance, their large number and their wide distributtion. Vestige of volcanic fragments The lava erupted from the Wudelianchi volcanoes belongs to basic magma with high temperature, low viscosity and high fiuidity. The eruption was dominated by quiescent effusion, with only explosion in the beginning , when large quantity of gas released blew up the liquid lava or solid rock blocks into the air, which fell on the ground to give rise to volcaniclastic ejecta and are distributed mainly around the crater to make up the volcanic cone. The volcanic fragments are classified according to their shape, structure and state of substance into volcanic bomb, driblet, scoria, pumice block and lapilli,of which the volcanic bombs scattered on slope of and around the volcanic cone are most noticeable in their multifarious shapes, e.g. spheroidal, ellipsoidal,fusiform, belt-like, twisted, ring-like etc..Bombs including cores of granite are also commonly seen. Besides the above-mentioned vestges of volcanic geology, the volcano-related mineral spring water is also a wonder of Wudalianchi which is one of the three major cold mineral springs in the world. It is a ferrosiliceous Mg-Ca bicarbonate type low teperature mineral spring, characterized by large reserves, strong capability of regenration, high degree of mineralization at low temperature, compatibility of mineral substance with the needs of human body ,suitabilityfor both drinking and bathing, nonpoisonousness and harmlessness. The testing using the most advanced measures by the Water Quality Research Centre of the Research Institute of Water Power, Ministry of Water Conservancy and Electrical Power and Chinese Academy of Sciences has shown that the mineral spring water contains 30 odd elements indispensable to humean body and belongs to precious volcanic mineral spring water and the best composite spring water for medical use both at home and abroad. The practice of recuperation for more than 100 years has shown that the mineral spring water of Wudalianchi can cure more that 100 kinds of disease, especially for some chronic and stubborn diseases in digetive, nervous and circulatory sysems and on skin which can hardly be effectively cured by drugs. It is widely praised as a holy spring water which can ?cure your illness when your are ill, and make you healthy and prilong your life when your are not ill?. Sun Changren, Vice-directorand Secretary-general of the China?s Special Committee on Mineral Spring Water said :?any other mineral spring water in China cannot compare with that of Wudalianchi?. Ms Yue-sai KAN , A Chinese of US citizenship, said ,? the mineral spring water has brought us a miraculous surprise beyond metaphor?. There are five mineral spring water belts found in Wudalianchi: 1) bicarbonate water of Yao quan Mt. belt; 2) ferrosiliceous bicarbonate water of E. Jiaodebu Mt. belt; 3) carbonic acid water of Weishan Mt. belt; 4) carbonic acid water of Huoshao Mt. belt; and 5) metasilicic acid-radon water of Baolong Spring belt.

Nom du bien : Yalong, Tibet

Coordonnées : 28°40'-29°30' N / 90°50'-92°20' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(iii) C (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Covering the valley of the middle reach of Yaluzangbu River,its branches and some lakes on the Tibetan Plateau,Yalong region is the cradle of Tibetan culture.The extant relics,artifacts and ancient sites demonstrate the early civilization of the Tibetans,including their early religion,culture,arts and society.Yalong region covers an area of 1350 square kilometers.It is an area of high cultural and natural value on the QinghaiTibetan Plateau. This region belongs to plateau temperate semi-arid monsoon climate,with strong sunshine,strong radiation and thin air.Average annual temperature is 8.3? and annual rainfall is between 330 and 390 mm.Average annual total radiation in Zedang is 172kcal/square cm.The average atmospheric pressure is between 60,000Pa and 70,000Pa.The geological structure of this region is very complicated.The area to the north of Yaluzangbu River belongs to Mesozoic depression belt and late Yanshan Era-Himalayas Era granite of northern Gangdisi Mountain Range;the area to the south of the River is metamorphic flysch rock belt of northern Himalayas.In this region,the Quaternary strata are thick and well developed and are dotted with a lot of gyittja,river facies sediment and glacial drifts of different glacial periods.The relative height between high peaks and low valleys is 1500m.With the interaction of glaciers and rivers,magnificent scenes of high mountains,grand rivers and big valleys were created.Many hot springs,waterfalls and karst caves can also be found here. Yaluzangbu River is the highest large river in the world.A section of about 302 km of the Yaluzangbu River is in this region,with an average elevation of more than 3,000m.The East-West straight valley is a typical tectonic valley developed on the margin zone of Indian Plate in the south and Eurasian Plate in the north.The maximum flow of the river is 3,250 cubic meters per second.The widest place in the valley of the middle reach of the river is 7km.The river develops into a network shape and the wide valley forms the Zedang plain area.Yalong River,a branch of Yaluzangbu River,originates in the northern part of Cuomeisangwula Mountain,takes in the melted snow water from Yadongtianxiangbu snow mountain(elevation 6,635.8m;with large area of modern glacier),and flows into Yaluzangbu River at Zedang Plain.Yangzhuoyongcuo,a plateau lake and one of the three ?sacred lakes ?of Tibet,is formed by river sediment clogging the original tree-like river course.The lake,with an elevation of 4,445 m and maximum depth of 60 m,covers an area of 638 square km.The clear lake and the swamps and meadows by the lake together create extremely beautiful scenery. In this region there is rich bio-diversity and one finds typical natural vertical belts:temperate grassland belt-alpine grassland belt-alpine tall grass meadow belt-alpine frigid sparse vegetation on alpine scree belt(snow peeks).The vegetation in the valley is shrubs dotted by trees.There are 683 species of common plants,7 species of ferns,7 species of gymnosperm and 669 species of angiosperm.Animals under state grade one protection are Equuskiang,Grusnigricollis,Teteraogallus tibetanus,Cervusalbirostris and argali.Yangzhuoyongcuo Lake,the ?fish storage of Tibet?,is abundant in fish,mainly schizothorax and plateau carp.There are a dozen bird islands on the lake. Yalong region is where the ancestors of the Tibetans lived and is the cradle of the Tibetan culture.A lot of early Tibetan cultural artifacts and sites demonstrate the religious,social,cultural and scientific and technological development at that time.Before 633 AD,when Songzanganbu unified Tibet and moved his cultural center to Lhasa,Yalong had always been the political and cultural center of Tibet and had been playing an important role. Changguo Ruins,a complete relics site of a primitive village in Neolithic Age,demonstrate that this was the place where the Tibetans settled 10,000 years ago.According to ancient Tibetan books,the legend that the Tibetans were the offspring of monkeys and fairy has its origin in this region.The agriculture and animal husbandry here have always been quite developed. The valleys in the middle reach of Yaluzangbujiang River and the valleys of Yalog.River are the major agricultural region and are claimed as the ?granary of Tibet?.Yangzuoyongcuo Lake is one of the important ranges in Tibet due to rich grass around the lake. The first palace in the history of Tibet-Yongbulakang Palace was built in the 2nd century BC on the top of the Zhaxiciri Mountain.The magnificent palace demonstrated typical Tibetan style.Later Dalai V expanded and rebuilt the palace into a temple,which is kept intact now. The first Buddhist palace in the history of Tibet-Changzhu Temple,built in the 7th century,was one of the first Buddhist temples built during the reign of Songzanganbu.After three expansions and improvement,the complex now covers an area of 4,660 square meters.In the temple there is a priceless treasure ? a ?picture of Avalokitesvara? made of pearls.In 767,the first Tibetan temple with Buddha?s sculpture,Buddhist sutra and monks ?Shangye Temple ?was built.It was the grandest building during the Tubo Dynasty and was the political center of that time.The complex covers an area of 120,000 square meters and has a floor area of 25,000 square meters.The layout of the temple was an imitation of the ?Datura? pattern of the Indian school of Buddhism.The main hall is a combination of the building styles of Tibet,Chinese Han and India,which reflects the integration of the three cultures.The ?picture of Tibetan history ?,claimed as the Tibetan?Records of the Historian?,is a 92 m long mural.The 8th century classic Tibetan medical book Complete Works of Medicine was discovered nearby the temple in 1012.Qingpu,15 km away from Sangye Temple,is another place of Buddhist activities,where one can find many carya caves (carya caves are natural caves used by famous Indian monks Lianhuasheng and Jihu when they were invited to Tibet to spread Buddhism.Now about 40 such caves are well preserved),sky burial platform,springs and a lot of basreliefs on precipices and pagodas.Buried underground are ?fuzang?-buried sutras ?to be discovered. The Minzhulin Temple was acclaimed as the ?No.1 Seat of Learning ?of Tibet.It was built at the end of the 10th century and later was expanded into an institution of higher learning in the 17th century.In the temple,not only sutras,but also Sanskrit language,medicine,calendar and astronomy were studied.It also provided biannual Tibetan calendar,which is still used today.The existing buildings in the temple cover a floor ,space of 100,000 square meters. The earliest and biggest royal mausoleums,the Tibetan Mausoleums,were built in the 8th century when Tibet was unified.There were originally 21 mausoleums and now only 16 remain.The graveyard covers an area of 3,050,000 square meters.The owners of 9 mausoleums have been identified.Further textual research and excavation will be needed. Many of the well-kept remains in the region are evidence of the important?zong xi ?administration system in the social development of Tibet.Dansati Temple was built in 1158 and is the first temple of Gaju School.In 1354 Qiangqujianzan established Pazhu Dynasty and practiced ?zong xi ?system to turn Tibetan society from a slavery system into a feudal serf system.Now there are many complete?zong ?and ?xi ka ?remains.The ?zong?(county)includes Qiongjie Zong(on the top of Qiangwadazi mountain;elevation 3,800m;area 1,600square meters;the current remains were built during the time of Dalai I),Qiaga Zong,Woka Zong,Baima Zong.The ?xi ka ?(manor)includes Langsailin Manor(built in the late Tubo Dynasty and expanded to current scale in Pazhu Dynasty;the main building has 7 floors and is 22 meters high;the main building and main walls are kept intact;the buildings were built by using special construction methods using stone and earth),the 12th century Dalai Manor and Ludingpozhong. The influence of Yalong valley on the Tibetans remains today.Two out of the four sacred Buddhist mountains in Tibet ?Habu Mountain and Gongburi Mountain ?and sacred lake ?lamunamucuo?(meaning ?the lake of Mother Buddha ?)are in this region.Every reincarnated boy of the previous Dalai is found with the revelation of the sacred lake.This region is also the place where the earliest Tibetan characters and operas were created. Justification of ?oustanding universal value? The middle reach of Yaluzangbu River is the biggest valley region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The discontinuous ultra basic rocks and exotic rocks demonstrate the action of crust and Earth mantle. The snow mountains,gorges and lakes create unique ecological types and demonstrate rich plateau landscapes.Because Yaluzangbu River cuts through the Himalayas and opens a passageway for the warm and wet atmosphere from the Bangladesh Bay to flow into the valley of Yalong region, favorable water and heat conditions have been provided for the early development of the Tibetans. More than ten thousand years ago,the ancestors of the Tibetans chose here as their place for settlement and formed their unique way of living.In the 3rd century BC,Yalong tribes were formed and in 217 BC the first Tibetan king created a slavery system kingdom. As the origin of the Tibetan culture,Yalong region have seen early agriculture and animal husbandry development and the development of unique Tibetan culture.Here one can find well-kept early gathering places,palaces,temples,burial grounds and manors.The early Tibetan characters, poems, operas, medicine, astronomy and calendars were also created here. As the origin of Tibetan Buddhism, the role of the ancient temples in the region is irreplaceable.It was from here that the Tibetan Buddhism gradually influenced Tibet and the vast area of west and northern China.

Nom du bien : Yandang Mountain

Coordonnées : 28°35'-28°55' N / 121°00'-121°30' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(ii) C (ii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Brève description

Famous as " wonderful scenery in China" for a long history, Yandang Mt. is among the first state-level scenic spots. With a core area of 186 km', the mountain is based on the natural landscapes with high aesthetic and scientific value and has become a spatial complexity that can greatly satiate travelers' eagerness of beauty as the integration of natural and historical civilization. Peculiar and excellent natural landscape, universally significant and prominent scientific value as well as profound national mountains-and-waters culture are 'in perfect harmony in Yandang Mt. Yandang Mt.'s altitude is 1056 meter. Yandang Mt. is a stereoscopic model of Cretaceous revived caldera made by nature and is a natural museum for rhyolitic volcanic rocks. Geologically speaking, it is the natural record of continent marginal magmatism and deep geological evolution process and thus is the most representative ancient caldera of the huge volcanic belt of Asian continental margin 'in west Pacific. The peculiar natural landscape itself of Yandang Mt. is a Cretaceous revived caldera whose age is 120-100 million years and is earlier than those Cenozoic ones of the world. The caldera exposed its inner geology and rocks after having been dissected and lifted, recorded distinctively the forming and evolving history and revealed the evolving model of the Mesozoic caldera. Yandang Mt. is the product of crust-mantle interaction during the dynamic process of the subduction of ancient Pacific Izanagi plate to Asian Continent. Therefore, it is not only of typicality but also a marking revelation of Cretaceous acidic magmatism of the continental margin and deep geological evolution. Yandang Mt. has mid-subtropical oceanic and monsoon climate, characterized by abundant heat, enough light and rich rain in synchronization. The average temperature per year is about 17.5'C and the average humidity is about 77. The amount of precipitation each year is over 1700 mm. There are three ecosystems in Mt. Yandang region, forest ecosystem, fresh water ecosystem, and ocean ecosystem. The geographical regions of Yandang Mt.'s vegetation should be obviously divided as tropical or subtropical zone and are 'in the transitional areas from eastern China to southern China. Its forest vegetation is heterogeneous and is mainly composed of mid-subtropical ever-green broadleaf trees. With different living environments from low hill to beach, Yandang Mt. owns a large variety of species. Mt. Yandang is not only a famous place of natural beauty, but also a key region of high biological diversity. Mt. Yandang demarcates the floristic regions of south subtropical flora and the mid-subtropical flora. Therefore, the flora of Mt. Yandang region are of transitional characteristics. In this small region, there are 1248 seed plant species belonging to 160 families. Many plants, such as Machilus minutiloba S. Lee, Cercidiphyllwn japonicum Steb. et Zucc. ex Hoffm, et Schult., Psilotum nudum Griseb., Platycrater arguta Sieb. et Zucc., SemiliquidaTnbar cathayensis H. T. Zhang, Glycine soja (L.) Sieb. et Zucc., and Strobilanthes sarcorrhizus (C. Ling) Z. C. Zheng, are threatened or endangered species. Some species, for example, Machilus minutiloba, are endemic to this small region. Many species were described based on the specimens collected from Mt.Yandang. As a traditional famous mountain, Yandang Mt. has a high level aesthetic value for its distinctive and abundant characters. Its figurative beauty includes magnificence, wonder, danger, elegance, seclusion, mystery and vastness etc. The most striking is its various wonders. In the area of 186 km2, there exist complicated terrain and abundant scenery, especially for a scenic spot with various images. Appreciating from overall perspective, Yandang Mt. is a scenic region of high aesthetic value. Yandang Mt is well known for its various wonders. Its natural landscapes are unusual, unexpected and changeable, mainly being exhibited by the peculiar shape of rhyolites, the combination of various excellent peaks, screen-like mountain peaks, caves, waterfalls and deep pools, which can evoke travelers' strong sense of beauty and spirit. In addition, there are still the magnificence of Yanhu Hill, Longqiu Peak, the dangers of ravines and plank roads along cliffs, the elegance of brooks and streams, the seclusion and mystery of Chuyue Gorge, Mingyu Stream, Ling Rock etc. Yandang Mt. has various water landscapes such as brooks, springs, ravines, ponds, waterfalls, rivers, lakes, swamps and oceans etc. Furthermore, Yandang Mt. has rich historical and cultural connotation: The development of Yandang Mt. began from Tang Dynasty in seven century and prospered in Song Dynasty in thirteen century. For the thousand years great deal of historic cultures have been accumulated. In Song Dynasty, there were famous " eighteen ancient temples". After that, with the rebuilding of hill roads and the renovation of temples, travelers began to visit Yandang Mt and left many poems and 'inscriptions. In Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, this continued to develop. More and more poets, painters and writers are illuminated by the large scale peculiar landscapes of Yandang Mt. and left a large amount of work. Such enlightening and scientific roles of Yandang Mt. are the very important functions of modem national parks.

Nom du bien : Yangtze Gorges Scenic Spot

Coordonnées : 30°45'-31°2' N / 109°34'-110°12' E
Date de soumission : 29/11/2001
Critères : N (i)(ii) C (ii)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China. ( natcomcn@public3.bta.net.cn )
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Brève description

The Yangtze Gorges is one of the first key national scenic spots (in 1982). They start at Baidicheng in Fengjie County, Chongqing and end at Nanjin Pass in Yichang, Hubei Province. The gorges themselves are 193km long and cover an area of 1208km2, including Wuxia gorge, Qutang gorge, Xiling gorge and some wide valleys between these gorges. Qutang Gorge is 8km long and is celebrated for its magnificent, peculiar and precipitous scenery in the world; Wuxia Gorge is 42km long and is serene and secluded and presents a panorama of lovely scenery; and Xiling Gorge is 66km long and is well-known for its dangerous rugged shoals and the turbulent waters. The history of the scenic spots and historical sites in the Three Gorges area can go back to ancient times and it recorded many stirring historical deeds. The mountains and water in Three Gorges are in various postures and are a mysterious natural gallery. The Three Gorges has become world-famous for its large and precipitous valleys and rich historical and cultural intentions. They can be for sightseeing, sport, exploration, archaeological studies and scientific investigation. In 1985 the Three Gorges Scenic Spot was appraised as one of China?s ten scenic spots, and in 1989, both the Three Gorges of Yangtze River and the Lesser Three Gorges of Daninghe River won the title of China?s 40 best scenic spots. The Three Gorges of Yangtze River is located in east Sichuan folded zone and Bamian Mountain folded zone and belongs to the part of upwared zone in Neocathaysian structural system. This area was subjected to several structural changes. The Jinning Movement before the Sinian Period caused the metamorphosis of rock, the folding of rock formation and the magnetic intrusion, and thus forming palaeogeologic structure with the crystal bed-rock mainly toward northwest. During Sinian period to Triassic Period, the structural Changes were mainly vibration or elevation and subsidence movement, and there was no folding and magnetic intrusion. The Yenshan movement occurred at the end of Jurassic Period mainly embodied in the folding and disrupter of overlying strata, thus laying down the present structure. The Himalayan movement mainly utilized and reformed the ruptured structural face of the early-formed structure and folding was not developed. In recent period, new structures are characterized by large-area upward zone and there are no movements with marked difference. In this area, the strata all emerged out except the lack of strata in the upper Devonian, carboniferous and Triassic periods, which is the natural records revealing the process of geological evolution in the Three Gorges area. In this area, the terrain rises and falls, most of emerged bed rock are limestone, rainfall is abundant, water flow deeply cuts off the strata, karst landform is well developed, many valleys, deep gullies, stranger peaks and peculiar rocks were formed, and karst landscapes such as spring and waterfall can be seen everywhere. The river gorges are the main landscapes. Qutang Gorge is the shortest, but has many landscapes and is world-famous for its magnificent and precipitous scenery. On the banks of the gorges, Chijia and Baiyan Mountains oppositely stand, the mysterious rock walls look like two giant gates and control the flow of Yangtze River. The magnificent mountains and turbulent waters are of great momentum and are acclaimed by the people as the acme of perfection. Wuxia Gorges, the longest one, with deep valleys, soaring fascinating mountain peaks rising from the river banks, is serene and secluded, presents a panorama of lovely scenery, and looks like a beautiful mountains-and-waters painting gallery. In Wuxia Gorge scenic area, there are also ?three platforms, eight scenery? and the famous twelve peaks. Xiling Gorge is well-known for its numerous hidden rocks, dangerous shoals and rocks, and turbulent rapids. The famous new shoal, Kongling shoal and Yaocha River is all located in this gorge. The gorge has numerous rapids and shoals, water flows circuitously, peaks rise one higher than another, strange peaks and peculiar rocks are of great momentum, karats caves can be found everywhere, and there are 174 caves in this gorge. There are also many small gorges in this area except the famous Three Gorges. The gorges located at river branches are relatively small, but they are very beautiful, peculiar and precipitous. High mountains tower aloft on the banks of Yangtze River; there are more than 20 mountains with the elevation over 800m, 20 mountains with the elevation over 1000m and 13 mountains with the elevation over 2000m. Water in branch flows into Yangtze River from the elevation of 1000m. The mountains mingle together with rivers and form a precipitous and beautiful mountain-and-water Scene. There are 13 mountains with towering peaks, dense forest and beautiful landscapes, including Chijia, Baiyan, Tianzhu, Dalaoling, Huangniushan, Xiannu, Xiaoshenlongjia and Wanchao Mountains. In the Three Gorges Section of Yangtze River, water resource is very abundant, about 80 streams and branches flow into Yangtze River, and the streams, special shapes and organic composition of mountains and rivers constitute changeable and magnificent landscapes of the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges scenic area is located in subtropical moist monsoon climate zone, belongs to the transition zone of subtropical zone and temperate zone, has the features of rich quantity of heat, full of sunshine, abundant rainfall, and synchronization of water and heat. The vegetation and plants have marked transition characteristics; their types and species are very complicated and show large diversity. The Three Gorge scenic spot contains different ecological environment from rivers, flatlands, lower hills to medium mountains and has abundant species of living beings. The wild animal resources include 570 species of vertebrates, with 69 species of animals, 124 species of birds, 15 species of reptiles, 12 species of amphibians and 92 species of fishes. Two kinds of wild animals including golden monkey and south China tiger are listed as the national Class I protected wild animals. 9 kinds of wild animals including giant and lesser civets, Chinese pangolin, musk deer, giant salamander, rhesus monkey, tufted deer, clouded leopard and black finless porpoise are listed as the national Class II protected wild animals. Bharal and red-belly pheasant are listed as the national Class III protected wild animals. In the scenic area, there is the national key protected aquatic animal?Chinese sturgeon and a breeding base for Chinese sturgeon is set up at Hexingzhou, Yichang County. The Three Gorges scenic area has numerous varieties of plant species, the preliminary statistics show that there are 166 families of vascular plants with 762 categories and 2093 species, of which there are 20 families of pteridophyta with 37 categories and 91 species, 6 families of angiospermous with 17 categories and 29 species, 123 families of dicotyls with 598 categories and 1694 species, and 17 families of monocotyls with 134 categories and 279 species. 35 species of plants are listed as endemic plants, such as lotus-leaf brake, dawn redwood, dove tree and so on. 36 species of plants are listed in the ?Directory of the National Key Protected Plants?, of which, the dove tree is the Class I protected plant, 16 are Class II protected plants such as maidenhair tree, Qinling fir, three-pin fir, white sandalwood, walnut tree, Chinese tulip tree and so on. 19 species of plants are listed as Class III protected plants. These rare and near-extinction plants are of great value for scientific study. The Three Gorges has a long history, ancient culture and rich historical and cultural intension. Archaelogical study discovered that the prehistoric culture was Damiao culture here, where the archaecologists found out the fossils of the ancients and giant ape-men which were 2.04-2.01 million years ago. Daxi culture is one of China?s famous ancient cultural relics, which was 5000~6000 years ago. The archaecologists unearthed 5000-odd relics, 10000-odd earthenwares and 100-odd jade, bone and horn handicrafts, which should be listed in Daxi culture. In this scenic area, there are 112 ancient cultural relics, of which 47 are the relics in the Neolithic Age and the Paleolithic Age. 12 relics have been reported to the higher authority for approval as provincial protection units of historical relics. There are 2830 ancient graves which are located at 166 places, and the suspended-coffins on cliffs were found at 7 places, with 30-odd coffins at one place. Based on an incomplete statistics, there are 274 suspended-coffin holes on cliffs along Daninghe river valley. The coffins are all suspended on the cliffs 120m~150m above the ground, though their types are different from each other. It is appraised by historians that the suspended coffins were built in the period from the late of West Han dynasty to the early stage of the East Han dynasty, but when they were buried and how they were placed on the cliffs remains still a mystery. The Three Gorges is the cradle of ancient Chinese culture and also one of the earliest tourist places in China. Li Daoyuan, an geographer (A.D 472~527) in Beiwei Dynasty made a deep investigation on the Three Gorges 1472 years ago and gave a detailed description of the Three Gorges in his treatise. Many ancient officials, scholars, poets and painters successively came to visit the Three gorges, including Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Li Bai, Wang Anshi, Three Sus, Lu You, Liu Yuxi and Ouyang Xiu, they were deeply touched by the beautiful scenery and left behind a lot of paintings and poems. The Three Gorges have a long history and Three gorges culture nurtured many famous historical figures and legend stories, such as Qu Yuan, a great thinker, statesman and writer and Wan Zhaojun, who made a great contribution to the national concord, they were born separately in Zhigui and Xingshan Counties in this scenic area. In the past hundred and thousand years, the local people often held various commemorative activities and many oft-quoted and widely-loved stories and legends were spread far and wide among the people, which adds up to the brilliance and mystery of the Three Gorges Scenic Spot.

Nom du bien : Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve

Coordonnées : Qiongshan County,Hainan Island,Guangdong ProLong. 110°30' East Lat. 20° 07' North
Date de soumission : 12/02/1996
Critères : (missing)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
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Brève description

Situated in Qiongshan County, Hainan Island, Guangdong Province, the Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve (20D 7' N and 110°30'E) covers an area of 2,500 ha. with a total coast line of more than 50 kilometers. With many windings and bays along the coast line, the Dongzhai Port was formed by a serious earthquake in the year of 1605. The harbour is deep and wide with gentle and flat beach. There are a quite number of tidewater gullies. When the tide rises the beach is flooded and the gullies are full of water and while the tide edds the beach is exposed resulting many shallow pools. The mangrove forest is growing on the beach along the sea coast. The red soil of the land comes from the weathered basalt and the salinized soil is under the mangrove forest with the lowest PH value of 3.78 and the highest of 8.17. The soil of the deep layer is mainly fine sands and soft mud. There are six rivers in the Reserve, namely Malinggou, Yangzhouhe, Yangfenghe, Xihe, Sanjianghe and Taolanxi. Besides, there are still some river courses directly emptyed into the sea. During the rainy season, the fierce wind and torrential rain caused by the violent typhoon wash a large quantity of fine sands and organic particles into the harbours, resulting swampland followed by the accumulation of silt. Thanks to the shallow water and gentle wind and calm waves here, it is quite suitable for the growth of the mangrove forests. Since the Reserve lies in the monsoon climate area, the average annual temperature is 23.8 degrees C with 28.4 degrees C in July and 17.1 degrees C in January and 1,700 mm of annual rainfall and the temperature of the sea water varies from 32.6 degrees C to 14.8 degrees C with the average of 24.5 degrees C. The mangrove forest is the special flora in the beaches of tropical and subtropical areas. In the Dongzhai Nature Reserve, there exist mainly 12 families of flora with 19 species. The Rhiziphoraceae family has the species of Rhiziphora stylosa,Bruguiera sexangula, B. gymnorrhiza, Kandedia candel and Ceriops tagal; the Verbenaceae family of Avicennia marina; the Myrsinaceae family of Aegiceras corniculatum; the Euphorbiaceae family of Excoecaria agallocha; the Palmae family of Nypa fruticans and Sterculiaceae family oi Heritiera littoralis. The mangrove mainly growing in the following harbours: Sanjiang and Yanzhouxi (more than 730 ha.), Shanweixi (90 ha.) and Tashi (more than 900 ha.). The Bruguiera is the only nature tree in this reserve are and the can have 14.5 m with 60 cm of breast high diameters. The Rhizophora stylosa is growing in most of the areas in the Reserve with rich and crisscross root systems and wind and wave resistant characteristics, which is one of the main tree species for the establishment of the coast line sheltbelts. The mangrove forest belts is the ideal habitat for birds, amphibians, reptiles and fishes. The common birds are wild ducks, egrets, sanpipers etc. and there are also plenty of fishes, prawns, crustaceans and molluses. Setting up in 1980 by the Provincial Government of Guangdong, the Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve was ratified by the State Council in July,1986, as one of the State controlled nature reserves. At present, there are 19 staff members in the Reserve. The Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve is the first mangrove forest nature reserve in China. Since the establishment of the Reserve, the mangrove forest belts have been well protected and some man-made forests of mangrove have also been established in the Reserve. Beginning from 1980 up to now, more than 500 ha. of man-made forests of mangrove have been afforested with 65% of the planted trees crowned, which has greatly promoted the development of the mangrove forests. At the surroundings of the Reserve, there are 72 villages with 13,000 inhabitants who take the agriculture as their main farming activities and fishing as sideline occupation or are engaged in half agriculture and half fishery. In order to run the Reserve well, a policy of respon-sibility system has been conducted and each person should fully fulfill the job assigned by the authority of the Reserve. In addition, they always educate the public to be aware of the importance for protecting the mangrove forests and give publicity to the rules and regulations in managing the Reserve. Supported by the county authori-ties, some joint protection and joint guard groups have been set up between the neighbouring townships and villages so as to protect the mangrove forest belts more efficiently. Since the establishment of the Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve, some research activities have been conducted, such as the survey of the flora resources, phenology observation, afforestation experiments in different site conditions, ecosystem changes of the mangrove forest etc. and some results have already been achieved. The mangrove forests are mainly distributed along the coast lines of Guangdong Province and some coast lines of Guangxi, Taiwan and Fujian Provinces and the species are more or less the same with that of the Southeast Asian Countries. In China, the best mangrove forests are in the northern coast line of Hainan Island, Guangdong Province. The mangrove forest in the Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve is the typical representative of the Hainan Island. The research work of the mangrove forests is of significant importance in protecting the ecological balance of the harbours and the coast lines. By doing study and practice, it proves that the mangrove forests can be planted artificially and this kind of research will certainly be done continuously in future.

Nom du bien : Poyang Nature Reserve

Coordonnées : Long. 115°--116°44' East Lat. 28°25'--29°45' North
Date de soumission : 12/02/1996
Critères : (missing)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
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Brève description

Situated in northern Jiangxi,Poyang Lake,the largest fresh water lake in China, lies to the south of the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. It stretches 170 km from north to south (28° 25' - 29°45' N ), and 74 km at its broadest east to west (115 –116°44' E ), covering a total area of about 3,841 square kilometres (when water depth at Hukou where the lake joins the Changjiang River is 21 meters). Its coast line is 1,800 km. The lake has been well known as "a land of abundance" and is reputed as a "bright pearl" in the basin of the Changjiang River with its rich aquatic resources and flourishing crops in surrounding fertile lands. The lake area enjoys a subtropical warm and wet climate with suffucuent sunshine, ample precipitation and long frost-free period. The average annual temperature varies from 16.7 to 17.7 degrees C and the average yearly is 1,400 to 1,900 mm. From April to June during the flood season, its surface area is considerably expanded forming an endless rippling blue expanse. In the dry season of winter and spring, the water recedes and seasonal small lakes and large marshes appear all over the lake area. According to preliminary survey, there exist in the lake 25 families of phytoplankton totalling almost 100 species, the dominant being green algae,37 families of aquatic vascular plant with 98 species, the dominant being sedge, Potamogeton malaianus and Vallisneria spiralis; 65 species of mollusca, the dominant being snail and mussel; 21 families of fish with 122 species, the dominant being Cyprinidae. In addition, there is a good supply of silver fish, a famous product of the area. Spreading on the grassland along the banks are 74 species of 25 families of meadow and helophyte plants, the dominant being Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae and Compositae. Such abundant natural resources provide a welcoming habitat for birds, attracting tens of thousands of migratory birds to spend their winter there, thus turning the Poyang Lake into one of the world's most famous migratory birds sanctuaries. In June, 1983, the People's Government of Jiangxi Province established the Migratory Birds Reserve in the western part of Poyang Lake where most of the migratory birds flock there for winter, and set up corresponding administrations. This Reserve, with Wucheng in Yongxiu County as its center, embraces nine seasonal lakes and marshes including: Dahuci, Banghu, Zhonghuci, Shahu, with a total area of 22,400 ha. There dwell in the Reserve 150 species of birds among which many are rare ones listed for global protection. In February 1984, 840 white cranes were observed, the largest flock of white cranes ever found in the world. This number has increased considerably in recent years. On 12th of January 1985, a crane inspection de legation from the International Crane Fund witnessed over 1,350 white crane. In the winter of 1985 the number increased to about 1,500. In addition, 20 species of rare birds such as white naped crane, hooded crane, common crane, white stork, black stork, spoonbill, whistling swan, mandarin duck, great bustard and pelican also frequent the area. The Poyang Lake Migratory Birds Reserve has been visited by specialists and scholars of the International Crane Fund, the Interna-tional Union for Protection of Nature and Natural Resources, the Hong Kong Branch of WWF, Japan, Sweden, Spain and other countries, and has been highly spoken of by them as a "paradise" and "gold reserve newly discovered". The large flock of cranes stretching over a few kilometres has been acclaimed China's "Second Great Wall". The establishment of the Migratory Birds Reserve offers favourable conditions for both the protection of migratory birds and scientific research on wetland as well as public awareness drives for loving and protecting birds". The area will, as a result, gradually become a center of crane research and wetland education in the southern part of China. It will also become a scenic spot for both Chinese and foreign tourists to view the migratory birds.

Nom du bien : The Alligator Sinensis Nature Reserve

Coordonnées : Long. 180°--119°6' East / Lat. 30°6'--31°6' North
Date de soumission : 12/02/1996
Critères : (missing)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
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Brève description

The Alligator Sinensis distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River is a peculiar wildlife in China. The Alligator Sinensis, one of the fresh water crocodiles in the alligator family, have a history of 200 million years. There are only two species of this family in the world today, one is the Alligator Sinensis in China and the other is Alligator mississippiensis in the Mississippi River of north America. Having a gentle disposition and no harm to the people, the Alligator Sinensis is one of the rare animals in the world. According to the field survey, the Alligator sinensis is only distributed over the southern part of Anhui Province and some places of the neighbouring province of Zhejiang, totalling about 500 pieces. Since it has some significance in the history of the animal evolution and academic importance, the biological specialists both at home and abroad have devoted much attention to the protection of the animal which was ranked as one of the protected wildlives in the world by the United Nations in 1973. The Chinese Government has also given its first priority to take care of the animal. In order to protect the endangered animal an Alligator sinensis Nature Reserve was established by the Government of Anhui Province in 1982. The Reserve (30'6'31"-6'N and 180°-119° 6'E) covers five counties of Nanling, Jingxian, Shuancheng, Lanhxi, Guangde of Anhui Province. The headquarter of the management organization locates at the Forestry Bureau of Shuancheng Profecture and the top governing organ is the Forestry Department of Anhui Provincial Government and then the Reserve was approved by the State Council as one of the State controlled reserves in China in July, 1986. There are three rivers in the Reserve, namely Zhanghe River, Qingyi River and Shuiyang River which are linked up each other and empty into the Yangtze River. The three rivers are connected with many lakes, ditches and ponds with abundant food for the animal and less human disturbance, so that it is a suitable habitat for the Alligator sinensis. The animal usually inhabits in the lairs of the hilly land at the elevation of less than 100 m where the soil is more soft with a large amount of sand content. The vegetation here is mainly grasses, such as Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, Themeda triaudra, Kummerowia stipulaces etc.; quite a few bushes of Rosa multiflora, Rubus parvifolius, Lespeteza formosa etc. and some scattered trees of Salix matudana, Melia azedarach, Robinia Pseudoacacia, Celtis sinensis etc. It is very interesting that the body temperature and the metabolism of the Alligator sinensis can be changed according to the environmental conditions. The dormant stage of the animal begins at the end of October till the middle of April the next year. The establishment of the Alligator sinensis Nature Reserve has played an important role in preserving this odd species. The accidents of killing the Alligator sinensis have been reduced gradually during the last few years because of the managing personnel of the Reserve using all kinds of opportunities such as meetings, radio, proclamations and bulletin boards to educate the public inside the Reserve the awareness of importance for protecting the rare animal. Besides, five protection and observation stations have been set up and another six are under preparation in the townships, villages and hill and pond sides where there are more Alligator sinensis inhabited. In 1985, in the four protected lairs, the Alligator sinensis laid 87 eggs and hatched 51 young ones, so that the population of the animal has been increased in the field. With the purpose of rescuing the endangered rare species an "Anhui Provincial Alligator sinensis Propagation and Research Centre" was established by the Ministry of Forestry, the People -Anhui Provincial Government in 1982 to carry out artificial raising, propagation and research work and to regain and develop the resource of the animal in China and to probe the relationship between the Alligator sinensis and human beings. The Centre has hatching rooms, propagation pools and raising ponds, covering a total area of 100 ha. Having several years of experiences total area of 100 in biological research, the Centre has mastered the principles of propagation and growth and the methods of artificial raising of the animal, so that the hatching and survival rate has been increased year by year. The hatching rate was 90.3% and the survival rate 95.4% in 1985. At present, there are more than 1,000 Alligator sinensis kept in the Centre. The establishment of the Alligator sinensis Nature Reserve has played an important role in protecting and propagating the animal. The Alligator sinensis had already lived for more than 200 million years on earth before the appearance of Human beings, that's why people call it a living fossil. The Chinese Government has made great efforts and gained distinct achievements in protecting one of the two fresh water crocodiles in the world.

Nom du bien : The Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin

Coordonnées : Long. 110°5' -- 110°40' East Lat. 24°40' -- 25°25' North
Date de soumission : 12/02/1996
Critères : (missing)
Soumis par : National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO
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Brève description

The Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin (24°40'-25°25'N, 11 0O5'-11 0°40'E) is located in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The total area is two thousand square kilometers which covers the entire city of Guilin, Yangshuo County and certain parts of Lingui, Lingchuan and Yongfu counties. Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin together with its natural resources is owned by the state. In 1982 the State Council listed the Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin among the first group of the major places of scenic and historic interest, which is now in the charge of the Administrative Bureau of the Lijiang River Scenic Zone at Guilin. The landforms of Guilin can be divided into four categories but corrosion takes the main part of the four, that means the low-lying land of peaks and plains of peak forests are the landform features of Guilin; then the corrosion landforms of hillock and gentle slope hillock; eroding landforms of ridge, ravine; and accumulation landforms of every terrace. The stone mountains, mainly of limerocks, of Guilin are composed of marine biochemical sediments. Years of weathering and water erosion have given shape to the rich and varied patterns of its present peaks, either in isolation or in cluster, and magnificent karst caves. The Lijiang River starts from Mao'er Mountain. The section of the river from the confluence of the Darong River to Pingle is the Lijiang River. It flows through Guilin and Yangshuo with a total length of 116 kilometers and a catchment area at its upper reaches of 2,860 square kilometers. The Guilin Scenic Zone has a long history. As far back as seven or eight thousand years ago, primitive men lived here in the manner of matrilineal communes. In 214 B.C. Emperor Qin Shi Huang of the Qin Dynasty ordered people to hew the Lingqu Canal and linked up the route of the Xiangjiang River to the Lijiang River and set up Guilin Prefecture. Later in the Song Dynasty, Guilin had begun to be noted throughout the country for its extreme natural beauty and the saying "Among all the mountains and waters, Guilin is the best" came into being. Guilin is well-known for its unique mountains and beautiful rivers. It mainly consists of five scenic sites. There are about 157 rock hills (now under first-class or second-class state protection respectively), 21 major karst caves and several hundred smaller ones. Among the solitary hills and protruding rocks of Guilin, flows the tranquil Lijiang River and its tributaries, which produce most spectacular sight. Guilin is also famous for its Reed Flute Cave and Seven-Star Rocks. There are a lot of cultural relics in the scenic zone. More than two thousand stone carvings scatter all over its scenic sites. There is the Lingqu Canal of the Qin Dynasty, site of Guyanguan Pass of the Qin and Han periods and the Imperial City of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Huaping primitive forest area; home of Cathay Silver Fir known as the world's living fossil, is located within 70 kilometers radius of Guilin City. The People's Government of Guilin City has made a program for the preservation of this scenic zone. Both the state and the local governments allocate certain amount of money each year for the development and preservation of the area.