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Silk Road on theterritory of Kazakhstan is divided into several main sections (parts). Represented and marked by monuments of history and culture these sections (roads) are original and have distinct features distinguishing them one from each other. Most probably, it was the natural environment and adaptation of human to existence in definite climatic conditions that has shaped the originality of a definite section. It can be affirmed with full confidence that the Silk Road is a phenomenon of unification of diversity of regions with the help of universal system of exchange of human values which was created, developed and maintained by people of different ethnical, linguistic, religious belonging during more than two thousand of years of existence of theSilk Road.
Four main sections (roads) on the territory of Kazakhstan are being offered for consideration: Semirechye, Syrdarya, Saryarka and Mangyshlak (Uralo-Prikaspiyskiy).
Each of these parts is characterized by its natural- geographical conditions and historical development, including urban with clear influence on process of formation, development and stagnation of historical and cultural monuments, situated in these regions of Silk Road route. These complicated processes of indissoluble connections of culture, natural, historical process, influence with communications show not only means of human adaptation to different kind of climate conditions, but also ways of mutual enrichment by exchange of human values and cultural traditions, which reflected in preserved cultural monuments which in present mark the important human communications.
Silk Road Semirechye part first of all is marked by historical and geographical region known as Zhetysu (Semirechye). Diversity of climate zones of the region became a key indicator of geographical landscapes and conditions of agriculture. Diversity of zones, among which are: wormwood-steppe, cereal-steppe, motely grass-steppe, forest or meadow and high-altitude indicates location of directions of the Silk Road, situated on these sections of the monuments, its morphological peculiarities.
General route of the following of this artery was as following: from Shasha (Tashkent) road which lead to Turbat, then to Ispidzhab (Sairam, Saryam, “White city” or “Al-medinat al-Baida”), then the road lead to the east direction – to Taraz, then to Dzhamukat, then the road went to Kulan (for Chinese Tszjuj-lan’), then to the East and the cities Mirki and Aspara after which it lead to Issukkul kettle. From Issykkul kettle through Santash pass and Karkary river valley the road run through Ili valley and right bank of Ili river, through Usek and Khorgos, lead to Almalyk. It was possible to reach Ili valley by another way – it stretched out from Kulan, Aspara to the towns of middle and lower reaches of the Chu river, from where the road lead to north slope of Chuili mountains and went down to the north Pribalkhashye; or went through Chu, down and lead to the towns on the north slopes of Karatau.
On the territory of Ili valley the Silk road line went though small towns, located on the place of present Kastek, Kaskelen and Almaty and reached Talkhiza (Talgar) town. In Talkhiza the Silk Road forked to south and north. Through Issyk, Turgen, Chilik, the south road lead to Ili pass – through Khorgos to Almalyk. North road from Talkhiza went along Talgar river to Ili pass, which located in Kapchagay water reservoir. After Ili the road lead to Chingeldy, then through Altyn-Emel pass it went down to Koksu valley and reached Iki-Oguz (Equius), located at the place of present Kirovskoye village. From Iki-Oguz the road lead to Kayalyk (Koylak) – capital of Karluk dzhabgu. Further the road went to Tentek valley, and passing Alakol lake, went through Dzhungar gates and came to Shikho valley.
Ili valley connected to the Central Kazakhstan by the road, which went along the north slopes of the Chuili mountains, then along Chu in its lower reaches and then – to the banks of Sarysu. One more important path was from the north Ili line in Chingildy region and through Koktal and Boyauly passes – in Pribalkhashye, then – along Ortasu channel (Ili river), where there are residues of Karamergen, Aktam and Agashayak towns, to Balkhash shore, then on Uzun-Aral peninsula, which almost connect south and north shores of the lake, leaving strait in width more than 8 km. Here in the cape, there were found rests of the town, the biggest part of which was floud. Probably the caravans passed wade the strait and went to outfall of Tokrau river and then along its banks went to Ulutau foothills.
Syrdarya part is marked by well preserved rests of cultural landscapes of oasises and towns saved in conditions of present steppe, desert an semi-desert area and adjusted to big water arteries (Chu, Syrdarya, Arys, Bugun).
In western direction from Ispidzhab caravan road lead to Arsubaniket on Arys river, to Otrar (Farab), and then down Syrdarya- in Priaralye. On Syrdarya part the biggest towns were Otrar (Farab) and town of Otrar oasis, Yassy (Turkestan), Shavgar, Sauran, Sygnak, towns of Dzhetyasar oasis, Dzhent, Dzhankent, Khuvara. From Dzhankent the road went to north-eastern side, came to the banks of Beleuty river and lead to Kounrada, Karasakpay region.
Saryarka part laid on the territory of the “Great Steppe” of the Central Kazakhstan – Desht-I Kypchak. Monuments of this region bent for many small rivers, Ulytau foothills, banks of Ishim, Nura, Sarysu, Irtysh.
Sarysu path lead to the Central Kazakhstan: from Otrar through Shavgar and Turgay pass on Aksumbe, it went to the lower Sarysu and up along the river to Ulytau, and from there to Ishim along Irtysh. The shorter pathwent through Suzak to the Lower reaches of the Chu, and from there – through Betpak-Dala desert – to Dzhezkazgan region. One more road “Khanzhol” was used till present time: it was from Taraz down along Talas through Muyunkum and Betpak-Dala sands to the banks of Atasu river. According to the data of Tamim ibn Bakhra and al-Idrisi, there was a trade path to Kimaks in Irtysh from Taraz through Adakhkes and Dekh Nujikes towns. Ili valley connected with the Central Kazakhstan by the road which went along north slopes of Chu-Ilii mountains, then along Chu river in its lower reaches to the Sarysu banks, and also northern Ili route, described above. From northern Ili road, which lead to Djungar gates, there was a direction, rounded Alakol from western side and through Tarbagatay lead to Irtysh – to the land of kimaks state with the Bandzhar, Khanaush, Astur, Sisan and “capital” of khakan. On Ishim river these roads lead to Bozok town then lead to the north and west.
Mangyshlak (Uralo-Prikaspiyskiy) part of the Silk Road, located along eastern bank of the Caspian sea, situated in essential natural landscape of deserts and semi-deserts, differentiated by wide diversity of its natural complex and extremal climatic and natural conditions. Population of these regions was a conglomerate of nomad and cattle-breeding tribes, who controlled trade roads, adjusted to the system of wells, springs, small rivers, what had influenced on material monuments of the cultureof the region.
It was possible to reach lower Ural and Volga from Urgench, following the road of Ustyurt caravanserais. On this part of the road there was situated Kyzylkala town. Passing by the territories of Southern and Northern Priaralye the trade arteries lead to the towns on Ural (Zhaiyk) river: Saraichik and Zhaiyk towns. Then they lead the caravans to thewestern direction-to the Europe, Crimea and Caucasus, and also to the “Zhaiyk road” to the Esatern Priuralye, Ural and Povolzhye.
Directions of the Silk Road were not static: during the centuries the biggest significancy received first one then another parts and nets; some of them died out totally, and towns and trade stations came to default.
We can define period of intensive functioning of the parts of the Silk Road stated above. In VI-VIII the main line was Syria – Iran – Central Asia – Southern Kazakhstan – Talass valley – Chu valley – Issykkul kettle – Eastern Turkestan. Branch of this road lead to the mentioned above line from Byzantine through Derbent in Prikapispiyskiy steppe, and Mangyshlak, in Priaralye, in Southern Kazakhstan (in Sasanid Iran, after concluding trade-diplomatic union between Western-turk kaganat and Byzantine). In IX-XII this route was used with less intension, but in XIII-XVI it started to function again (in connection with the appearance of Mongol Empire).
I. Semirechye sector of the Silk Road include the following objects on this nomination:
1. Antonovka ancient settlement - medieval Kayalyk (Kaylak);
2. Talgar ancient settlement;
3. Karamergen ancient settlement;
4. Aktobe Stepninskoye ancient settlement;
5. Akyrtas archeological complex;
6. Ornek encient settlement;
7. Kulan ancient settlement;
8.Kostobe ancient settlement.
II. Syrdarya sector of the Silk Road include the following objects on this nomination:
9. Zhuan tobe ancient settlement;
10. Karaspan tobe ancient settlement;
11. Borizhary burial ground;
12. Kul tobe ancient settlement;
13. Monuments of Otrar oasis;
15. Sidak ancient settlement;
16. Sauran ancient settlement (Sauran archeological complex);
17. Sygnak ancient settlement;
18. Monuments of Dzhetyasar oasis;
19. Zhankala (Dzhend) ancient settlement;
20. Zhankent ancient settlement;
21. Kuyuk-kesken kala ancient settlement;
22. Chirik-Rabat ancient settlement;
23. Babish-mulla ancient settlement;
24. Balandy settlement;
III. Saryarka sector of theSilk Roadincluded the following objects on this nomination:
25. Bozok ancient settlement;
IV.Mangyshlak or Uralo-prikaspiyskiy sector of the Silk Road include the following objects on this nomination:
26. Kyzylkala ancient settlement.
27. Zhayik ancient settlement;
28. Saraychik ancient settlement
V. “Early Period ofSilk Roadformation (prehistory)” category on this nomination included the following objects:
29. Boralday necropolis;
30. Issyk necropolis;
31. Besshatyr necropolis.
1 Component of Silk Road: Antonovka Ancient Settlement – Medieval Kayalyk (Kaylak). Geographical coordinates 44T 0444964 5060124
1 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: east outskirts of Koylyk (Antonovka) settlement, Sarkand area Almaty region, banks of Ashi-Bulak river, 190 km to the north-east from Taldykorgan city.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: VIII – end of XIII
Cultural/ethnical membership: Karluk, policonfessionalism
Morphology: Medieval Kayalyk (Kaylak) is the biggest settlement of Ili valley. Outwalls made of cob represent slipped down shaft with 11-13 m of width, and preserved height to 2-3.5 m, they surround a square area with length of 1290 m, depth of 840 m. Behind the wall there is a clearly seen ditch with width of 1017 m, depth of 1-2 m. Entries into ancient settlements were organized in the north-west, north-east and south-east parts. Inside the settlement the whole vast ground territory of the settlement is covered by numerous hillocks and hollows – these are traits of previous development. In the center of the above-mentioned quadrangle the central part is standing out, with the size of 241x225 m, angles oriented to the four winds.
Historical reference: The city was known in the sources of XI-beginning of XIII centuries as the capital of Karluk dzhabgu – this is an independent property of Turks-Karluks in Karahanids’ Kaganate. In the middle of XIII century the city has been visited by Guillaume de Rubrouck, an ambassador of Louis IX while he was going to Mongol Khan Munke. He described the city as a big trade center. According to him, there were temples of “idolaters”, a mosque and Christian church nearby.
Degree of investigation: Archaeological explorations of the ancient settlement started in 1964. Works were recommenced in 1998 within the scope of South-Kazakhstani Archaeological Complex Expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, during which the object identified as “Buddhist Temple” was dug out, and the dwelling farmstead at the citadel of ancient settlement was explored. In 1999-2000 the works were conducted in the “farmstead of a wealthy man” which located in the south-east part of the ancient settlement. In 2001 the bathhouse of “hammam” type was revealed, it was made of burnt bricks; in addition, the mausoleum constructed at the territory of the ancient settlement during the period of its desolation was investigated. In 2002-2003 the works were mainly concentrated on investigation of stratigraphy, creation of three-dimensional topographic base of the monument, and also on conservational measures and monitoring. From 2004 the works on “Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan” are being conducted at the ancient settlement. During past time the Muslim mausoleums of XIII and tekke of the same period, Friday mosque, Sogdian quarters, Manichean temple and other objects have been dug out. 1 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is good. Conservation (partial and full recultivation, covered with a protective layer) carried out on all the investigated objects. The boundaries of modern territorial land tenure had touched the part of the medieval building, but despite this, as the monitor shows, permanently kept within the boundaries of the 80s. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
1 Comparison of the Object – component of Silk Road with other similar objects, independently of their belonging to Silk Road, and its distinctive features:
The ancient settlement has some similarities with such ancient settlements of this time as Talgar and tortkols of Semirechye, South Kazakhstan, Tuva and Mongolia, Povolzhye.
It is the most close to ancient settlements of Golden Horde: Selitrennoe, Vodyanskoye, Mongolian ancient settlements of Crimea.
For example, the mosque that was dug out in Antonovka ancient settlement has almost no differences in layout and construction technique, interior design from the mosque of Voznesenovka ancient settlement (Beldzhamin city). Heating system of “kan” type in the houses of Golden Horde settlements and Kayalyk are similar.
Antonovka ancient settlement is one of the best studied monuments in Kazakhstan.
2 Component of Silk Road: Talgar ancient settlement – medieval Talhir. geographical coordinates: 43 T 680462 4794632
2 Brief Description of an Object – Component.
Geographical position: Talgar ancient settlement is situated 25 kilometers to the east of Almaty, at the foot of Zailiyskoe Ala Tau, in the outskirts of Talgar city.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: VIII- beginning of XIII
Cultural/ethnical membership: Karluk, Uisyny, Dulats, Kerey, Qidan. Cultic jobbings certify that there were representatives of various confessions in the settlement.
Morphology: Central part of the ancient settlement represents square section surrounded by fortifications with some remains of towers. The wall now looks like a slid down bank with a height of 3 up to 5 meters, with hilly towers at the corners and around the perimeter. An ancient build-up can be noticed around the central part, it is preserved best in the southern part. The total area of the ancient city was 28 hectares.
Historical reference: Talgar for sure corresponds to Talhir which is mentioned in anonymous Persian geographical writing of the end of X century, called “Hudud al-Alem”. “Its citizens are warlike, brave and valorous”, - mentioned the medieval geographer.
Degree of investigation: The excavations have been conducted in this place for about 50 years with intervals. It was studied by such archaeologists as I.I. Kopylov, T.V. Savelyeva. The ancient settlement was included into the “Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan” program. During numerous excavations the topography and development of Talgar was investigated, as well as its fortification. Rural houses in the central part and outside its boundaries have been explored. The street network, rural equipping such as water supply system and local canalization were revealed.
Coin collections, ceramics and glass, crafts made of iron, copper and bronze were gathered. Special attention was paid to collection of blacksmith’s crafts made of iron – armaments, horse riding equipment, home inventory, agricultural tools, inventories for the blacksmiths themselves and other craftsmen and builders.
The proposition exists that in Talgar of XI-XII mint place was operating. Collections of imported crafts made of ceramics, bronze, copper and glass were gathered.
Collections of inscriptions on ceramics, stone and metal crafts were gathered. Besides, ancient-Turkic writings, Orkhon alphabet, Chinese and Qidan writings, Arabic writings were found.
2 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Research of the settlement has a half century history. Collected a variety of imported goods, as well as locally produced items. In the course of archaeological research represented the biggest in Central Asia collection of products made of black metal.
Integrity of the investigated objects on the site - is satisfactory. Carried out Conservation (partial and complete recultivation, restoration of pavement, foundation of farmstead, external wall of shakhristan). Territorial boundaries of modern land tenure had touched the biggest part of the medieval buildings of rabad, closely built up the territory adjacent to the northern wall of shakhristan. Talgar settlement is included into the list of monuments of Republican value. Security zones are defined, the question of inclusion the Issyk-Museum Reserve into the jurisdiction of settlement area is being decided.
2 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Analogous to Talhir settlement amonuments are characteristic for Zhetysu, South Kazakhstan, Tuva and Mongolia. However, Talgar is one of the monuments which are well investigated as the town lying at the Silk Road routes and compared with the object known at written source and has a very rich cultural lay, which continue to provide the richest archaeological material.
3 Component of Silk Road: Karamergen ancient settlement. Geographical coordinates: 43 T 547726 5123322
3 Brief Description of an Object – Component:
Geographical location: Karamergen ancient settlement is situated 200 km to the north-east of Bakanas settlement, 3 km to north of falling of Ortasu dry bed into Shetbakanas.
Type of the monument: Settlement
Cultural/ethnical membership: Oguz
Morphology: The settlement itself looks like rectangle (115x120 m) with the corners oriented to the four winds directions. The walls preserved very well, even now they reach three meters in height.
Round, projecting towers with 4.5 m height are situated in each corner. North-east and south-west sides have two more towers with 3.5 m height. Entries into the ancient settlement can be noticed in the middle of north-west and south-east walls. Their structure is rather complex. They are flanked with L-sector of the wall, the corners of this sector have two more towers and the south-east entry is fixed with overhanging roll with preserved height of 1.5 m.
20 km to east of south tower there is a trapeziform construction surrounded by slid down roll with height of half a meter. South-eastern part of the ancient settlement has a main channel of 0.8-1 km taken out from the bed of one of the channels of Ortasu river which has no water now.
The second channel is situated 2 km to west of Karamergen, its bed is going from south-west to north-east, to the bank of Balkhash lake. The preserved length of the channel is 10 km; the bed width is 8-10 m.
Historical reference: According to the opinion of some of the researchers the settlement fit to Gorguz al-Idrisi.
Degree of investigation: The territory of the ancient settlement had stratigraphic excavations on it. It was found that Karamergen is a one-layer ancient settlement with cultural beddings of 0.5-0.8 m thickness. Cleaning of west tower outside and excavations inside of it showed that it had cone shape which was tapered upwards where the shooting ground was organized, with 3 m diameter, surrounded by brick breastwork. Mudbricks of 55x25x8.5 and 50x23x8 cm were used for construction of the tower.
The section of the wall surrounding Karamergen territory was also cleaned. It was found that the wall with thickness of 4.5 is made of mudbricks, blocks and pieces of natural clay.
Ceramics that was gathered during excavations at Bakanas ancient settlements and collected at the surface of the abovementioned monuments dates by IX-XIII centuries. These are cauldrons, table and water jugs, mugs, bowls, big vessels for storing of water, grain and flour – “Houma”.
Most of the vessels were made at potter’s wheel, of compact, well mixed paste, with admixtures of fine sand and chalk. Ceramic crafts were fired in potter’s ovens and paste was becoming of dark-red or dark-brown color.
Some of the vessels are decorated with trite ornament, but its elements are of the same type – usually it is a row of ring-shaped impressions with triangles. This pattern is well known in ceramics of Semirechye towns. Jugs of all abovementioned shapes are usual for stratums of XI-XIII of Semirechye towns. The closest parallels in shape and in ornaments can be noticed in materials of Antonovka, Talgar towns.
Slip ceramics in materials of Bakanas towns is represented only by few small fragments of bowls – “piala” and “kese” type. Several fragments of glass vessels of white and brown colors with large content of air bubbles inside can be related to XI-XIII centuries.
3 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Archaeological research of the settlement werecarried out in 1996, 2008. Preservation of the investigated objects on the site is satisfactory. Conservation activities had not been conducted. Settlement is located at a high distance from populated area, and therefore there is no technogeneous threat to the monument. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
3 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Karamergen ancient settlement can be referred to “tortkol” type monuments widely known in Zhetysu, South Kazakhstan, Tuva, Mongolia and in Tien-Shan. These are remains of towns, towns-shelters, settlements and caravanserais.
Karamergen is a city on the route of the Silk Road and this is evidenced by findings of imported beads made of lazurite; and the main proof is that it is situated on the section of Silk Road going from the main line across Pribalkhashye to Sary-Arka.
4 Component of Silk Road: Aktobe Stepninskoye. Geographical coordinates: 43 T 418685 4792261.
4 Brief Description of an Object – Component:
Geographical location: Aktobe ancient settlement is situated at both sides of Aksu river, not far from its falling into Chu river, in the steppe zone of Semirechye.
Type of the monument: Settlement.
Cultural/ethnical memebership: Karluk, Chigili, Yagma.
Morphology: Central ruins that gave the name to the whole monument are situated on the left bank of Aksu river. Citadel looks like high subdirect square hill with height of 15 m. Sizes of the hillock are 120x100m at the base. Citadel is attached by shakhristan having subdirect square contours with 240x210m size. Citadel and shakhristan are surrounded with walls which are now look like slid down rolls.
The territory of handicraft and agricultural areas is close to central ruins, it is surrounded by two rows of rolls. The length of the area downstream the river from south-east to north-west is 9.5-10km at the external circle of the walls and 5.5km at the internal circle of the walls.
Historical reference: The settlement is defined as big centre of trade and craft in compound of western turk Kaganate.
Degree of investigation: Starting from 1974, ancient settlement is being excavated by expedition of Kazakh State National University of Al-Farabi. From 2008 the works are being conducted on the program of “Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan”.
During excavations at the ancient settlement the residential communities, separate farmsteads were found, fortification was explored. Crafts made of ceramics and glass, metal crafts and jewelry, bronze vessels and big amount of coins were gathered during excavations.
4 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Being an authentic object of history, culture and architecture, Aktobe ancient settlement is under the protection of government. The ancient settlement was situated on important section of the Silk Road leading from China across Zhetysu to Central Asia, to Middle East, South Kazakhstan and Europe. Architectural works are being performed in that object in the stationary mode. This is first of all certified by archeological materials in the ancient settlement. This is certified first of all by coins: Chinese Tan dynasty, Torgesh coins, Tukhus coins, Samanids and Karakhanids coins. Bronze handicrafts were found – jugs from Iran and Central Asia, central-Asian ceramics. Aktobe ancient settlement can be recorded into the list on 3rd category, because it is an exclusive evidence of cultural tradition or civilization, existing or disappeared.
4 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Aktobe ancient settlement belongs to a large group of so-called “ancient settlements with long walls”. They are mainly concentrated in Chu and Talass valleys. Also, there are some in the south of Kazakhstan – Ispidzhab, Budukhist, Karaspan. They are usually connected with routes of the Silk Road. Aktobe relates to the number of those which are notable for big sizes and which are well studied, which are notable for presence of wealthy archeological material gathered during the exploration of many years.
5 Component of Silk Road: Akyrtas – Archeological Complex. Geographical coordinates 42T 0727697 4759493.
5 Brief Description of an Object – Component:
Geographical location: archaeological complex is situated 40 km to east of modern Taraz, 6 km to south of Akchulak railway station, at the foot of Kyrgyz Ala Tau. Now it looks like dry foothills covered by mouths of drying springs, with beds starting from springs situated in the mountain gorges.
Type of the monument: Complex of various objects
Dating: The objects have wide chronological scope
Cultural/ethnical membership: Karluk, Arab
Morphology: The complex includes several archeological and archeological-architectural monuments of different times: palace (monumental construction, rectangular, made of massive stone blocks of red sandstone, with height from 1 to 1.5 m. The size of construction is 169x145m. The long sides of construction are oriented at north-south line. The plan of construction can be read easily: the main street connects north and south entries. One more street which is perpendicular to it goes from east to west and rests against deep “aivans”. Streets divide the construction into four parts, three of them consist of facilities situated round the yards and one (north-west one) is free from development. The center of the whole development is occupied by yard with stone column bases at the perimeter of it, with sizes of 5x5m. The south part of the yard has some traces of foundation pits for water reservoirs. Palace construction dates by the middle of VIII century. There is a garden-park zone near it. It is a sector of subdirect rectangular shape. Sizes are 250x250m. Country farmsteads or “residential neighborhood” are situated to north of “palace complex”. Near the complex, to the west of it, the stone quarry and open cast for stone extraction were found. An observation tower, caravanserais of X-XII and XIII-XIV, settlement of 19th century and Sak burial mounds were found and explored.
Historical reference: Comparison of Akyrtas - Kasribas was supported by K.M. Baypakov, who believes that Akyrtas is an undeveloped Karluk settlement, who owned Semirechye in the IX-X centuries and invited Arab architects for building.
And finally, one more attempt to explain the purpose of Akyrtas, the time of its construction and related with that political events, was made by German researcher Brentes B.. He believes that Akyrtas was built on the order of the Arab commander Kuteyba. The researcher designates the exact date of commencement of construction - it is 714-715 years. When Kuteiba ibn Muslim became a ruler of Central Asia, and fearing for the fate of his family, called it to him (it reached Merv, when Kuteiba was killed). Akyrtas was built as his residence in the north.
Degree of research: Exploration of the complex is being conducted during many years. From 2004 the explorations are performed on the basis of the “Cultural Heritage of Kazakhstan” program.
5 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The archaeological complex of Akyrtas is an authentic object of history, culture and architecture and is under protection of the state, and is the bright sample of palace architecture of 8-10 centuries. The complex is on a line of the Great Silk Road. The archaeological complex of Akyrtas can be recorded in the list with criterion 4 as the outstanding example of a structure type, architectural and technological ensemble or a landscape illustrating an important stage of development of a human history.
The research of archaeological complex was conducted in 1996, 1998, 2000, 2004-2009.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is outstanding. Conservation (partial and complete recultivation, coating protective layer, dinging and calking by special solution) was conducted on the so-called palace complex. There is a shelter erected over the so-called castle of the ruler. Security zones are defined, museum is being built, state security of the object was established. The management system is absent. Akyrtas is included into the list of historical and cultural monuments of the Republican value.
5 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
In Kazakhstan and Central Asia there are no constructions like Akyrtas palace. Analogies to this palace can be seen in palace complexes of Iraq and Jordan. These are palaces of Samarra. This is a palace of Ukhaydir (775), al-Hir al-Gharbi, al-Khair al-Sharki.
6 Component of Silk Road: Ornek Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 43 T 267250 4754732.
6 Brief Description of an Object – Component:
Geographical location: Ornek ancient settlement is situated 6 km to south of settlement of the same name on Altynsu river, in Solutor gorge.
Type of the monument: Settlement.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Karluk, Chigil, Yagma.
Morphology: The central part of the ancient settlement represents the quadrangular platform oriented by corners to the four winds. The sizes of an area on a crest of a roll surrounding it are 155x160 m. The roll was preserved with the height to 5 m with width of the basis of 11-15 m. On corners and on perimeter of walls the hillocks can be noticed, where the towers were supposed to be located: there were 7 of them on the northeast wall (angular also), 6 of them on the northwest wall, 9 on the southeast wall, and 9 on the southwest wall. Each of the four sides has gate (entry) with the shape of ruptures in a roll. Entrances were connected by the roads crossing in the center.
In the center of an ancient settlement, closer to a northwest wall there are round foundation pits for three water reservoirs connected with each other. Diameters of two of them are 30 m and the third is 15 m in diameter.
The central ruins are adjoined by the territory surrounded with the roll with towers. The roll is at a distance of 90 m from a southwest wall, in 40 m – from the southeast wall, in 90 m - from northeast wall and in 100 m – from northwest wall.
The external roll looks like a rectangle with length of the sides: southwest side is 330 m; northwest side is 290 m, northeast side is 300 m, and the southeast side consists of two sectors closed at an obtuse angle with a length of 200 and 160 m. In the middle of a northeast part of a roll a rupture can be seen – the remains of a former pass.
Around the fortification, mainly behind the external wall, to the south and the southeast along Solutor gorge there are sections with rectangular, square and irregular shape are fenced off from each other by stone boulders. The sizes of sections range from 250-300 sq.m. to 1000-2000 sq. m. Inside the sections, usually in a corner, there are hillocks, the remains of the construction-house. The massive of these sections goes upwards on banks of Solutor for 4 km and with 1.2 km of width. Its total area makes about 500 hectares. It is impossible to distinguish visually any system in arrangement of these sections, but sometimes "the roads" can be noticed and they somehow organize the general unsystematic building.
Historical reference: Arabian route guides (in particular, made by ibhn Khordadbekh and by Kudama) testify that Kasribas, Kulshub and Dzhulshub towns were situated between Taraz, Nizhniy Barskhan and Kulan (their location now is rather accurately defined). Most likely, Ornek corresponds to Kulshub which, as well as Kasribas, belonged to Karluks and was the settlement (“stavka”) of one of feudal lords.
Archaeological materials of Ornek excavation allow assuming that “stavka” has appeared at a place of constant settled settlement, probably, at the territory of spring-autumn pastures. It in turn, has served as a kernel around which the town was gradually creating. And this was happening not without the influence of international trade along the Great Silk Road.
Degree of the research: The site of ancient settlement was investigated in 1990-1993 by expedition of the Collection of monuments of Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Institute of Archeology of А.K. Margulan.
Excavation on the territory of an ancient settlement has partially opened the rectangular construction with sizes of 40x20m. With its sides on external contour of the walls it is directed to the four winds. Their bases are made from stone cobble-stones. The walls themselves were pise-walled with the width of about 1 m. Entry of the construction has been constructed with two ledges of a wall which forms the area. The length of ledges is 3.5 m; the width of the entry is 8m.
A system of stone bases of columns was found out on the surface of the floor which was cleaned in some separate areas. Two of them represent the blocks cut out from massive boulders. The first, with the sizes of 0.5x0.5x1.3m, with the bottom part slightly rounded and the facets removed from two corners, one side of it is decorated with the procarved ornament represented by double line. The figure with the shape of a vase leg is painted on it; it has a leaf with two curls originating from the cutting. The second trapezoid block with a ledge on it has a height of 10cm. Facets are removed from the two edges of it; two sides have images of anthropomorphous beings on them. The third base looks like the two-level block and the sizes of the lower step of it are 1.3x1.2m of 1m height, the top step is 0.85x0.9m, with the height of 0.4m.
The rest 11 bases (together with those 14 described) represent massive boulders, flattened on top with the sizes of 0.8x0.8m. They form regular rows with 3-3.5 m distances from each other. Thus, at the total area of the construction yard there should be either 55, or 66 bases of columns 11 of which 11 were located by length of construction and 5 or 6 of them were located by width.
According to the lay-out and presence of columns bases this was a rectangular construction with flat overlapping which, probably, was based on a great number of columns. Some of the bases were specially cut out from boulders and decorated with a procarved ornament, others represented large raw boulders. Most likely, the construction remains belong to a mosque of the “pillar type”. Such mosques are usual for early stages of development of Muslim religion.
The mosque is dated by X-XII centuries. Constructions of “pillar type” are also known in Central Asia.
Topography studies of Ornek ancient settlement (and it is dated by VIII-XII centuries) and its excavations provide some idea about the center of settled way of life and about the crafts. At the same time, the presence of powerful fortifications and cathedral mosque evidences that the ancient settlement represents the remains of a town which was formed on the basis of the settlement (“stavka”) of nomadic possessors.
6 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Archaeological investigations were carried out in 2001.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
6 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Ornek ancient settlement is included into the group of the monuments of “tortkol” type. Mainly, it is related to Turks-cattlemen that changed their life to settled way of life. Such ancient settlement presents in Zhetysu, in the south of Kazakhstan, in Tuva, Mongolia, on Don.
Ornek ancient settlement is one of those where the excavation were conducted providing an idea about the way of development of the central part, about character of farmsteads concentrated around the central ruins. The thing is that important is that Ornek ancient settlement provides an idea about the process of development of a town on the basis of stops.
7 Component of Silk Road: Kulan ancient settlemet. Geographical coordinates: 43 T 316324 4754816
7 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: situated close to (from eastern side) same named settlement.
Type of the monument: Settlement
Dating: VII – XIII
Cultural/ethnical membership: The Kulan town is known from the written sources relating to VIII-XIII centuries. In routing guide of Chinese pilgrim Sjuan Tszjaija and in the history of a dynasty of Tan it is mentioned under the name "Tszjuj-lan’". In IХ-Х centuries Kulan was mentioned by the Arabian authors describing cities located on a line of the Great Silk Road. Ibhn-Khordadbekh and Kudama geographers locate Kulan fourteen “pharsakh” (unit of measure) to the west of Taraz. Here what Kudama told: “... there is sand between Taraz and Kulan from the north side, and behind it there is a desert of sand and pebble, and in this desert there are echidnas, [it stretches] to Kimaks’ border“. The Arabian geographer of X century al-Makdisi describes Kulan as “the fortified city” which has “a cathedral mosque” and which “has already become empty, it is located on big Taraz road”. The author of the geographical dictionary, Yakut who created his work in 20-ies of XIII century, mentions: “Kulan is a pleasant small town on border of the country of Turks, from the side of Maverannakhr».
A number of famous historical events is connected with Kulan: in year 740 the last west-Turkic kagan Ashaina Syn’ has been killed by Turgesh prince Kursul’.
Degree of research: Explorations of remains of this city were facilitated by the fact that according to the sources it was located between two medieval cities the location of which was well-known. In the west, fourteen “pharsakhs” from Kulan the Taraz was located at the place of an ancient settlement in the centre of present Taraz city; in the east, on distance of four “pharsakhs”, there was Mirki town which nowadays has the same name. Therefore, identification of Kulan with ruins close Lugovoye village Meadow, suggested by V.V. Bartold, does not leave any doubts.
The data received by archeologists allow assuming that originally in VII-VIII centuries there was a construction with “pakhsa” walls in the place of citadel. Probably, it was a construction of a castle type.
Dating is based on peculiarities of construction techniques. The above-stated sizes of blocks and bricks and the combined laying of walls are typical for southwest Semirechye of VII – VIII. Such dating for the lower construction horizon is also evidenced by ceramics complex where the handmade dishes prevail, such as houma, cookers, water pitchers with wide neck and also table jugs, covered with red engobe and with light glossing.
The uppermost building horizon demonstrates new methods of building techniques. People used flat stone plates as the base for dwellings, and they applied fired bricks of the square shape for building purposes. Irrigating ware of XI-beginning of XIII serves as a dating material for the upper horizon.
On the territory of the ancient settlement surrounded by long walls there are dozens of hills which represent the remains of castles and farmsteads. Some of these hillocks were excavated. One of them, named as Lugovoye A resembled the truncated letter “pi”. Archeological excavations have completely revealed the central construction which had, as it was found out, "comb-shaped" lay-out typical for early-middle age castles of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The castle consisted of seven premises.
Architecture and techniques of building of the castle were typical for Central Asia and Kazakhstan of VI-VIII centuries. The most similar to Lugovoye castle is the castle of the Krasnorechenskiy ancient settlement identified with the Navaket town.
During the excavations of Lugovoye A castle the material was received allowing to conclude that it has been constructed in VII-VIII centuries, and after that its lay-out undergone some changes, by means of reconstruction, and in such state the castle was used up to X century.
The castle of development of Lugovoye G existed in VII-ХII centuries. Dating of the initial date was confirmed by the coins which were found on the floor of premises. The construction lay-out with its center in the open yard has exits to the premises located around the castle. Presence of numerous premises of different function, findings of carved pieces of IX-XI centuries, and also the terracottas looking like men heads which were a part of the decorated pictures made of carved pieces testify that, most likely, the remains of construction of Lugovoye G are the remains of a country palace, probably, the owner was the governor of a city.
In its life there are at least two periods of construction that can be traced - VII-VIII centuries and IX-XI centuries.
7 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were carried out in 1964, 1998-2008, resulting in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed not at all the investigated objects. In 2008, the canopies were installed over some objects, but strong windload had destroyed them.
The boundaries of contemporary land use (highway and modern construction) geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. The destruction of the medieval homesteads partially extends along the highway. The monument received a status of historical and cultural monument the Republican value. Security zones are not marked, the museum and management system are absent.
7 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Kulan ancient settlement belongs to the type of “ancient settlements with long walls” which are popular for Chu, Talass valleys and for South Kazakhstan. Excavations conducted at the Kulan ancient settlement resulted in materials gathered during excavation like such: ceramics, carved pieces (fillet). These make this monument one of the explored objects at the Silk Road route.
8 Component of Silk Road: Kostobe Ancient Settlement – Dzhamukat town. Dating of VI-XII centuries. Geographical coordinates 42 T 705624 4763292.
8 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: to the eastern side from Sarykemer settlement
Type of the monument: Settlement
Cultural/ethnical membership: Oguz, Karluk, Sogdian.
Morphology: The central part of Kostobe occupies a quadrangular elevated area with the size of 420х 450 surrounded by double wall. Height of the external rolls is 3.5 m.; internal roll is to 5 m. The corners and perimeter of the walls had round towers fixed on them. Four entrances can be seen in the middle of each of the sides.
The citadel is in the middle of the western wall. Now it looks like a pyramidal hill with a flat platform at the top. The sizes of a hill in the basis - 70x80 m, height of the hill is12-15 m.
Shakhristan is attached to the citadel and occupies all southwest corner of the ancient settlement with sizes of 150x150 m. The entrance is located in northern wall. 200 m to the north of shakhristan there is a dome-shaped hillock with diameter of 80 m and height of 15 m. Probably, it was the fire tower.
From the north side, behind external roll there are two necropolises.
Rural districts can be noticed within the radius of 3-5 km from the central ruins. Separate hills are the remains of former farmsteads and castles; they stretch upwards across Talas towards Tortkoltobe ancient settlement identified with Nizhniy Barskhan, located at the basic line of the Great Silk Road.
Historical reference: The ancient settlement is identified with the Dzhamuket town. Arabian geographer al-Makdisi named the Dzhamukat city among the cities of Ispidzhab district and described it like this: “… big [city]. The wall around it. Inside it there is a cathedral mosque and the markets are in rabad”. According to another historian of X century, Nershakhi, Dzhamukat has been founded in VI century by natives of Bukhara and received the name from the name the leader of Bukhara citizens - Dzhamuka.
Degree of research: Excavation of rural necropolises of Kostobe has allowed establishing the type of burial places of citizens in VI-IX centuries. The majority of remains were found in “naus” - funeral constructions of the rectangular and square shape. Their walls of 0.5-0.6 m width are made of thick mudbricks. The sizes of “nauses” are various: square ones of 3.3x3.4 m, 3.8х 3.9 m, 3.5x3.5 m; rectangular – 2.5x4 and 2.5x3.7 m. The floors laid with mudbricks are covered with coating.
Dating of the described necropolis is defined by a finding of a bronze coin with an image of human face on one side and a horse on another. Such coins were minted within a wide area: from the Karshin oasis to Fergana in VI-VIII centuries. The pendant with an image of peacocks (or cocks) is similar to the same pendants from nomadic burial places of Irtysh compared with Kimak ones. As it is known, Kimaks have started to move from Priirtyshye to the West in second half VIII century. Therefore, the presence of nomadic ornaments and the bones of horses in a city necropolis of Kostobe is reasonable, and indicates that representatives of groups of the population, differing in their ethnic and religious signs have been buried here.
Excavation at the Kostobe citadel has uncovered a group of the constructions of different periods relating to VI-ХII centuries. Those of them which were found in the uppermost building horizon are greatly destroyed, because starting from XIII century the citadel was used as a cemetery. Numerous Muslim burial places have changed the integrity of the initial lay-out. However, the ceramics and coins allow to date the top building horizon ХI-ХII centuries.
It was possible to establish that the earliest complex of constructions on a citadel relates to VI-VIII centuries. This was a fortress-castle with roundabout corridors and premises of inhabited and economic appointment; they were constructed of “pakhsa” blocks and mudbricks. Then, in IХ-Х centuries, some considerable re-constructions of a complex occured: the roundabout gallery was divided into separate compartments-rooms serving mainly for economic needs. They were connected with habitable rooms, front doors and cult premises by corridors. Two premises looking like big halls were excavated. The walls of one of these were decorated by carved pictures which have slipped to the floor and got broken. Fragments remained and they show that the carving was done on thick plaster coat about 7 cm.
Analyzing the findings of the Kostobe ancient settlement, it can be noted that they are close to findings and works of art from excavations of the Central Asian cities like Afrasiaba, Varakhsha, and other famous cultural centers of the Middle East. Due to the fact that all building horizon is dated by IХ-Х centuries it indicates the presence of cultural and commercial relations between the cities of Talass valley located on the line of Silk Road.
8 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
In 1987, 1991 archaeological research of the settlement were carried out by expedition of the Monuments Collection and the South-Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the head K.M. Baipakov. Investigations were conducted in the settlement in 1964, 1998-2010 resulting in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed not at all the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use (highway and modern construction) geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings in the area of “long” walls of rabad. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
8 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Kostobe ancient settlement is related to the type of “ancient settlements with long walls” prevailing in the south-east Zhetysu, in Chu, Talass valleys, on the south of Kazakhstan. Excavations of the Kostobe ancient settlement revelaed the development at citadel; bury ceremonies in the rural necropolis; these provided a precious archeological materials – ceramics, metal crafts, coins, and they allow putting the monument into the preliminary List of the World Heritage of UNESCO.
9 Component of Silk Road: Zhuantobe Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates 42 T 509502 4709412
9 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Situated at the left bank of Arys river, at the north-eastern outskirt of Kultogan village.
Type of the monument:Settlement
Dating: I B.C. – IX A.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kauchin culture, Kangar-Pecheneg, Oguz, Sogdian.
Morphology: The site of ancient settlement has two-part structure: the central part looks like “tobe” with a ground at the top and the territory looks like a “ring-shaped hilling” surrounding the central part, distant with 20 to 60 m from the central part. The first is a hillock of conic form with abrupt walls and a ground at the top. Its sizes are 85x75 m and the ground is 65x55 m, the height of “tobe” is 17m. The three corners of it (except the northern one) have some remains of towers and it can be seen rather well. Around it, at a foot there is a ditch with the width of 40 m and depth of 1.5-2 m, and there is a development behind the ditch looking like a ring roll with the width of about to 60 m and height of 6-7m. The east corner has a rupture with the width to 50 m. The total area of the ancient settlement makes about 14 hectares (380x380).
Historical reference: Arabian geographer of X century Ibn Haukal mentions: “…it is between Farab, Kendzhida and Shash, there are good pastures in it, and about a thousand of families of Turks have already turned to Islam... Subaniket is the main town of Kendzhida”. Istakhri (X century) writes that “From Ispidzhab to Usbaniket there are two days of travelling, from Usbaniket to Keder, the main town of Barab (Farab) two easy day passages».
The anonymous author of “Khudud al-Alem” (X century) writes: “Subaniket is a pleasant prospering rich city”. According to Yakut (XII century), “Usbaniket is a city in Maverannakhr, one of the cities of Ispidzhab, a long day of travelling is between them”. According to al-Makdisi (X century) “Arsubaniket is big, pure, fortified town; a cathedral mosque is in it, and constructions in rabid”. On the basis of stated distances between Ispidzhab and Usbaniket, Usbaniket and Keder, V.V. Bartold has localized the district of Kendzhidu at the middle Arys’.
There is an opinion that Arsubaniket is corresponded by the ancient settlement of Zhuantobe or Shortobe in the middle current of the Arys’ river. Shortobe ruins are now occupied by a modern cemetery, therefore it was not explored, but according to the upper material it is dated by I-XIV centuries of A.D.
Degree of research: Zhuantobe ancient settlement is a well-known monument and its exploration was conducted already in 1953 by the South Kazakhstan archaeological expedition headed by A.N. Bernshtam and E.I. Ageyeva; and in 1988-91 the expedition of the South Kazakhstan regional museum of local history museum led by A.N. Grishchenko was doing the excavations here. Since 2004 the ancient settlement is occupied by excavations of the South Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition.
As the result of works carried out at the “ring hilling” the remains of two premises were excavated, a site of external face of the defensive wall and cultural beddings behind it, and in the central part - nine premises of "housing estate" and “Sogdian house” were uncovered.
The complex is dated by IV-VII century A.D.
At the flat top of “tobe” the buildings of three construction periods were revealed dated in range of IV-VIII centuries. The houses grouped around the inter-quarter small streets are characterized by presence of “sufs” along two or three walls, entries with vestibule walls and the floor hearths with square shape and with boards.
Construction of “Sogdian house” of VII-VIII century in a southern part of “tobe” is interesting; it provided a complex of “Sogdian ceramics” of VII – the beginning of VIII centuries. During excavations the ceramics of IV-VI centuries relating to “Kaunchin” culture and a complex of “Kangar” ceramics of VII-VIII centuries were gathered.
9 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were carried out in 1998, 2005-2011, resulting in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center. Membership of the population to the various religious confessions had influenced on the material culture.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is good. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at all the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
9 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The Settlement Zhuantobe is represented by a striking monument at the Silk Road, largely stimulated the development of South-Kazakhstani sector and at the same time was dependent on it. He finds a lot of similarities, both within the region and beyond. But it is distinguished by a rich pre-Islamic layer, illustrating the earliest stages of urbanization of Kazakhstani part of the Silk Road.
10 Component of Silk Road: Karaspan Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 42 T 503406 4704606
10 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Situated at the left bank of Arys river, to 2 km to the east from Karaspan village.
Type of the monument:Settlement
Cultural/ethnical membership: Otrar-karatau culture, Sogdian, Turk, Sart, Kazakh
Morphology: The central part of the ancient settlement is a high subdirect square in the plan “tobe”, the basis of it is 220-260 m and the height is 22 m. Around the ancient settlement there is a shakhristan development surrounded by roll. The sizes of its territory are 850х 600 m. Outside of shakhristan the remains of rabid can be observed, but it is impossible to determine its sizes because it was thrown open and built up.
Historical reference: The settlement of course is identified with Karasaman town, known in the sources of XIV-XVIII.
Degree of investigation: The ancient settlement was explored by the South-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition (1948-1951) and the excavations were recommenced in 2004, 2008 by the South-Kazakhstani complex archaeological expedition.
Excavations of the central part revealed the building constructions of ХVI - ХVII centuries. The houses with habitable and economic constructions were uncovered. In the habitable premises the pasted “sufa” occupies ¾ of the total area, there is “tandyr” with a flue constructed in “sufa”, and a “tashnau” area (the sanitary-and-hygienic device) before it. Clay vessels were found in premises – houmas, jugs, and mugs. It is interesting that among the invariable findings for dwelling premises is a grain grater (“zernoterka”) – “a manual mill”, and irrigation basin-“tagora”. It is interesting that “tagora” has its own original design in each house and different ornamental drawings. One of such “tagoras” has images of fishes on it.
During excavations of the central part the collection of coins of XVI-ХVII centuries was collected, these define the dating of the top layers of a site of ancient settlement in a more exact way.
The excavations were performed on the territory of shakhristan where the prospect hole has been installed cutting the stratum of cultural beddings to the depth of 3,5 m and this provided the material of I - XII centuries A.D. Assuredly, the ancient settlement is identified with Karasaman city that is known from the sources of XIV-XVIII centuries.
Citizens of settlement sold to explorers a series of copper “felses” and silver “dirhams” of XIII century. Thus, the history and culture of a big city on Arys’ river starts shape better and better. Coins of XIII caulked in Otrar, Kanzhe, Samarkand, Buhara, fragments of Chinese porcelain wereregistered in this area.
10 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were carried out in 1998, 2005-2009, mainly concentrated on the territory of citadel, on the rabid territory was laid a foundation of stratigraphical pit. It resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
10 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The Settlement Karaspan applies to a wide range of monuments that have arisen on the ground suitable for agriculture and the implementation of trade along the Silk Road, its functioning led to the existence of the town for more than a half millennium. Pecularity of the monument is its inextricable connection with the system of the Silk Road, with which it was a single entity.
11 Component of Silk Road: Borizhar Burial Grounds. Geographical coordinates: 42 T 510703 4708714
11 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: left bank of Arys river, at the place of Badam river’s inflow
Type of the monument: Burial ground
Dating: II B.C. – VII A.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kauchin culture, Kangyuy.
Morphology: Borizhar burial ground is the biggest necropolis of South Kazakhstan. Burial mounds of earth are spread all over the left bank of Arys’ river, for more than 13 km from Karaultobe settlement to the mouth of Badam river which falls into Arys’ river on the opposite side of Karaspan (Obruchevka) settlement. The width of burial area in some places reach 1-2 km covering the upper river terrace. River bank in that place is indented with ancient ravines. Hundreds of unsystematically situated burial mounds occupy slopes and surface of uplands. This huge burial field consists of burial mount complexes of different periods, separate burial mounds which over time became a one huge massive.
Historical reference: The burial is linked with the tribes and folks who lived in the Arys river valley during the millennium. It was affected by migration processes that took place among the nomads and the evolution of the funeral rites of the sedentary population, formed the basis of the Kangyuy state.
Degree of research: Exploration of the ancient settlement was initiated in 1893. Then, in 1949 the South-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition of Institute of history, archaeology and ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of KazSSR has explored two burial grounds: in 1951 – 4 burial mounds more. In 1967 Semirechye archaeological expedition of the same institute (B.N. Nurmukhanbetov) continued the archaeological explorations. From 1989 the excavations were conducted by archaeological expedition of Chimkent regional historical and local history museum (A.N. Grishenko).
In 2004 within the scope of “Cultural Heritage” program the South-Kazakhstani complex archaeological expedition of the Institute of archaeology and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan headed by K.M. Baypakov explored 8 surface vaults, in 2005 – 7 of them, in 2006 – 5 catacombs and 3 vaults were excavated, in 2007 – 3 catacombs and 2 altars, in 2008-2009 – 4 vaults were explored (А. Yerzhigitova).
In total, about 100 burial mounds were excavated on the territory of the burial ground.
Mortuary construction had a “naus” (made of mudbricks) in the central place which was covered by earthfill of burial mound.
Iron swords, adornments and belt sets of Hun-Avar type were found during excavations of burial mounds inside “nauses”. Ceramics retrieved from burial mounds is represented mainly by jugs with spouts, mugs – all typical for “Kaunchin” culture. Besides, there are some dishes of “Sogdian” kind. This variety of material cuased some contradictions when dating the burial ground. Y.I. Ageyeva and G.I. Patsevich dated it with VIII-X centuries, then with VI-VIII centuries. Second dating is agreed by L.M. Levina. V.I. Raspopova dates this burial ground to VI-VII centuries. According to K.M. Baypakov, the burial ground is to be dated with the second half of VI-VII centuries.
11 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component: Investigations of the burial was started in 1893, with some intervals are continuing till nowadays. These works resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the culture of the population of the region, their relationships and syncretic culture. Membership of the population to the various religious confessions had influenced on the material culture.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is good. Conservation (partial and complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are defined, but not confirmed, the museum and management system are absent.
11 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Analogous burial necropolises are spread on the territory of Talass valey (Kostobe), in Tashkent oasis (Myntobe) and characterize the overall development of material and spiritual culture of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
12 Component of Silk Road: Kultobe Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 42 T 466688 4682323
12 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Situated near to Karaspan village.
Type of the monument: Settlement
Dating: Dating of the monument I-XVII
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kangyuy, Kazakh
Morphology: The monument’s citadel is almost destroyed by waters of Arys’ river. The remained part represents a rib with height of 7.5 m and area of about 150 square meters with precipitous west slope. The slope cutting revealed building constructions made of “pakhsa” and rectangular mudbricks with size of 35x30x10 cm. Kultobe “ground” has an irregular trapeziform layout with the following side sizes: 210х150х100х180 m. The steepest slopes are in the west part of the monument: central and north parts show some lowering. South part has round rising grounds; most probably these were defensive towers. An average height of Kultobe ground is 5-6 meters.
Historical reference: In scientific area the settlement became well known due to the scriptial monuments that were found there. Historical interpretation of the inscription was made by the French explorer, France Grenei. Probably, the inscription informs about a building of a city on a place of Kultobe ancient settlement by “the leader of army”, most possibly, “the leader of army of the Chacha people”. Probably, he headed the army in the name, or jointly with leaders of four basic cities-states of the central and southern Sogdiana: Samarkand, Kish, Nakhshab and Bukhara. “The land belonging to (our) people” and “[the land belonging] to nomads” can be understood as the land conquered from nomads and divided between Sogdians. More possibly, it could mean that the borders between the arable lands belonging to Sogdians and pastures of nomads were determined by the mutual consent. It seems that "city" was located on this border or behind it. This city could be a part of a line of the boundary posts stretched along the river Arys’.
Unfortunately, because of blanks it is impossible to understand exactly the role that was played by the four heads of Sogdian cities. According to one of the versions, they have conquered “all treasures” and that could mean the stolen good or the collected tribute during military campaign. If this interpretation is correct, then the reason of mentioning this was the desire to show loyalty of the head and his justice. Other interpretation, equally possible is to show that the commander was the author of this action. It can make the end of the text more clear in relation to the beginning: “the city belonged to the leader of Chacha army because he has built it on his share of the earth belonging to Sogdians in order to hide the "treasures". It is necessary to mention that in “pahklavi” language and in Persian language the word “treasure” means both an “armoury” and money and precious things.
The political forces mentioned in an inscription are the possessors of Samarkand, Kish, Nakhshab and Bukhara. Inscriptions date by I-III, or IV-V centuries.
Inscriptions of Kultobe characterize the joint military campaign of the cities of Sogda which has established the border along the Arys’ river. In this context “nomads” could belong to real Nomadic components of Kanguy. If the inscriptions are dated by the first half of third century it is possible to interpret the border establishment as a counter-measure against Hunnu who have intruded to Sogd in the next century.
However, according to E. V. Rtveladze, dating of inscriptions, other by N. Sims-Williams also can be challenged. He suggests, by basing on inscriptions on coins of Chacha made with the same language and the same alphabet and which are dated by the middle - second half of III century, to date inscriptions from Kultobe by this time exactly. E. V. Rtveladze also suggests perusal of a name of possessor Chacha which was called, in his opinion, as “Vanvan”.
List of four Sogdian towns-states appears as the forerunner of the early list of Chinese rulers in of Sogdian in Suyshu whose information dates back to the beginning of VII century. Primacy is given to Samarkand, Kishu, Chahshabu and Buhara, which are in the list and which are added six minor principalities: Maymurg, Kabudan, Qushaniya, Harghan, Vunaho and Mu. Possession of Chach appears as one of the federal Sogdian states only in the further list, given in Tangshu. Samarkand, Kish and Nahshab were already significant towns in Achaemenid period. It is interesting to note that in the medieval period, in the X century in Samanids in the town center and south of Sogda were traditionally established a military presence along the border with South Kazakhstan. This is evident from the writings of the Arab geographer al-Maqdisi, who points out that "Ispidzhab is a large district town... in the capital region there were rabats: rabat of Nahshabs, Buhars, rabat of Samarkands".
Degree of investigation: During archaeological works of 1992 on studying of the territory adjoining to Kultobe ancient settlement, a small reconnaissance excavation has been created near the edge of an old channel of the river Arys’. During works with depth about 0.5 m from the level of an ancient surface they managed to find the top part of angular connection of two walls made of “pakhsa”: one of them was massive with thickness of about meter, another one was less massive.
During dismantling of walls covered with “pakhsa” pouring the fragment of a product with writing has been found out. It is a fragment of mudbrick of amorphous form with the sizes of 7х7.5х9хЗх 13 cm, and the thickness of 5.5cm. The obverse surface has about 26 completely and partially remained signs, letters which are united in 6 "lines". All signs were made on crude clay by cave-in techniques before the roasting process.
Then throughout an interval of time up to 2009 some more fragments and the whole tile have been gut out.
Currently five fragments and two texts on ceramic bricks and tables are available at disposal of scientists.
Inscriptions on tiles have been deciphered and read by English orientalist Nicolas Sim-Williams. The longest inscription is translated as following: “This city has been constructed by the leader of an army, C [.,.] the son [.], He went there so (?) as (earth) intended (for our) people and (the land intended) for nomads [should be...; and the lord of Samarkand and (the lord Kisha, lord Nakhshaba and lord Pavakme then it is negotiated (?); and he (?) took all jewelry and (lands) belonging... as his own)”.
12 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were carried out since 1988, by Shymkent Expedition of Pedagogical Institution; since 1993 by International Kazakh-Turkish University named after Yassaui. The works are mainly concentrated on the territory of citadel, on the rabad territory was laid a foundation of stratigraphical pit. It resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partial and complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones, zones of regulated buildings are defined at many of the objects. In 2005 was prepared management plan. Otrar and Oksus settlement, Arystanbaba mausoleum are included into the list of the monuments of Republican value.
12 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The topography of a site of ancient settlement and its chronology are characteristic for the big group of ancient settlements relating to Kaunchin cultures of Syr-Darya. However, the local findings of ancient Sogdian writings make this monument unique among others and can be included in the List of the World Heritage.
13 Component of Silk Road: Otrar ancient settlement and monuments of Otrar oasis. Geographical coordinates: 42 T 444766 4746604
13 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The town is referred to the archeological monument – Otrartobe settlemet, situated in 10 km to the west from Timur railway station.
Type of the monument: different type of historical and cultural monuments
Dating: Otrar settlement; monuments of paleolit epoch XIX
Cultural/ethnical membership: Otrar-karatau culture, Sogdians, Turks, Kazakhs
Morphology: Otrar tobe is pentagonal mound, oriented to the cardinal angles with little deviation. Its southern side is 380 m, south-western - 145 m, western - 400 meters north-eastern - 380 meters and eastern - 350 m. Maximum height from the bottom of the hill - 18 m in the south-western part, closer to the corner, and average of its height varies from 10 to 15 m.
The Settlement is surrounded by a wall which is best preserved in the north-eastern and eastern sides. Wall is fortified with the towers. There left a protuberance scree from them. They are still acting out swollen debris. Around the main mound remain the rests of the moat as a hollow with sloping edges.
There were three entries to the town. Two are arranged opposite to each other - one in the south, the second - in the north-eastern wall, and the third - in the middle of the west side.
To the central mound adjoins the settlement area, surrounded by a wall which is clearly visible on aerial photographs, while the area shows only its separate parts. The wall is well preserved and looks like a swollen shaft of the width of 20-25 m and a height of 3-5 m. In some areas from the outside the ditch is swamped.
Historical reference: Otrar which has another other name - Farab during the Middle Ages was a capital of Otrar-Farab district-oasis. Now it is a part of Otrar district of the South Kazakhstan region. Otrar was mentioned in many works of medieval Arabian, Persian and Turkic authors. These are at-Tabari, Makdisi, Ibn Haukal, Hafiz Tanysh. They call this city by another name – Tarban, and it was, probably, the earlier name of Otrar and, according to ancient Turkic sources it was the center of Kangu-Tarban Kangar possession. The evidence of this city was brought by ancient Turkic runic monuments in the honor of Kjultegin and Bilge-kagan. According to data of the Makdisi, geographer of 10 century, “about 70 000 male souls” lived in Farab and there was a citadel, a Friday mosque, a market and shops. Отрар was located on a junction of various geographical landscapes and was a place of crossing of caravan roads. That is why Otrar, located at a falling of Arys’ into Syr-Darya, was the center of the big agricultural region, and being close to Karatau foothills was one of the main fortresses of Nomads. There were roads to Taraz, Balasagun and further, to East Turkestan starting from Otrar along Arys’ river; since ancient times the route along Syr-Darya lead to Shash, Sogd and then - to Merv and Nishapur, Kabul, Herat and to India; the lower road led in Priaralye and to Ural Mountains; the west way led to Khorezm across Kyzyl Kum, and from there the road led to the Volga region, to the North Caucasus, Black Sea Coast and to Byzantium.
In so-called Otrar oasisboundaries there are 200 archeological monuments registered by the investigations.
Degree of research: No other monument of Kazakhstan has irrigation of I-XVIII A.D. that managed to remain in such a good state – the main channels, sprinklers, dams and sluices, the remains of fields, gardens; watermelon, melon or gourd plantations. Each hill (“tobe”) that formed in the place of ancient settlements has its new modern name: the Kok-Mardan, Altyntobe, Dzhalpaktobe, Kuyuk-Mardan, Pshakshy-tobe, Kuiryktobe, Bozuk. Once they had other names which are forgotten now, and only names of three cities known from the written sources can be compared to modern ruins. According to explorers there was a Keder city in the place of Kuiryktobe, Oksyz ancient settlement corresponds to the Vesidzh city, and Bozuk ancient settlement - the city of Shelek.
In 1971 the South Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition has been organized and since that time Otrar and monuments of Otrar oasis became objects of explorations by archeologists.
The numerous settlements surrounded by walls were located down on the banks of the mountain rivers, in the floods of Arys’, Keles, Syr-Darya they united into groups with the largest acting like centers of these, those which gradually developed into feudal cities. Their inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting, fishery, they were skillful handicraftsmen. In their spiritual life an important role was given to numerous cults – fire, animals, and ancestors.
During the Middle Ages palaces with gala halls decorated by paintings and woodcarving were built in Otrar and oasis cities. Adornments, jewelry and silks were spread by the Great Silk Road. Feudal lords of Kazakhstan tended to have an imposing appearance as European, Byzantian and Central Asian ones. Gradually Islam started to spread among the urban population, and then among nomads: preachers-missionaries appeared in the cities and steppe, mosques were being built, Arabian language was studied in “medrese” (schools). It was during that time people started to write different sayings and good wishing from Koran on irrigation bowls of potters; the clay crock with the inscription of the first surah of the Koran made with ink was found during excavations of one of the houses of X-XII centuries. However, cults of fire, lamb, Zoroastrism vestiges, especially among the settled nomads which number in cities and settlements has especially grown during X-XII centuries continued to exist.
After the Mongolian invasion which brought destructions and have suspended the development of city culture, Otrar, Sayram, Syganak, Zhent, Yangikent and other cities were being build up again. Improvement of city life was promoted here, in particular, by moving of the international trading way from the West to the East, through Otrar and Khoresm. Numerous craft workshops become to appear in a city, baths and other public constructions arebeing constructed. The mint operated in a city. At this time Otrar became one of the largest economic and shopping centers. During Timur's epoch the cathedral mosque is being constructed in Otrar its ruins were excavated by the archeologists. Excavation provides us with materials of the latest period of existence of a city (XVI-XVII centuries). At this time the city was a part of the Kazakh khanate. Of 20 hectares which were occupied by Otrar at this time one third is almost dug out. City quarters, streets and deadlocks, small markets and the squares are uncovered. We have a complete image of the city dwelling. And one of them, that was burned down in fire has preserved not only the interior remains, but the whole inventory which “has been preserved by the failed cane roof”. Now we know about employment of inhabitants of Otrar, including the craft development. By looking on products of masters-potters it was possible to track the craft development, change of styles in ceramics that was happening during two thousand years. The important conclusion is drawn: for centuries, despite political changes and ethnic movements in Otrar, the local layer of the population with the settled traditions of material and spiritual culture remained. The conclusion of researchers about the fact that most of the things created by the people occupying coast of Syr-Darya in the ancient time and the Middle Ages were transmitted into traditional culture of the Kazakh people and into a treasury of world culture is also important.
13 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations of the settlement were started in XX century, and are carried out till nowadays. The research had resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating in diversity centural history and culture of Otrar oasis.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is high. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at the most of the investigated objects. Security zones are not defined, the museum and management system are absent.
13 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The Otrar ancient settlement considerably differs from the monuments known on the territory of Semirechye and Southern Kazakhstan in its level of importance and scales. The monument became known in the beginning of IX century for the first time from the written sources. By this time Otrar was already a city. In 1218 Otrar appears again on pages of historical sources, in connection with invasion of Mongols to Southern Kazakhstan. After destruction of Otrar city by Mongols it managed to revive and build up. For several centuries the city played an important role as the largest administrative-political, trading and craft centre not only within an oasis, but also in Southern Kazakhstan. The architecture of Otrar, as well as of other cities of Southern Kazakhstan during the whole historical period was influenced by both local architecture, and outside architects, in particular those of Central Asia and Iran. These are baths of XI and XIII - XIV centuries. For example, southwest fort gate and towers, a palace and a mosque of times of board of Timurids dynasty (14-15 centuries) made of burnt bricks combine the best traditions of fortifying and architectural architecture typical for Central Asia and Iran in XIV - XV centuries.
14 Component of Silk Road: Turkestan (Yassy) ancient settlement:
Geographical coordinates: 42 T 440115 4794705.
14 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The ancient settlement of medieval Yassy-Turkestan is located in the centre of the city with the same name, in 350 km to the south from Khodzha Ahmed Yassaui khanak.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: beginning of I millennium A.D. - till now
Cultural/ethnical membership: Otrar-karatau culture, Sogdians, Turks, Kazakhs
Morphology: The citadel of the ancient settlement with mausoleum of Hodzha Akhmed Yassaui is located in its northwest part. This is a pentagonal hillock in the plan with the following sides: southeast side is 130m, northeast side is 90 m, and northwest side is 130 m, southwest – 200m.
There is a wall with towers around the citadel that was made from mudbricks. Now the walls and gate are reconstructed. The western wall of the ancient settlement remained in a good condition; its length is about 350m. As to number of gates - there were four of them. The city was crossed by three main streets connecting the four gates. The caravanserai was situated in a southern part and the market was situated close to it from the external side of the wall.
The site of ancient settlement with its late-medieval sizes, probably, repeats the sizes of pre-Mongolian cities of Yassy. The findings of materials of VII-XII century at the whole area of the ancient settlement testify it.
In the boundaries of the “big city” are also included earlier monuments and among them the largest one is Kultobe.
Historical reference: It was identified that the name Yassy as the name of the city where Hodzha Akhmed lived was rapped out on coins of khoresm-shah Mohammed Tekesh issued in the beginning of the second decade of XIII century.
During an epoch of the late Middle Ages the city was a stay place for Timurid, and then for Shaybanid deputies. In addition, the Kazakh khans have selected the city as their capital. They approved the role of a city as of the centre of a Muslim spiritual life of all lands subject to them.
Yassy (Turkestan) was large trade centre. Ruzbikhan noted that trading ways of Steppe, Central Asia, China and places where merchants brought the different goods converged here: “From outside of Uzbek (the Kazakh lands) which are in essence the North side, and by ways leading to Andizhan, to borders of China … transport in Yasy the goods and rare things (nafais). Here there is a trade (of these). This is a transshipment post for merchants (from various countries), a place for travelers from (different) countries”. Turkestan was also the big agricultural area.
Degree of research: Archaeological explorations here have been begun in 1928 by M.E. Masson exploring the layers of a citadel hiding the base of an architectural complex of Hodzha Akhmed Yassaui. In the late forties the ancient settlement and its vicinities were explored by the South Kazakhstan archaeological expedition headed by A.N. Bernshtam. After that, the archaeological works in the ancient settlement were conducted by many researchers. (L.B. Yerzakovich, T.N. Senigova, E.A. Smagulov). The data saved up for today allows asserting that the modern Turkestan is one of the most ancient cities in the Central Asia.
Archeological excavations of the early Kultobe ancient settlement located in 300 m to the southeast from Hodzha Akhmed Yassaui archaeological complex have revealed a number of the occupation layers dated by the beginning of I thousand A.D. - beginning of XIV century A.D. Thus, the age of the Turkestan ancient settlement is 2000 years.
14 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The first archaeological excavations on the site weere conducted by M.E. Masson. With thepits he studied the mausoleum foundation.
In the 1947-1951 South Kazakhstan archaeological expedition of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh USR in Turkestan oasis and Otrar asettlement conducted archaeological survey. In 1952, 1954, 1955, 1957 archaeological research of settlement fortification was carried out by K.A. Shakhurin and V.A. Levin – workers of the Scientific Research Project of the Institute of material culture” from Tashkent. In the 1956-1959 the research in the settlement was conducted by the employee of the same Institute of N.B. Nemtseva.
During 1972-1974 here team worked a team from the South Kazakhstan archaeological expedition of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh USR, headed by T.N. Senigova.
In 1985-1991 - Taraz archaeological expedition of the “Kazproektrestavratsiya” Institute - B.Kh. Adilgirev and A.O. Itenov. The works in the settlement on the “Cultural Heritage” program was conducted by E.A. Smagulov.
Investigations in the settlement are carried out since 1998. Since 2005 the works are mainly concentrated on the territory of citadel. It resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are defined, museum and system of the management are created. Monument of Republican value.
14 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Turkestan ancient settlement having the importance of a historical and architectural monument and being the spiritual center of Moslems of the Central Asia stands among such significant monuments as Otrartobe, Ispidzhab (Sayram), Sauran. Throughout several centuries the city managed to keep a role of the large craft and trading city located on the Silk Road for many long years. The ancient settlement has fortifications remaned that were reconstructed in modern time. During the excavation the cult and civil architecture was revealed in the monument. The cult monuments (mausoleum of Hodzha Akhmed Yassaui) and in the mausoleums of the Kazakh khans are now under restoration works. Excursions are conducted on the territory of the ancient settlement, both of local and of international level.
15 Component of Silk Road: Sidak Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 42Т 422910 4801403
15 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Sidak ancient settlement is located 18 km to the west from a city of Turkestan.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: I - VIII
Cultural/ethnical membership: Otrar-karatau culture, Oguz, Sogdians.
Morphology: Topographically the settlement is referred to the type of so-called “tobe with ground”. Total area of the main hill of the settlemet has quadrangle shape with rounded angles is 340x180 m. The long axle is oriented to the side of northeast-south-west direction. Average hight of the ground is 7-9 m. In the central part there is a huge hill of the citadel in hight of 12 m. The ground is from the both sides – from the south and east. To the north from the citadel there is one more ground – “northern”. The citadel and southern ground is represented by typical “tobe with ground”. If the slope of the citadel to the “southern ground” is gentle, then to the northern one it is sharp and it is separated from the hill of the citadel by wide hollow. Northern ground is a construction complex structurally separated from the settlement. The existence of such an extraordinary part of the settlement (northern ground) complicates the traditional topography of such types of the monuments.
Historical reference: Sidak ancient settlement is a unique monument of the early Middle Ages on the territory of Southern Kazakhstan. It is the temple-communal center of fire worshippers; the city itself was formed on the basis of a temple complex. The city stood on the Great Silk Road. The artifacts that were found at the monuments confirm its communications with cities of Central Asia, Iran, probably India, and also with the Eastern Europe. This is evidenced by findings of amber and a cowry bowl, and also of Sasanidian gem. Findings of Sasanidian and Khorezm coins are indicative of wide economic relations of Sidak.
Degree of research: Among the archaeological literature it was known since the works of the South Kazakhstan archaeological expedition under the direction of A.N. Bernshtam. In 1947 A.N. Bernshtam dated the ancient settlement by the end of I millennium of B.C. - the first centuries of A.D. After E.I. Ageeva has re-dated the ancient settlement by V-XII centuries.
The large-scale excavations of this place have begun in 2001 and were led by Turkestani archaeological expedition of Institute of archeology of A. K. Margulan together with memorial estate “Azret Sultan” (Turkestan city). B.A. Smagulov has headed the operations. According to its topographical signs the ancient settlement relates to so-called type of “tobe with a ground”. The top building horizon of the ancient settlement relates to VII - first half of VIII century. The temple complex was revealed at the citadel of the ancient settlement and the stratigraphic researches were initiated. Explorations of the necropolis which has been found 800 m to the west from the ancient settlement were conducted at the same time. In May-July of 2004 the excavations have been continued under the program of “Cultural heritage”. Works were conducted with several objects.
Prospect hole on a citadel with depth of 30-32 stages has revealed the early layers under a citadel which can be dated based on a small complex of the received ceramics, by I-II centuries of A.D. Four consecutive building horizons lying down above were revealed with the help of prospect hole, they had a good safety of architectural designs.
In the western part of a citadel the site of a housing estate consisting of four tens of premises united in housing estates was revealed, it has the area of 1200 sq. m and the level from the top building horizon. Dwellings are close to each other, having common walls and form the massives of continuous building divided by narrow small streets. The presence of the floor open centers in the center of premises and sufas along the walls is typical for their lay-out; besides, there is a small adjacent premise-pantry. Building is dated by VII-VIII centuries. The inhabited areas have separate premises serving as storehouses for stocks of grain and other products. They share common walls with premises but the entries are from the intra-quarter small streets. Many pieces of broken tare ceramics (houmas, humchi, jugs) were excavated from them. The foodstuffs stocks contained in such storehouses surpass the average consumable quantity of one family. Probably, the part of these foodstuffs in these storehouses was intended for sale. Otherwise, the settlement on Sidaka citadel was a point of warehousing of seed grain for the whole district. Presence of a temple complex in this horizon allows viewing these warehouses as temple storehouses of the community.
Ceramics collections: jugs, bowls, mugs, houmas, humchi, pots, coppers were gathered.
Bronze buckles and decorative belt overlays were found also. Findings of armor-clad plates were typical. The collection of findings has a fragment of a dagger and a spear tip (or a dart tip). Floors of premises provided the whole series of tips of arrows, but generally they were greatly destroyed by corrosion. The bone saddle buckle, a fragment of a tail overlay for bow and two-hole “psaliy” were found in one of the premises. The buckle has the size of 3.5x7.5 cm and has two through cuts.
The figure of “idol” was found at the level of 4th stage. The standing man with the hands lowered along his body is depicted; his feet were broken off at the level of hips. The height of the remained part of a figure is 9.5 cm. His head has a thick neck; it is shaped by two symmetric “flattenings”. However, his face possesses some kind of pronounced cheekbones, and the head has got a slight cone-shape. Probably, it was the intended way of transferring some certain anthropological lines of this character. The nose is made of extended stuck small twisted strip; eyes are shown as balls with a point-puncture in the center of them (there are three eyes). The third eye is smaller and it is on a forehead, more precisely, directly over the top end of a nose on the nose bridge.
The neck has a big coin stuck with the marked round medallion in the center. The surface of coin and medallion is covered by points-pierces, possibly, representing incrustation. There is another massive medallion in the breast center under the medallion. The belt as well as coin, is also stuck and has a shape of a wide tape with pierces and a convex buckle.
The obtained new data and observations specify the chronology and stratigraphy of the buildings of a temple court yard. Findings of cult attributes - voluminous terracotta figures give the additional grounds for the justified reconstruction of pre-Islamic ideological views of a society.
Complexes of products from ceramics, bronze and bones were received during the excavation works characterizing material culture of period of V-VIII centuries. The collection of terracotta products has replenished with a head of anthropomorphous small sculpture, with a ceramic support, possibly a figure of some animal. The set of forms of censers was increased.
Sets of necklaces (from semiprecious stones, glass and glass paste, bowls a cowry, amber), a bronze pin for a hairdress, fragments of gold heterochromatic suspension pendants, a various kinds of amulets, Sasanidian gems have been found.
15 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were mainly concentrated on the territory of citadel. It resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large temple centre.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective layer) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabid (ploughing up). Security zones are not defined, museum and system of the management are absent. Monument of Republican value.
15 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Among similar monuments it is possible to name such as Zhuantobe and the Kok-Mardan on Arys’. Sidak, however, has given the chance to explorers to get the idea about a city the life of population of which during certain period of VII-VIII centuries was connected with a temple because it there was a cult center.
16 Component of Silk Road: Sauran Ancient Settlement – geographical coordinates: 42T 0400835 4819692
16 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Sauran ancient settlement of is located 40km to the north-east from the city of Turkestan, on the territory of Turkestani area of the South Kazakhstan area.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: The early Sauran city history is related to Karatobe ancient settlement located 3 km to the south of late-medieval fortress and having cultural layers dated by the middle of 1 thousand of B.C – 13century of A.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Oguz, Kypchak, Kazakh.
Morphology: It represents an oval ground in the plan surrounded by a wall with remained slid down parts with the height from 3 to 6m. It extends from the northeast to the southwest for about 800m and from the northwest on the southeast for about 500m. The area of a site of ancient settlement towers over surrounding district for 2-2,5m. The wall of the ancient settlement is built on stylobate with height of 2-3m. Detailed visual inspection of the total length of the walls, especially of the well remained rests has shown that the fortification has experienced at least two periods of building.
Two gates lead inside the ancient settlement. The main gates are in the northeast part of a wall and represent a powerful fortifying construction, flanked with two projecting towers which had two floors. The entry represents a twenty-meter corridor-shaped pass formed by the projecting pieces of a wall. The street paved with a stone begins from it.
The ditch with depth to 3 m and width of 15-20 m has been dug out outside the wall.
The central street that is two meters from the northeast gate leads to a city square with the size of about 120х40m. When coming to the square the street widens to 16m. More than the two-meter hills covered with fragments of a brick are on the right and at the left sides. The area has rectangular outlines and is located with a long axis across the direction of the main street. The area perimeter has massive hills of ruins of the buildings made, apparently, from square burnt bricks. The abundance of fragments of a brick on these hills evidences this. There are lots of them at the northwest and northeast sides of the square.
Historical reference: corresponds to medieval Sauran.
Degree of research: The basic components of the Sauran archaeological complex were investigated, described, fixed in different degree at the area. One of components is the Sauran ancient settlement with adjoining suburban territory and a necropolis. Actually the ancient settlement (or Sauran fortress) is a territory inside the fortifications which has a traditional quarter development with a network of the streets mixed with sections of public constructions. A zone of an ancient necropolis (a city cemetery) with a mosque-namazgoh to the east both from city walls and to the southeast, with the fenced “khazira” area, possibly, with burials in the open-air. The zone of suburban farmstead building covers an ancient settlement from all sides.
It is the unique irrigation monument for medieval culture of Kazakhstan, including “kyariz” irrigation. Presence kyariz system of water supply in the city provides an additional uniqueness to Sauran archaeological complex.
It was determined that the medieval city of Sauran was located in the bottom deltoid part of three small mountain rivers originating in Karatau mountains– Tastaksay, Aksay and Maydantal. The concentration of remains of “kyariz” was revealed along the mouths of these rivers.
Excavations of the Sauran ancient settlement revealed two mosques inside a city have, a country mosque – “namazgokh”, medrese, hanaka and an interesting system of fortifying constructions. All of them are unique monuments of architecture.
It was the unique medieval city on a line of the Great Silk Road, the center of an ancient and medieval civilization.
16 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement were carried out in 1998, 2005-2011 by archaeologists Baipakov K.M., Smagulov E.A., including “Cultural Heritage” program. It resulted in a large factual material collected, indicating the settlement as large administrative and commercial center.
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is good. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation, coating with a protective sacrificial layer) is performed at all the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are defined, the museum and management system are absent.
16 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The Sauran ancient settlement of 13-18 centuries has the importance of a historical and architectural monument and stands among such significant monuments, as Otrartobe, Ispidzhab (Syaram). Suaran managed to remain the role of the large craft and trading city located on the Silk Road during many years. Fortifications are well remained on this ancient settlement, not like anywhere else. The cult and civil architecture were revealed at the monument as a result of excavation and in the future, after restoration it will allow to organize excursions both at a local and at the international level.
17 Component of Silk Road: Sygnak Ancient Settlement. Geographical Coordinates: 42 T 336322 4892475
17 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement of Sygnak is located 20km to the north-west of Tyumen-aryk railway station, 1.5km to the right of Turkestan – Kzyl-Orda modern line.
Type of the monument: settlement
Cultural/ethnical membership: Oguz, Kypchak, Kazakh.
Morphology: It has a shape of a wrong pentagon in the plan. Shakhristan with a citadel located in a southeast part can be seen in its topography. The sizes of the sides of shakhristan are the following: North side – 250m, western – 360m, southern – 250m and southeast – 450m, northeast – 350m. The total area of the ancient settlement makes about 20 hectares. The shaft height which in the past had functions of the wall is about 6-7m. Building traces – manors, the rests of irrigated fields, channels can be observed around the central ruins in radius to 2 km.
Historical reference: The Sygnak city for the first time was mentioned in sources of X century, and in XI century it was named by Mahmud Kashgar among cities of “Oguz”. In XII century Sygnak becomes a capital of Kypchak state association and remains in that role until the beginning of XIII century.
Dzhuvejni historian describes the defeat of a city by Mongols in 1220. Despite destructions, the city has been built up and in the middle of XIII century Sygnak is mentioned among the routes of Getuma Armenian tsar. Gradually the city becomes a large political and economic center on Syr-Darya. In XIII century Sygnak becomes a capital of Ak-Horde; mosques, baths, other public constructions are being constructed inside of it. Located on a brisk line of the Great Silk Road, the city prospered because of trade and crafts up to XVI century. Sygnalk as well as the others Syr-Darya cities in XV - XVI centuries became an arena of fierce struggle between possessors of the states of Central Asia and the Kazakh khans. To the beginning of XVI century according to Ruzbihan, Sygnak experienced a decline – reduction in number of inhabitants whereas in the ancient time it “was a prospering, was surrounded by big constructions and the processed fields and was filled with various products and was a trading point for the Kazakh people. Merchants of areas of Turkestan, Maverannahr and from the East to boundaries of Kashgar, Hotana bring the goods of these countries to Sygnak and make commercial transactions and an exchange with people of Deshta. At this time Sygnak was known for architectural monuments and first of because of Kok-kesene mausoleum. The city has eventually become desolated, as well as many other Syr-Darya cities in the middle of XIX century.
Degree of research: Middle, the settlement s being studied during many years, preliminary results were published.
17 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement are carried out in 1928 by Yakubovskiy, in 2003-2011 by Zholdasbayev. Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partialand complete recultivation) is performed at some of the investigated objects. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are not defined, museum and system of the management are absent. Monument of Republican value.
17 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features: Many-stratum tobe type settlement hs significant similarity with numerous monuments of middle Sardarya, the closest analogues – settlement Kaugan-ata, Otrar-tobe.
18 Component of Silk Road: Monuments of Dzhetyasar Oasis. Geographical Coordinates: 41 T 541556 5004201.
18. Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: On the territory of East Priaralye, in the basin of ancient channels of Syr-Darya - Kuvandarya and Pra-kuvandarya (Eskidaryalyk)
Type of the monument: complex of the settlements and burials
Dating: V B.C. – IX A.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Dzhetyasar culture, Kangyuy.
Morphology: Dzhetyasar is situated in the Lower Syrdarya river is a unique center of concentration of the towns, settlements and burial grounds which refer to dzhetyasar culture, to the culture identified with the state Kangyuy. At the first two stages of culture development the vast majority of Dzhetyasar settlements had an oval or rounded two-layer mound-tobe in height of 8 to 25 m above the preserved surface and area of 0.5 to 18 hectares. All settlements is represented by strongholds with a developed fortification and solid inhabitant building inside. At the third stage of culture development several strongholds are being constructed, which are sharply distinct from the rest in its layout and fortifications. Some of the high strongholds with solid multi-residential buildings typical for the early stages of Dzetyasar culture, additionally put intothe ring of new stronghold walls with protuberance oval towers, but a large space inside such walls are lack in any residential building traces. The core of the town is a solid multi-storey building. Upper platform is bordered by a second one, much lower, and then the third area, each of which is limited by a system of strongholds. Originally on the second tier, there were areas such as frame buildings like animal shed with separate stalls, and possibly open enclosures, and later the second platform was built up with two three-room residential-sections. Main dwelling room always preserved the same interior: sufa along the walls, floor central open hearth of strictly defined forms, enterspace marked with clay or walls, constructions for grain grate, hearth stands. Location of each section, its total area, interior of the main residential premise remained unchangeable during the centuries, though inside the wall sections there were many reconstructions, which changed location of the rooms and their amount. Mount burial grounds that surrounded the settlements, contained primed burials of 4 types and three burial constructions. Excavations over thousand of burial grounds revealed great collection of unique archaeological and anthropological burials.
In dzhetyasar mounds there were amberbuttons from the Baltic, cornelian - from India, glass - from Syria and Egypt, chalcedony gems from Iran, Eastern and Central European brooches and bracelets and many other accessories, once again showing the direction of Dzhetyasar trade relations.
Precious cloth for that time were colorful and smooth silk from China and multicolored patterned one from Iran and Syria, these findings are reported in Dzhetyasar burials.
Historical reference: The first characteristic of culture and typology of monuments inside the hole have been offered by its pioneer S.P. Tolstov, in 1948. In the mid-sixties the author gives the specified characteristic and a culture periodization in which the three large stages were stressed (Dzhetyasar 1 − till the end of 3-4 century A.D.; a stage of Dzhetyasar 2 − 4-6 centuries; Джетыасар 3 − 7-9 centuries A.D.).
Degree of research: On the territory of East Priaralye, in the basin of ancient channels of Syr-Darya - Kuvandarya and Pra-kuvandarya (Eskidaryalyk) well fortified sites of ancient settlement and burial grounds Dzhetyasar cultures (5 centuries BC - 9 century d.C.) were studied throughout several decades by the Khorezm archaeological expedition the carriers of this culture have played an important role in ethnogenesis of many modern Euroasian people.
Let's rememeber that owing to a geographical position the most significant region migratory ways and trading roads (first of all, one of the major northern branches of the Great Silk Road), zones of interethnic and intercultural contacts in 1 thousand BC, as well as in 1 thousand A.D., were going on in basin of northern ancient Syr-Darya channels where Dzhetyasar culture has developed in the considered period (from the end of an epoch of bronze to 9 century A.D.). Here site of the Silk way was going which crossed Syr-Darya and then went Kyzylkumy desert, then to the coast of Amu-Darya, to Khoresm, and therefrom through Mangyshlak, to lower reaches of the Ural river to Volga to Northern Black Sea Coast. And Europe.
Extremely original, very archaic in its external shape, Dzetyasar culture is distinct from all neighboring Central Asian and Kazakhstani cultures. The area of Dzetyasar monuments is extremely wide, and the territory occupied by Dzetyasar sites of ancient settlement is expanding far to the north, the east and the southeast from Dzetyasar hole which have named this culture. The Dzhetyasar culture is characterized by features of settlement, the organization of settlements and by specificity of material culture. Among more than fifty Dzetyasar sites of ancient settlement known for now, there were only multilayered ones with developed fortification of fortresses and there was no settlements not fortified. Nature of settlement, topography of settlements, architecture, fortifications, the building techniques, a lay-out of settlements and separate dwellings have given the chance to say about extraordinary stability, their conservatism throughout all period of an existing of culture in the region. Huge multilayered, many-storeyed, well strengthened Dzetyasar sites of ancient settlement always located in immediate proximity to a channel or any other natural water source and have been surrounded by the necropolises totaling hundreds and thousands of barrows.
The majority of sites of ancient settlement of the Dzhetyasar oasis functioned until the 9 century inclusively.
18 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Investigations in the settlement are carried out since 1948 to 1991 with some intervals by S.P. Tolstov, B.A. Adrianov, L.M. Levin. Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partial and complete recultivation) was not performed, apart from this dry climate and low level of precipitation did not have destructive influence on excavated structures. The boundaries of contemporary land use geographically had touched a part of the medieval buildings of rabad. Security zones are not defined, museum and system of the management are absent.
18 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features: Dzhetyasar , Altyn-asar, Kurayly-asar, Kara-asar, Bazar-asar, Tompak-asar, Zhalpak-asar settlementshave significant similarity in phortiphication, architecture, irrigating canals system with famous monuments of Kanguyu period on the territory of Khoresm. The closest analogues are settlements Koy-Krylgan-kala, Toprak-kala, Dzhanbas-kala, Bazar-kala and also settlements of OtrarOasis. Monument of Republican value.
19 Component of Silk Road: Zhankala Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 41 T 585886 4934361
19 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Ruins of the ancient settlement are located on southern coast of Zhanadarya, approximately 300km to north-west of Kzyl-Orda city.
Type of the monument: settlement
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kanguyu, Oguz, Kypchak
Morphology: Settlement is located 6 km east from the Zhanadarya riverbed. Like most of medieval towns it has citadel, shahristan and rabad. The Citadel is represented by several elements - a palace, surrounding it outer wall and the north-eastern corner tower. The outer wall of the citadel of 1 m in width surrounds the palace, and forms the interior of the citadel in size of 75x75 m. Central building, tentatively called the Palace, has a size of 37x28 m and, finally, an octagonal tower with a diameter of 8 m, arranged in the northeast corner of the outer citadel. The outer wall is surrounded by a moat, which width varies from 20 m in the western part, where there is an original reservoir dug out, to a width of 4 m, that is well fixed from the northern side.
Shakhristan of the settlement is surrounded by a wall with width of 5 m. It is destroyed, its height varies from 0.2 to 3 m. Shakhristan covers an area of 23 hectares. Directions of shakhristan walls repeat directions of the walls of the citadel. From the south, east and west sides the walls of shakhristan are direct and the shape in general resembles a rectangle. On the territory of shakhristan there are several major objects. Among them, two can be interpreted as a caravanserai. Dimensions of the first caravanserai is 19x19 m, the second is 17x17 m.
In its southern part, revealed two large buildings put of burnt bricks.
In the same part of the settlement was erected a large rectangle form building of 38x38 m, made of burnt brick. It is connected with the southern part of the outer wall of shakhristan and arranged in its center. Perhaps the construction is related fortifications of the town.
Rabad of the settlement is extensive. Through the west-east of its territory stretches to 1800 meters and in the north-west to 1500 m. Rabad buildings is not regular. Here there are also significant areas of fields and canals with numerous branches, religious buildings, residential estates, facilities for public use, the small house. Many buildings are fixed at the surface only at low elevations and concentrations of ceramics.
From the buildings of considerable size and good preservation in the settlement can be identified rabad caravanserai, a central building which has a size of 30x25 m.
In the south-western part of the settlement there is, apparently, a country residence of the governor. Functional area is defined by the presence of a central huge building - 37x26 m, built of mud and burnt brick. The whole territory of the country residence was surrounded by a wall with width of 1 m, in the eastern part there is an entry arranged in the form of portal peshtak.
A similar park and garden area, enclosed, but without internal structures, with an area of 45,000 square meters, was constructed in the northern part of rabad.
In the eastern side of the settlement in the immediate closeness from the outer wall there are shakhristan mosque ruins fixed, in size of 9,7x9, 7 m, with preserved mikhrab wall and niche. The walls of the mosque built of mud brick. Most likely the mosque is memorial.
In the southern side of the settlement, as wellas on the territory of rabad there are ruins of another mosque built of burnt bricks. The dimensions of the mosque 12,3x7, 3 m. The mosque has two halls. External – gurkhana and mosque itself.
Building of rabad settlement was not dense. It was alternated with open spaces, fields and canals.
Historical reference: Following the published results of S.P. Tolstov research expedition, most scientists involved in development issues, directly or indirectly related to the history of this famous city till nowadays identify Dzhend with Zhan kala.
Degree of research: In 60-70ies XX century Zhan Kala was repeatedly studied by Khorezm archaeological expedition, and in 2009 the staff of “Archaeological expertise”, under K.M. Baypakova’s guidance, head of the expedition D.A. Voyakin, with the financial support of Kyzylorda region akimat conducted complex research of Zhan kala settlement.
19 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Preservation of the investigated objects in the settlement is satisfactory. Conservation (partial and complete recultivation) is performed at some of the investigated objects. Security zones are not defined, museum and system of the management are absent. Monument of the Republican value.
19 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features: Architecture of the site has close analogs with sites of of Golden Hord epoch – Kayalyk, Voga region, Sauran, Myntobe. These evidences and especially numismatic materials tell about close culture and trade relations with Central Asia and Near East, China, India, Europe.
20 Component of Silk Road: Zhankent (Yangikent) Ancient Settlement. Geographical Coordinates: 41 T 415249 5053086
20 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement of Dzhankent is 20km from Kazalinsk, on right river bank of Syr-Darya.
Type of the monument: Settlement
Dating: Zhankent is dated by the first centuries B.C. – XVIII century. In the first centuries of our era - XII century it was situated in the ancient settlement of Zhankent, in XIII-XIV centuries it occupied the territory of Myntobe ancient settlement of.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kangyuy, Oguz, Kypchak, Kazakh
Morphology: The ancient settlement has subdirect shape in the size of 375х225m. There is a citadel in the size 100х100m and height of 7-8 meters in a northwest corner. The topography of ruins shows the direction of the main street connecting the gares in east and western walls. Intra-quarter small streets depart from this. The burial ground of Myntobe consisting of hundreds burial embankments was found to the North trap of the ancient settlement in 1986 by archaeological expedition of the Arch of monuments of Academy of sciences KazSsR. The people here have been buried from the first centuries BC till XVIII century. The destroyed mausoleums of XIII-XIV centuries represent some interest, once they were revetted with majolica tiles and bricks. The scheduled archaeological researches are conducted on a site of ancient settlement since 2006. As a result of excavations the streets and premises of shakhristan have been revealed, dated by 12-13 centuries. The street with both parties covered with premises of manors of the nobility of a city was found on a citadel as a result of excavation was partially dug out. A pagan Oguz altar was found in one of the premises, with “protoms” in the shape of lamb heads. The altar is dated by XI-XII centuries.
Historical reference: Zhankent (Yangikent) which was called as New Guziej, was not only a capital of Oguz, but also the residence of their governor “Yabgu". Jangikent had close connections with Khoresm. Colonists lived in a city from Khoresm, and there is an opinion that the city existing long before Oguz and in X century has been built up from the zero point and was fortified by Khorezm builders.
Zhankent (Yangikent) was not only capital and residence of Oguz governors but also the largest shopping centre in lower reaches of Syr-Darya. It is explained by its geographical position – it settled down in the original corridor connecting steppes of the Central Kazakhstan with Central Asia and the Near East, on the one hand, by Khoresm, Priaralem, Caucasus, and the Mediterranean – on the other side. The city was the centre of overland and river trade: vessels, loaded with grain and bread came downwards across Syr-Darya from the Central Asian cities to these lands according to ibn-Haukal. In XVII-XVIII centuries it was a residence of the Kazakh khans.
Degree of research: Planned archaeological investigations in the settlemenet are carried out since 2006. As the result of the excavations the streets and premises of shakhristan dated back to XII-XIII were excavated.In the citadel as the result of the excavations the street was defined and partially buried out, on the both sides of which there were premises of the estates of the city elite. In one of the premises oguz altar was found, with in the shape of sheep head.The altar dates back to XI-XII.
20 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Writings about Zhankent as about a city of Oguz and then of Kipchaks for the first time are seen in historical sources of the Central Asian, Arabian and Persian historians and travelers in 10-11 centuries. Throughout 6 centuries we can find the data on a city in historical sources of the Persian and Arabian historians and travelers. A site of ancient settlement of Zhankent (Yangikent) was the largest fortified political and shopping centre in the lower currents of Syr-Darya. Proseprity was reached by the city due to transit trade and its location on a brisk trading line of the Silk Road. The city has existed about seventeen centuries. Zhankent, as well as other cities of the bottom current of Syr-Darya, became the additional centre of Oguz and Seldzhuk statehood, and one of the centres of ethnogenesis of Kazakhs. Zhenkent has been destroyed in the beginning of 13 centuries by mongolo-tatar conquerors. In the second half of 13 centuries it has been built up again and with revival of trading ways as before it began to play an important role by connecting the cities of Priaralye, cities of Central Asia, the Middle East, East and the Western Europe. In 18 century the city has fallen into decay. The population had to leave a city and Zhankent was never built up again. For today, this is a unique large monument of an epoch of the Middle Ages in lower currents of Syr-Darya which is being explored by archeologists. The ancient settlement has some remained fortifications made of mudbrick blocks. Being located on one of the important parts of the Silk Road, a city certainly played the important role being a link on the Great Silk Road. The archaeological monument “Zhankent ancient settlement” is under state protection. The site of ancient settlement of Zhankent can be recorded into the list under criterion 3 as being the certificate of cultural tradition and mutual relation of nomadic and settled cultures during Middle Ages epoch on the Great silk Road.
According to numerous written sources, the city was located on a line of the Great Silk Road. Excavation of the city produced a series of coins from Khoresm, Samarkand, and Bukhara. During excavations the ceramics from Central Asia – Samarkand and Shash were found.
20 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
So called “marsh settlements” (Kesken-kuyuk kala, Kuyuk kala and Dzhankent) are situated in specific geographical conditions, that had significantly influenced on formation of specific “culture of marsh settlements”, development of which is refferedto dzhetyasar culture, Oguz ethnical component and trade ways of theSilk road.
In the deltas of Syrdarya region there are dozens of the great and diferrent period monuments of the settled and urban culture, among them there are big ones such as Sarlytam-kala, Zangar-kala, Dzhan-kala, Asanas. All the monuments have different configuration, the similarity of the settlements is reflected in three divisions - square citadel, fortified with the walls and towers, surrounded from three sidesby the territory with high walls or shafts and moat.
21 Component of Silk Road: Kesken-kuyuk kala Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 41 T 378755 5042961
21 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement of Dzhankent is 20km from Kazalinsk, on right river bank of Syr-Darya.
Type of the monument: Settlement
Dating: Dating of a site of ancient settlement can be defined by the chronological period from the middle of 1 thousand BC – and till the period of the developed Middle Ages – 11-12 centuries A.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kangyuy, Oguz, Kypchak
Morphology: The citadel and shakhristan in the form of a quadrangular hillock can be seen in the topography of a site of ancient settlement with the size of 230х210 m. and height 3 meters. The site of ancient settlement of Kesken-Kuyuk kala is located on southern coast of currently dry channel which has densely grown with a bush of ancient delta. Following the curvature of external walls, the site of ancient settlement has got the shape of irregular approximated outlines. The size of the ancient settlement on a line the north-south can be determined as 840m, on a West-east line it is 820, a total area is over 530 thousand sq.m.
The central hillock has the sizes of 230m (on the north-south line) х210m (on a line the West-east), surrounded with the walls and shaping it as a square towering over surrounding district at 3 m, it can be in turn divided on two parts: the citadel itself located in the southwest quarter of the central hillock, and shakhristan surrounding a citadel from northern and east sides. The citadel is not designated as the basic structural element of the ancient settlement because it cannot be visually seen both from a surface, and at an aero-photo. Thanks to detailed topographical shooting and the subsequent drawing of contours it became obvious that such unit as the citadel can still be designated on the general surface of the central hillock. Greatly dispelled and slid down walls of a citadel and an insignificant height of object – about 1m – hid it on a surface of the central hillock. The citadel “is read” in a kind of sub-square design, with the sizes of 55-60х55-60m, the height was already specified above, it makes about 1m above the level of the central hillock.
The territory of shakhristan represents a leveled surface (as a result of influence of natural factors) of the massive development easily noticed in lines of designs of buildings, streets, lanes. The most raised part of shakhristan is the one which directly adjoins the citadel.
Historical reference: First Kesen-Kuyuk (Khuvara, Khora) town is mentioned as Oguz city, first time it can be traced in the historical sources of the Central Asian, Arab and Persian historians and travelers in the 10-11 centuries. Apart from local population in the town there lived settlers from Khorezm. There is a scientific point that the town that existed long before the Oghuz, in the X century was rebuilt and fortified by Khorezmian builders.
Degree of research: First settlement was discovered and studied during the Khorezm archaeological expedition, led by S.P. Tolstov in 1948. Planned archaeological investigations are carried out since 2007. Topographical survey was carried out in the settlement and surrounding burial grounds. The excavations have revealed shakhristan cult economic premises dated 10-11 centuries. In two rooms there were found Oguz pagan altars, with channels of ram’s head shape and columns with carved animal and floral ornaments. Altars date back to X-XI centuries.
21 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The site of ancient settlement of Kesken-Kuyuk kala is mentioned as a city of Oguz, and then of Kypchaks in historical sources of medieval, Arabian and Persian historians and travelers at 10-13 centuries. As well as Zhankent, Kesken-Kuyuk kala has played one of significant roles in formation of Oguz statehood. The creation of such nationalities as Kazakhs, Turkmans, Turks and Azerbaijanians has begun within this region. For the first time it has been investigated in 1948 by the Khorezm archaeological expedition under the direction of S.P. Tolstoy. Up to 2007 there were no archaeological explorations on the territory of the ancient settlement of. Since 2007 the archeological excavations are being conducted on the ancient settlement. As a result of excavation, 3 premises have been dug out. Oguz pagan altar with fragments of “protom” in the shape of the stylized lamb head was found in one of the premises. Kesken-Kuyuk kala ancient settlement can be recorded into the list of monuments of historical monuments of the Middle Ages and is under state protection.
The site of ancient settlement of Kesken-Kuyuk kala can be recorded into the list under criterion 3 as being the certificate of cultural tradition and mutual relation of nomadic and settled cultures during Middle Ages epoch on the Great silk Road.
21 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The site of ancient settlement of Kesken-Kujuk kala should probably be identified with a site of ancient settlement of Chora, Hvara, Huvara of IX century mentioned in the “Hudud al-alem” works. The city Hulu standing on “Sogdian road” is known from the Chinese sources of VII century. These data allow to “connect” a city to the Silk Road.
Findings from excavations - Khoresm coins, the Central Asian coins, Sasanidian gems of IV-V centuries with the image of the tsarina and ancient Iranina inscription “Bilbig – daughter of Vahran” allow confirming the location of a site of ancient settlement on the Great Silk Road.
22 Component of Silk Road: Chirik-Rabad Ancient Settlement – Geographical Coordinates: 41Т 493716 4880318
22 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The Chirik-Rabad ancient settlement is located 300 km to the south-west of Kyzylorda, in Kyzylkums on an ancient channel of Zhanadarya.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: V B.C. – IVA.D.
Cultural/ethnical membership: The site of ancient settlement, according to S.P.Tolstov, was a capital of Saks-Apasiaks.
Morphology: It is fortified with two rows of walls with towers and a ditch. The monument occupies all territory of a natural hill with the area of 850х600 m., extended from the north to the south. The site of ancient settlement is fortified by powerful fortification system. The site of ancient settlement is surrounded by a ditch with width of 40 m and depth of 4.5м. The ditch in width to 40 m. was dug at the hill basis with depth to 4.5 m. There is a thick external shaft made of ditch discharge, the height is to 3 m, width at the basis is about 8-10 m. There is another shaft on the internal perimeter of a ditch. Besides, the top of a hill is surrounded by the third row of the roll. The external wall is fortified with towers of rectangular shapes which projected from a wall plane to 6 m. The fortification wall is cut with arrow-shaped loopholes. Thus, fortification system of the ancient settlement is an obvious imitation of Khoresm samples. At first, Chirik-Rabat most probably was the fortified ancient settlement - refuge for local tribes. Internal lines of fortifications could have appeared a bit later, when the constant settlement was formed on the territory of the ancient settlement. A huge ancient settlement of Chirik-Rabat is a unique monument and is the most ancient monument of this region.
Historical reference: In the settlement lived Sak tribes bearers of Chirik Rabad culture, who had cultural and historical relations with Khorezm, Sogdiana and Achaemenid Iran.
Degree of research: Was found in 1946 by the Khorezm archaeological expedition, under the direction of S.P.Tolstov.
The necropolis made of six burial mounds (one of which is dug out) is located on the territory of the ancient settlement. The burial mound is dated by V-IV centuries BC.
Two mausoleums – monumental constructions from mudbrick also have been located on territory of the ancient settlement. Excavation of the first funeral building provided various material dating monument by IV-III centuries BC.
During excavations of the second funeral building crafts made of gold, fragments of a bronze mirror, green beads from glass and the Egyptian paste, a bead from agate have been found in a sepulchral hole. Burial is dated by IV-II centuries BC.
In 2004-2006 within the limits of the program “Cultural heritage” the South Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition of Institute of archeology of the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan conducted the further excavation on a site of ancient settlement. Two funeral designs and the big ring-shaped construction in diameter about 80 m. were dug out on necropolis territory, and one house was explored on the territory of a site of ancient settlement.
The studied burials look like superficial cavities in diameter of 15 m. It was found out during excavations that funeral chambers as catacombs were constructed in a rectangular sepulchral hole, from east or from west side, sometimes from both simultaneously. Entries into chambers were laid with mudbricks. Three skeletons were revealed in one of the funeral chambers. One of them was buried wearing rich clothes with gold ornaments and with a long iron sword. Other two were laid close to each other on a wooden stretcher. a ceramic flask and a censer were found near them, a vessel from a pumpkin and other things. A brand of the master and an inscription made of five signs are cut on a flask. Apparently, they belonged to a family of the nobility of a society. Burial is dated by IV-II centuries BC.
22 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Monuments of Chirikrabat culture are original objects of history, culture and architecture. Archaeological works are conducted on a site of ancient settlement of Chirik-Rabat. The site of ancient settlement of Chirik-Rabat represents an important historical and cultural centre which is on one of sectors of the Great Silk Road. There are no analogues in a world history to Chirikrabadsky culture – culture of nomads and farmers. The site of ancient settlement of Chirik-rabat can be recorded into the list under criterion 3 as being the unique, exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or the civilization which existits or have disappeared. During excavation of a site of ancient settlement and a necropolis of Chirik-rabat, a set of crafts from different regions of Eurasia have been collected: The Baltic amber and Badakhshan lazurite, ceramic vessels, the Egyptian beads from glass and paste, the rests of cotton fabrics, presumably from Khoresm, inscriptions on vessels (Greek and Khorezm the alphabet) allow saying that the population of Chirik-rabat had trading and cultural contact with the next Khoresm and Akhemenidian Iran.
22 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The topography of a site of ancient settlement, fortifying constructions, its chronology are characteristic for sites of ancient settlement of the neighboring Khoresm. However, the fortification and architecture elements, in particular, the first false dome on the mausoleums make this monument unique among others, and the site of ancient settlement can be included into the List of the World heritage.
23 Component of Silk Road: Babish-mullah Ancient Settlement – Geographical Coordinates:41Т 508995 4918411
23 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement and the mausoleum the Babish-mullah are located 40 km to the northeast from Chirik-rabad.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: IV-II B.C.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Chirikrabarat culture, Sak
Morphology: Babish-mullah settlement is fortified town which has irregular form and it is much less in the sizes than Chirik-rabad. There is a citadel of the square shape in its northern part made of “pahksa” walls with small roundish towers on corners and in the middle of east wall. The square building is located in a citadel which had received the name of “Big house”. Walls of a citadel and of “the Big house” are cut with threefold arrow-shaped dispersing loopholes of characteristic type for Khoresm. Ruins of one more large building conditionally called “donzhon” adjoin the southwest corner of a citadel from outer side which walls have remained with the height of 4-5 m. From the south “donzhon” is attached by the city territory with a thick wall with semicircular towers the walls of which are made of mudbrick.
Inside the city the development can be seen mainly in a southwest part. The remains of constructions with post designs have been found out here. During excavations not burned fragments of female figurines of archaic shape have been found in them.
Historical reference: Babish-mulla settlement can be considered as Satrap residence in the northern region of “Saks that are behinf the Sogd” of the Achaemenid empire.
Degreee of research: The complex was found and investigated in 1948 by the Khorezm complex archaeological expedition under S.P. Tolstov’s guidance/ With some intervals the excavations in the settlement are being conducted by archaeological expedition of the Institute of archaeology named after A.Kh. Margulan Academy of Science of the RK. In 2004-2008 in the settlement conducted excavations according to the “Cultural Heritage” program.
23 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The site of ancient settlement, the Babish-mullah is a unique object of history, culture and architecture on the territory of Southern Kazakhstan. In 2004-2006, within the limits of the “Cultural heritage” program the South Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition of Institute of archeology of the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan conducted archaeological operations one the settlement. The monument represents an important center nomadic and settled and tribes of Saks of the low Syr-Darya of 1 thousand BC. Chirikrabat culture – culture of nomads and farmers has no analogues in a world history. The Babish-mullah settlement can be recorded in the list by criterion 3 as being the unique, exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or the civilization which exisists or have disappeared. During excavation of settlement and a necropolis the Babish-mullah a complex of products from different regions of Eurasia have been collected: a bead from the Baltic amber, the ceramic ware having parallels with vessels, produced in Sogde, Merv oasis. The modeled ceramics is similar to monuments of Kaunchin cultures and to Khoresm ones. Along with these, the culture of inhabitants of a site of ancient settlement of Chirik-rabat and settlement of Babish-mullah has local original lines inherent only for this culture.
23 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The topography of a site of ancient settlement, fortifying constructions, its chronology is typical for sites of ancient settlement of the neighboring Khoresm. The building elements seen in the given monument, such as the mausoleum and a false dome on the mausoleum, the fortification, for the first time found in the given region and in Central Asia make this monument unique among others. The site of ancient settlement and the mausoleum Babish-mullah can be included in the List of the World heritage.
24 Component of Silk Road: Balandy Settlement – Geographical coordinates:41Т 532142 4894927
Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The monument is the centre of the small agricultural oasis which based on the highway channel, allotted from one of the widest channel of Inkardarya.
Type of the monument: archaeological complex
Dating: according to archaeological data the monument is datedIII – II B.C. There are reasons to believe that the mausoleum of the Balandy 2 has been constructed in IV century BC.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Chirikrabarat culture
Morphology: The monument is the center of a small agricultural oasis, which was based on the main channel, set from one of the wide Inkardarya’s inflows. Rectangular monument is surrounded by 80x130 defensive wall and oriented to the angles. Near to settlement there is a mausoleum of the Balandy 2. The mausoleum is a round in the plan construction in diameter about 16 m. The height of walls makes 4.5 m. The monument represents the low cylinder decorated with a decor in the form of processed twenty five shovels forming sides.
The central part of a building occupies a round premise in diameter of 5,5 m, blocked by a dome. Mausoleum walls, as well as a dome, are covered by a layer of “saman” putties. A floor of a round building is made of earth.
The external ring wall of a building stands far from an internal wall on 2.3 m. Seven premises located between them are divided by radial walls. One of the premises, adjoining to an input, played a lobby role where its four walls had arch doorways.
Historical reference: The presence of rectangular raw bricks dating back to the 2nd period of the life of the monument, and ceramic forms in the bottom allows us to date the time of its construction by mid-IV century B.C. Since the beginning of the III throughout the Central Asia, dominates the square format of the raw bricks. Cylindric shape of vessels in the III is no longer met. Apart from this the early date of settlement is evidenced by a long history of fortifications. This mansion, of course, was the center of deconcentrated settlement, place of residence of the village community. This mansion could serve as a community store, and, if necessary, the shelter-fortress.
Degree of research: The settlement was discovered by routing group of the Khorezm archeology-ethnographic expedition in 1959. In 1960-61 Balandy 1 have been under reconnaissance excavations. As a result of these works some premises of a building of the monument located in a northwest part partially have been revealed. During excavation some valuable findings were made. Among them, it is necessary to mention the carved bone plates, graceful bronze hand-made articles in the form of leaves of antique shape, fragments of glass vessels of the Syrian manufacture, decorated with a leaf, the stylized stone figure of a camel. Traces of plaster with polychrome leaf have been fixed on the walls of premises. On the basis of the received data the conclusion has been made that Balandy 1 is the big strengthened house in which the housing estate of some gala premises have been dug out. According to archaeological materials, the monument has been dated by III-II centuries BC.
Repeated exploration of the settlement has been done in 2006 by routing group of Chirik-Rabat archaeological expedition. In August, 2007 after more than forty-year break the stationary archaeological explorations have been continued on settlement. Within defensive walls, for the purpose of finding-out the stratigraphic situation and revealing of lay-out, two excavations have been done in southeast and southwest parts of a monument. The materials received during excavation provide the lower date of existence of settlement. Presence of rectangular mud brick relating to 2 period of life of a monument, and ceramic forms with strut in a benthonic part allow to date time of its building as not later than the middle of IV BC. Already from the beginning of III century A.D. in all territory of Central Asia undividedly the square shape of mudbrick dominates. Cylinder-conic shapes of vessels in III century have not been seen any more. Besides, the early date of appearance of settlement is evidenced by the long history of creation of defensive constructions. This manor, certainly, was the center of the dispersed settlement, the place of residence of a rural community. Such manor could carry out functions of communal storehouse and, at necessity, act as a refuge fortress.
The excavations conducted in the mausoleum of the Balandy have shown that it has been plundered in the ancient time. The received material does not leave doubt that regarding premises located on a ring there were burials. Similar designs from a tree are found out at excavation of funeral chambers of the mausoleum the Babish-mullah 2.
During the excavation of the Balandy 2 scraps of the leather product decorated with gold and fragments of color thin cotton fabrics, the handle from a carved bone are found.
The analysis of designs of the Balandy 2, in particular of its domes leads to interesting results. The false dome existed for a long time in the east and in the Mediterranean. Such tic of the dome construction which have been found out on the Balandy, continued to exist in Central Asia and Kazakhstan up to the recent past. The form of a dome of the Balandy 2 appears only in some centuries in VI-VIII centuries in the Afrigid state of the Berkutkalinsky oasis.
24 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The settlement and the Balandy mausoleum are unique objects of history, culture and architecture on territory of Southern Kazakhstan. In 2004-2006 excavation within the limits of the program "Cultural heritage" was spent by the South Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition of Institute of archeology of the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan archaeological works were conducted in settlement. The monument represents the important centre of nomadic and settled and tribes of Saks from the lower Syr-Darya of 1 thousand BC. The Balandy settlement can be recorded in the list by criterion 3 as being the unique, exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or the civilization which existing or have disappeared. A complex of products from different regions of Eurasia have been collected during excavation of settlement and the Balandy necropolis: bead from the Baltic amber, an ornament from the Indian pearls, fragments of glass vessels of the Syrian manufacture, decorated with a list, a glass beads with the gilding, having analogues that has been found on the Khorezm site of ancient settlement Which-krylgan. Besides, crafts of elephant bone-ceramic the ware having parallels with vessels, produced in Sogde, Khoresm, Merv oasis have been found on a monument. The modeled ceramics is similar to monuments of Kaunchin cultures and to Khoresm. Along with it the local original lines inherent only for this culture can be seen in the culture of inhabitants of a site of ancient settlement of Chirik-rabat and settlement the Babish-mullah.
24 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Fortification constructions of settlement, its chronology it is characteristic for sites of ancient settlement of the neighboring Khoresm. Thus, both own building elements and skills in civil and military architecture were combined along with external loans. The building elements seen on the given monument, such as the mausoleum and its false dome are found for the first time in the given region and in Central Asia. It makes this monument unique among others. The site of ancient settlement and the Balandy mausoleum can be included in the List of the World heritage.
25 Component of Silk Road: Bozok Ancient Settlement. Geographical coordinates: 42 Т 658807 5668382
Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: Bozok settlement is situated at the east outskirt of Astana on the Bozok lake shore. It is very suitable location not only in geographically, but also strategically.
Type of the monument: archaeological complex
Dating: X - XIV
Cultural/ethnical membership: Kypchak, Dzhuchid
Morphology: The roll remains, ditches surrounding them can be seen on a modern surface. They fence three quarters. The lay-out of the quarters located in the form of the three-petal socket and grouped round the central platform is interesting.
Historical reference: The monument relates to the medieval epoch, to the period when the territoryof the Central Asia was in the structure of Kypchak state.
Degree of research: Important researches have been spent on a monument in 1997-2009 by expedition of the Euroasian state university of L.Gumilev, headed by Professor K.A. Akishev and M.K. Khabdulina.
Ruins of two mausoleums were dug out here, a minaret and funeral fences, made of mudbricks.
Archeologists have opened some dwellings of semi-dugout type. They are multi-room. The biggest consists of 4 rooms and has one entry from lake side. Walls of premises were increased upwards with mudbricks. The house had flat ceiling.
Some tombs have been investigated on a cemetery. Well remained burial was revealed in a southern part of the ancient settlement. The woman living in Golden Horde time in XIII-XIV centuries was buried here. She has been buried in full fighting equipment: with an iron dagger and a long spear with an iron tip. An iron annulate bit lay at her foot. Silver bracelets on hands and a necklace from semiprecious stones, silver ear rings in her ears. The headdress has been embroidered with pearl beads. She covered a silver bowl with one of her hands.
Scientists think that the site of ancient settlement of Bozok should be preserved as a unique medieval city which became the forerunner of Astana.
The monument is located on east islet of lake Bozok. According to the results of excavation the explorers have come to a conclusion that the site of ancient settlement of Bozok was the military Stavka, residence of Kypchak possessor in X-XIV centuries.
25 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Site of ancient settlement of Bozok was the large fortified settlement in steppes of Saryarka. Occupying the important geographical position and being on the central branch of a caravan track passing in Saryarka steppes, the city controlled an important caravan trading artery through which the caravans went to cities of the Volga region, to Caucasus, in Russian princedoms the Volga Bulgaria and the Western Europe. The medieval site of ancient settlement of Bozok is under state protection. The site of ancient settlement of Bozok can be recorded into the list by criterion 3 as is, at least, the exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or a civilization disappeared or existing.
25 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features: The site of ancient settlement of Bozok has analogies to medieval settlement Melykuduk and other monuments located in the Central Kazakhstan, and also on the territory of Tuva, Khakassiya, Povolzhye. The monument differs from the major of the analogies three-petal structure and high degree of investigation.
26 Component of Silk Road: Kyzyl kala Ancient Settlement. Monument of archeology of 10-13 centuries. Geographical Coordinates: 39 T 579396 4899937.
26 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: It is located 18 km on SSV, in Shetpe settlement, Mangistau region. The basic part of a site of ancient settlement was stretched along two mouth channels which merge in a uniform channel.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: X - XIII
Cultural/ethnical membership: Turk, Sogdian
Morphology: The site of ancient settlement consists of the remains of the central fortification and numerous of manors around. Fortification can be distinctly read on a high roll (height of a roll is 3m) and viewed central, square fortification in the plan surrounded by a stone wall in width of 1.2-2m. The medium part of a northwest wall has a main gate arranged. Structurally these are formed by two towers. Projecting elements of stone layings from outer side of walls of a fortress show angular and two intermediate towers with a total number of 13.
Buildings round a fortress are seen on the bases of constructions, places of mass distribution of elevating materials − crocks of pottery, fragments of “plinfa”, and fragments of bones of animals.
The total area of a site of ancient settlement makes 50 hectares.
Historical reference: The town was founded on the northern branch of the Silk Road as a trading settlement. Initially it was the centre of attraction of local population as well as nomads, merchants, who came not only from Central Asia, but Europe. After sometime the settlement was seized by the nomads. Appeared the first record that here Khoresm fought with Kypchak. After that there was a reconstruction, the settlement was enclosed with thick stronghold wall of 2 metres thickness. There were numerous buildings made from mudbrick. Kyzyl-Kala town did not last long. Life here has faded in the first half of the XIII century. During excavations, archaeologists have not found any Golden Horde materials. We can assume that at this time caravans did not pass here.
Degree of research: The first investigations were started here in 1978, by Moscow archaeologists. More intensive study of the settlement was carried out by Andrey Astafyev in 2004. In 2007-2011 the works are continued under the direction of Z. Samashev.
26 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Site of ancient settlement of Kyzylkala was the large fortified settlement and shopping centre in Southern Prikaspiy. Occupying the important geographical position and being located on the western branch of a caravan track passing along Caspian sea, the city controlled an important caravan trading artery through which the caravans went to cities of the Volga region, to Caucasus, in Russian princedoms the Volga Bulgaria and the Western Europe. The city has reached its prosperity due to transit trade, having existed for more than two centuries. The city has been destroyed in the end of XIV century by Timur's armies. The site of ancient settlement of Kyzylkala can be recorded into the list by criterion 3 as being, at least, the exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or a civilization disappeared or existing.
26 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The site of ancient settlement of Kyzylkala is a typical caravansary round which a large settlement gradually has formed, with the developed craft and agriculture.
The caravansary served the caravans passing, and also victualed them with food and necessary products. Inhabitants of settling down settlement traded with nomads and supplied them with bread, fabrics and craft products.
The site of ancient settlement is well studied by archeologists. The richest material was received during excavations: ceramics, metal wares and coins.
Specific item of the settlement isits geographical location, determining it as a point on the Silk Road route, oriented for sea trade in Caspian basin.
27 Component of Silk Road: Saraychik Ancient Settlement, Geographical Coordinates: 39Т 555564 5260908
Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement Saraychik is located above a mouth of the river Ural Mountains on the right coast between the river Ural Mountains and its Sarachinka channel. A part of a site of ancient settlement is built up by village Saraychik. From the south and the north the site of ancient settlement was protected by walls. In 1948 of XX century A.N. Margulan conducted some explorations here and noticed that ruins extends along the river on one and a half kilometer. Starting from 1996 till1998 West-Kazakhstan archeological expedition carried out worksin the settlement. In 2004-2009 the works are beingcarried out according to the programme of “Cultural Heritage” under the guidance of Z.S. Samashev.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: X - XVI
Cultural/ethnical membership: Golden Horde, Nogay, Kazakh.
Morphology: Saraychik settlement has an area of 100 hectares. It is a plain steppe area with low rolling hills. In the south-eastern part of the monument Saraychik is partially built upwith “aul”, and from the west and south-western part by the burials, southern part is washed by the river. Behind the burial and aul there is Ural River flow, formerly the main channel of the river Ural was held here, and the town was located on the east coast. The thickness of the cultural layer in the coastal area, 1.5 - 2 m, excluding household pits and hills - rolled off the remnants of houses.
Historical reference: According to the historical version, Saraychik was founded in the middle of the XIII century by Batu Khan (1227-1256) in a convenient location, and most importantly - on the host site of junction of Europe and Asia. Through it ran the Silk Road from European countries and the capital of the Golden Horde Sarai Berke on the Volga River to the cities of Khorezm, Kazakhstan, India, Iran and China. Now we have descriptions of many merchants and travelers about the direction of this road. In "Dorozhnik" Hamdallaha Qazwini, written around 1339, shows the transition points on the way indicating the distance. Same we can meet in the writings of Arab geographer al-Omari (XIV c.). Trade route of the road from Saraichik to Urgench in length of "month road" was supplied by wells and caravanserais. Saraychik was an important political center. Here was carried out a procedure of the accession to the khan throne of the Golden Horde Zhanibek (1341-1357), Berdibek (1357-1359 ) and other members of the dynasty of Dzhuchids. The rapid development of the city was connected with the adoption of Islam by Khan Berke (1257-1266) and his brother-Tukai Timur, and later - as the official state religion of the Golden Horde by Uzbek Khan (1290-1312). These events occurred exactly in the Saraychik, which emphasizes its special role as the spiritual center of all the Golden Horde. In Saraychik were buried several khans of the Golden Horde, and other historical figures, including Mengu-Timur (1266-1281), Toktay (1280-1312), Zhanibek (1342-1357), Berdibek (1357-1359), as well as Kazakh khan Kasim (1511-1518). After the collapse of the Golden Horde since 1391 Saraychik became the center of Mangyt Yurt which had finally formed into an independent state - Nogai Horde in the 40th years of the XVI century, that was former political union of the tribes of the steppe. Around 1580 Saraychik was taken by storm and destroyed by the Cossack troops. Soon the city was rebuilt, but it was the beginning of a gradual and irreversible process of its total desolation. This contributed to the economic, social and political upheavals within the Nogai Horde and other unfavorable external factors.
Degree of research: Saraychik excavations have revealed residential districts of ordinary population.They consisted of houses built of mudbrick. There were two to three rooms, heated by chimney channels laid under the floor.
During the excavations of a site of ancient settlement the pottery, including glazed which was made on a place, and also products from the Syrian glass, the Chinese porcelain, the Khorezm bowls, bronze jugs and dishes from Iran were found. The fact that the city was one of the centers on the Great Silk Road is proved by findings of imported Chinese and Iranian ceramics, bronze products and glass from Central Asia and Iran. Findings of coins minted in Golden Horde of Khoresm, Samarkand and Iran testify the commercial relations. The mint functioned in the Saraychik in XIV-XV centuries.
27 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The medieval Saraychik is located above a mouth of the river Ural on the right coast between the river Ural and its channel - Sarachinka. The city Saraychik was on line of the Silk Road and that is what written sources testify. It was the large trading and craft center on a caravan track leader from China and the countries of the Central and Forward Asia and Europe.
During excavations the mosque and other cult buildings were revealed and dug out. Saraychik ancient settlement is an original object of history, culture and architecture, and is under state protection. Archaeological and preservation works are permanently being conducted on a monument. The monument represents the important historical and cultural center which is located on an Uralo-near-Caspian section of the Great Silk Road. The site of ancient settlement Saraychik can be recorded into the list by criterion 2 because it reflects influence which is rendered by change of universal values within the certain period of time or certain cultural area of the world, on development of architecture and technology, monumental art, town-planning and planning of landscapes.
27 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The site of ancient settlement Saraychik in XIII-XVI centuries was one of the important sections of the Great Silk Road, and for enough time was a developed city. The dug out premises and bath ruins and also ceramics of a crafts from glass and metal, a coin of different cities and the countries verify this. The civil and cult architecture, inhabited constructions and a bath dug out on a site of Saraychik ancient settlement have analogies to a site of ancient settlement of Otrar, in the cities of Semirechye and Southern Kazakhstan, with Golder Horde cities of the Volga region and in Bulgaria. It says about close cultural and commercial relations of a city with the states of Average and Forward Asia, China and Europe. Saraychik is one of the largest and most investigated centreof medieval Western KAzakhstan urbanization, which served as a transshipment point to Chingizaids’ European possessions.
28 Component of Silk Road: Zhaiyk Ancient Settlement, Geographical Coordinates: 39U 0522448 5661484
28 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The site of ancient settlement of Zhajyk is 10 km to the south from Uralsk on right above-flood terrace of Ural river.
Type of the monument: settlement
Dating: XIII - XIV
Cultural/ethnical membership: Golden Horde.
Morphology: City on the site of ancient settlement Zhaiyk appears likely in the first half of XIV century, during the period of reign of khan Uzbek (1313-1339) And Dzhanibek (1312-1357) characterized in the history of the Golden Horde as the years of greatest stability and prosperity of urban culture.
The Settlement Zhaiyk as a monument of the urban culture of Zhoshy khan period reign perfectly conveys the image of medieval city, life, culture, economy of the population.
Degree of research: In 2001-2004 explorations organized by the Institute of archeology of A.N. Margulan were conducted on a site of ancient settlement of Zhajyk, under the program “Cultural heritage”.
Excavation of three closest hills has revealed the ruins of separate manors under them. Constructions have been made of mudbrick. Premises were heated with “kanns” – heating system. Economic holes-storehouses, garbage holes, sanitary-and-hygienic devices were located in premises. The thickness of the basic walls is 70-80 cm.
Comparison of plans, techniques of housing construction of Volga region cities and a site of ancient settlement of “Zhajyk” show that prevailing influence on building culture of cities in Ural river basin were made by traditions of housing construction of Khoresm and near-Syrdarya oases. Plans of the dwellings explored on a site of ancient settlement coincide with plans of dwellings of after-Mongolian Urgench, Otrar and Turkestan. The difference is observed in some details of an interior and heating system.
The fact that in XIII-XIV centuries there was enough developed city on a place of the Ural ancient settlement is testified by the ruins of a bath. For example, the bath revealed in Otrar ancient settlement of XIII-XIV centuries and similar baths of the city of Kayalyk and cities of the Volga region are constructed according to a coherent plan with some insignificant variations.
28 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
Site of ancient settlement of Zhajyk being object of history, cultures and architecture is under state protection. Archaeological and restoration works are permanently conducted on a monument. The monument represents the important historical and cultural centre, located in the Uralo-Caspian sector of the Great Silk Road. Archeological excavations have shown close trade and economic and cultural communication of a city with the cities of Semirechyr, Central Asia and Iran. Zhaiyk was repeatedly mentioned by medieval historians and travelers. The site of ancient settlement of Zhajyk can be recorded in the list by criterion 2 as illustrating the important exchange of human values within certain time, development of architecture, monumental art and town-planning. The site of ancient settlement has been located on the Uralo-Caspian piece of the Great Silk Road and this is certified by its location. Presence of coins of Golden Horde governors of XIII-XIV centuries minted in Otrar and Samarkand, Bukhara, fragments of the Chinese porcelain and Central Asian glazed ceramics testify the close commercial relations of a city with China, Central Asia and Iran.
28 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The Ural site of ancient settlement (Zhaiyk) in XIII-XIV centuries was one of the important pieces of the Great Silk Road and was a developed enough city for its age. The dug out premises and bath ruins testify this. The civil architecture and a bath opened on a site of ancient settlement of Zhajyk have analogies to the baths which have been dug out in Otrar, in the city of Kayalyk and cities of the Volga region. It says about close cultural and commercial relations of a city with the states of Central and Western Asia, China and Europe.
29 Component of Silk Road: Issyk Necropolis, Geographical Coordinates: 43 T 693972 4806753.
29 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road: Issyk Burial Ground.
Geographical location: Issyk Burial Ground is located on the left coast of Issyk mountain river, near the city of Issyk, 50 kilometers to the east of Almaty
Type of the monument: Burial ground
Dating: V – III B.C.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Semirechye Saks, Uysun.
Morphology: The burial ground consists of 45 big imperial barrows in diameter from 30 to 90 and height from 4 to 15 meters. Most of Issyk burial grounds have stone-earth embankments. The Issyksky burial ground is similar to many similar monuments of Sak epoch.
Historical reference: Burial ground is related to the tribal group of Semirechye Saks, which was one of the first in Kazakhstan who came to the creation of statehood.
Degree of research: It became so well-known because of findings in one of barrows and it received the name “Barrow of Issyk”. The barrow of Issyk was located in the western half of burial ground. Its diameter is 60 meters, height is 6 meters. After pulling down of embankment two burial places have been found on depth of 1.2 meters from the stage of ancient horizon: these are central and lateral (southern).
The central burial place has been repeatedly plundered. The lateral tomb was found to be not disturbed; remains of the buried person and buried stock have completely remained. The funeral chamber was made of processed logs of a fur-tree. Remains of the buried person were found in the northern part. There has been over 4 thousand gold subjects, an iron sword and a dagger, a bronze mirror, clay, metal and wooden vessels found in the funeral chamber.
All subjects have been found in their initial position and that gave the chance to create the unique reconstruction of the clothes which have received the name “Gold man”.
29 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The given burial ground is an outstanding monument of Sak civilization existing on the territory of Kazakhstan in 6-3 centuries BC. The archaeological monument is under state protection. Archeological excavations have been conducted within the burial ground territory. The biggest popularity was brought by excavation of a barrow of “Issyk” in 1969-70. The stock found in a burial place and jewels are the unique example of jeweler art of nomads of Semirechye and Kazakhstan. Silver cup signs testify the presence of writing among the Sak tribes. The remains of a silk fabric found in tombs testify the close commercial relations of nomads of Semirechye with China and that was mentioned by the Chinese historical sources of IV-III of centuries BC. In 2004-2007 the investigations were carried out according to the programme “Cultural Heritage”.
29 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
The burial ground of Issyk has some distinctive features in comparison with known monuments in Kazakhstan of Sak time. For example, Besshatyr burial ground which also entered the nomination as an object of Silk Road is located on the right coast of the river Ili at a foot of Zhelshalgyr mountains, 170km to the east of Almaty.
Comparing Issyk and Besshatyr burial grounds, we will notice that the Besshatyr burial ground has arisen before a burial ground of Issyk and is dated by scientists as of V-IV centuries BC. There are differences in architecture of construction of barrows. In a number of barrows at a burial ground of Besshatyr there are the fencings forming a circle from vertically standing stones (menhirs). Menhirs are not typical for barrows of the Issyk burial ground.
Speaking about the internal device of barrows of these burial grounds, it is necessary to note available similarities, directly - in a construction of the funeral chamber constructed in the shape of a felling from Tien-Shan fur-tree. In the same time erection of the funeral chamber on an earth surface is characteristic for barrows of Besshatyr, instead of the dug out foundation ditch as it can be tracked in a barrow of Issyk. Except this, there is such architectural element as platform at Besshatyr barrows along with “dromos” and the funeral chamber.
Unique findings from a barrow of Issyk among which we will especially note gold ornaments – samples of jeweler art of Saks, a silver cup with letters and the rests of a silk fabric – certificates the close commercial relations of nomads of Semirechye with China and became the brightest features of the Issyk burial ground which has defined its inclusion in structure of components of the Silk Road.
The burial ground of Issyk can be recorded in the list by criterion 3 as being, at least, the exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or a civilization disappeared or existing.
30 Component of Silk Road: Boralday Necropolis. Geographical Coordinates: 43T 0651403 4100927
30 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The monument is situated in the north-western Almaty, on the territory of Alatau region, between Big Almatinka river in the east and Boralday in the west.In the north it borders with Boralday town type village, and in the south – with Big Almaty channel named after Kunayev.
Type of the monument: Burial mound
Dating: V – III B.C.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Semirechye Saks, Uysun.
Morphology: Necropolis of Boralday is one of few necropolises of nomadic Sak elite remained in vicinities of Almaty, in interflufe of Borolday and Big Almatinka, on a so-called Borolday height.
One of the largest burial grounds is Borolday burial ground occupying a part of a high Borolday plateau located in a northwest part of Almaty. There are tens of barrows among which the biggest barrow is seen with the biggest height to 20 m and diameter 150 m. The burial ground totals 52 earthen barrows. Diameter of barrows varies from 3 to 150m; the height of barrows varies from 0.1 to 14m. Forming groups, they are stretched as a chain from north to the south. The southern group of a burial ground is presented by large barrows, northern by smaller ones. A complex dominant is the barrow # 16 with the remains of stone altars around and a stone obelisk with the image of a scene of the torment executed in animal style. The southwest and western part of a plateau has a third and fourth groups of barrows of the small sizes on it.
Length of a burial ground is 3 km, width is 800 m. The most part of the burial ground has remained there is no modern buildings here. It is a rare case, the Borolday burial ground is lucky - it is surrounded by ravines and a canyon of a channel of the river of Big Almatinka.
Each big barrow of a burial ground represents the architectural construction and each barrow is an original architectural ensemble. Its parts are the barrows with their difficult construction of embankments and tombs, ring stone calculations from vertical stones-menhirs, stone rings round barrows, places of funeral feasts - cult feasts, altars. All territory of a necropolis is “an ancient picture” representations of the Universe, and the place of human within it, venues of rituals and the religious ceremonies connected with a cult of ancestors, calendar cycles, celebratings of Nauryz, autumn, summer and winter festivals.
Historical reference: Scientists have found that barrows of Borolday as well as barrows of Issyka, Talgar, Kegen have been constructed by tribes of Saks occupying Zhetysu in VIII-III centuries BC, and Usun’s - the people living in III century BC - III century A.D. Both those and others were far ancestors of Kazakhs.
Degree of research:The monument is the most preserved burial ground ofacient nomads on the territory of Kazakhstan and its environs. Investigation works of different years 2003, 2006 mainly lead to working outsituational and topographical plans of the burials. In this point Boralday is awell-studied object. Excavation works werecarried out only in case of destruction of barrow, which did not letto reveal the rests of material culture. Interesting finding is a white stele with the image made in animal style.
30 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The burial ground of Boralday is an outstanding monument of Sak civilization of Semirechyr existing in territory in 6-3 centuries BC. The burial ground is located on a brisk trading line connecting China with the states of Central Asia and the Near East.
In 2006 the decision about allocation from city ground fund of a territorial file in 430 hectares for the museum organization called “Borolday Sak barrows” was accepted.
Similar archaeological memorial estates in the open-air similar in their look and their conceptual maintenance to the Borolday museum are in the Hungarian Republic near Budapest and in Republic Korea, in the city of Kyopdzhu. National archaeological memorial estate “Park Timuli” In Korea is an object of global value where there are 20 royal barrows of ancient-Korean state Silla (IХ century).
The Borolday burial ground can be recorded in the list by criterion 3 as being, at least, the exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or a civilization disappeared or existing.
30 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features:
Barrows and burial grounds can be seen in Kazakhstan everywhere - in steppes and semi-deserts, intermountain valleys, in mountains and foothills, in valleys of the rivers.
Especially there are lots of them in Zhetysu-Semirechye, in foothills of Dzhungar and Zailijsky Ala Tau, in mountains of Central Tien-Shan. A well-known Issyk burial ground is among them, the barrow of Issyk has been dug out by archeologists in it and the “the Gold Man” was found in it. It and a burial ground of Besshatyr on the right coast of the river Ili, in a narrow canyon between the river Or and a mountain ridge of Zhelshalgyr. This is a well known Turgenskiy burial ground in foothills of Zailijsky Ala Tau, Kegensky in a valley of the river of Kegen, Dzhetytobe in foothills of the Talass ridge.
The necropolis of Boralday on its importance does not concede to such monuments of Sak epoch as Issyk and Besshatyr burial grounds. The given archaeological monument is under state protection. Located in city boundaries of Almaty, the burial ground has been declared by archaeological park and a museum open-air under the name of “Boralday Cultural-Landscape Complex”.
31 Component of Silk Road: Besshatyr Burial Ground. Geographical Coordinates: 44Т 276659 4866907
31 Brief Description of an Object – Component of Silk Road:
Geographical location: The Besshatyr burial ground is on the right coast of the river Ili, in Shilbyr hole.
Type of the monument: Burial ground
Dating: V – IV B.C.
Cultural/ethnical membership: Semirechye Saks
Morphology: It consists of 81 barrows. Depending on sizes of embankments barrows of the burial ground are subdivided into big, average and small. Diameters of the big barrows vary from 45 to 105 m, their height from 6 m to 18; and average accordingly - 25-38 m and 5-6 m; small - 6-18 m and 0,8-2 m.
Historical reference: Besshatyr burial ground represents itself as necropolis of Sak reigns, who according to the size of embankment were hegemons in the region.
Degree of research: The investigations at necropolis site were carried out by Ili archealogical expedition of the Institute of Archeaology and Ethnography of Academyof Science of KazUSR in 1954, 1957-1961. Excavated barrows apart from rare exclusion, were plundered. Anyway Besshatyr barrows provided dated material (dagger, spearheads), new types of monumental gravestone constructions.
The Big Besshatyrsky barrow with diameter of 104 m is notable, it has a height of 17 m. Embankment has the shape of the truncated cone, diameter of flat top is 32 m. Stone covering of a barrow, at the basis densely laid in some layers, makes an impression of a socle upon which the embankment bulk is based. Round it, on distance of 5-7 m there is a stone roll in width of 2 m. Near to an embankment there are ring constructions made of large stone columns (menhirs) dug into the earth, and the big boulders, shaping the "fencings". In total there are 94 of such fencings around the Big barrow. They are located round the embankment. On some vertically standing stone columns of fencings “tamgi” are stamped.
In the northeast from a barrow there are seven more such fencings extending from the southeast to the northwest. Fencings had a cult intention: they were connected with a cult of fire and a sacrifice ceremony.
Three big barrows have been dug out in Besshatyre: the First, the Third and Sixth, three medium and all of the small barrows.
During excavation of “a 14barrow” the new type of a funeral design was found. A basis of a funeral construction of a barrow - the walls erected from the earth with an impurity of small rubble. Two ceilings made of logs were from Tien-Shan fur-trees on the walls overlapping from three numbers of the logs lay, and the top number – from “dzhida”. The roof consisting of sixteen alternating layers of a stone, a bush and saxaul runaways was based upon timbered overlapping cupola-shaped forms. The tomb had sub-square basis and roundish cupola-shaped roof.
The tomb had an entry from East side, at both sides there were two pairs of vertically driven columns. Pair logs incorporated with each other by pegs hammered into cut through apertures, but for more durability of a log they have been still connected with thick “chievyi” ropes. The double layer of cane was above the entry also tied up by “chievyi” ropes. Entry of funeral chamber had the stump of thick log. The floor chamber had separate human bones.
The chronology of Besshatyr is based on findings in one of small barrows. Under its embankment in the big hole oriented by its long axis from the West to the east the skeletons of two buried persons were laying (hole sizes are 3. 50x2). Skeletons lay close to each other in the straight position, on their back, with heads directed on the West. Each buried persons had short iron daggers-akinaki from their right side, and from the left side – the remains of quivers with bronze tips of arrows (in total there were 50 petiolar and socket tips of arrows of twelve different types inside the quivers). Daggers have butterfly-shaped crosslines, tops are destroyed. The northern skeleton had an iron “umbon” from the left side and, apparently, the rests of a wooden board. A belt iron buckle was found here. Four cornelian beads were found among the bones (in the field of cervical vertebras of the buried persons) and on the rests of a quiver of a southern skeleton there were two beads made of soldered gold grains hollow inside.
The embankment on all barrows of the Besshatyr burial ground consists of a stone and large chip, top flat (in a cut - a trapeze), stones at the basis are densely laid. Design features of the big barrows are deep cavities on slopes of embankments. Probably, cavities indicate the entry into vaults of barrows. Most likely, sometime after fulfillment of a ceremony of a burial place and a construction of a barrow the entry in a vault remained opened for commemoration, worship and sacrifices, and then it was filled up by collapsing of a part of an embankment of the barrow located above the entry.
Each Besshatyr barrow as an architectural complex consists of two kinds of constructions: external and internal. External constructions represent a conic embankment.
With the flat top, as though standing on a socle made of stones laid densely and a chain of menhirs and boulders around an embankment.
All it testifies that Sak tribes even before building of cult constructions of Besshatyr had developed architectural and building skills for construction of monumental constructions quadrangular and round in the plan, a method of a laying from a stone, skills of processing of wood and building from a tree, ability to use and combine at building a tree, a cane, a stone.
31 Guarantees of Authenticity and/or Integrity of an Individual Object – Component:
The Besshatyr complex is original object of history, culture and architecture. The Besshatyr complex was a monument of Saks from Semirechye living in a valley of the river Ili. In an area where huge imperial barrows of Besshatyr are located, throughout the centuries Saks came here to worship, they brought numerous victims, made funeral feasts and various cult ceremonies, arranged commemoration. Places of such religious celebrations and ceremonies have been marked by a construction of grandiose fencings from menhirs and boulders.
Materials from excavation of Besshatyr barrows improve the representation of culture of Sak tribes of Semirechye.
Besshatyrsky burial ground of V-IV century BC is under state protection, and can be recorded into the list by criterion 3 as being, at least, the exclusive certificate of cultural tradition or a civilization disappeared or existing.
31 Comparison of the Object – Component of Silk Road with Other Similar Objects, Independently of their Belonging to Silk Road, and its Distinctive Features
Barrows and burial mounds of the nobility and ordinary public nomads of an epoch of the early Iron Age and the early Middle Ages can be seen in Kazakhstan everywhere – in steppes and semi-deserts, intermountain valleys, in mountains and foothills, in valleys of the rivers.
Especially there are lots of them in Zhetysu-Semirechye, in foothills of Dzhungar and Zailiyski Ala Tau, in mountains of Central Tien-Shan. This is a burial ground of Besshatyr on the right coast of the river Ili, in a narrow canyon between the river Ili and a mountain ridge of Zhelshalgyr.
Burial ground of Besshatyr of VI-IV centuries BC is one of monuments of Saks from Semirechye and it is well enough explored by archeologists.
Similar burial grounds can be met also in other areas of Zhetysu. Among them is the well-known Issyksky burial ground where the barrow of Issyk has been dug out by archeologists and the “Gold man” was found buried there. It is also a widely known Turgensky burial ground in foothills of Zailiysky Ala Tau, Kegensky in a valley of the Kegen river, Dzhetytobe in foothills of the Talassky ridge.
The necropolis of Besshatyr in its significance does not concede to such monuments of Sak epoch as Issyksky and Kegensky burial grounds. This archaeological monument is under state protection.
(Identification of general values of the total serial nomination which prove its inclusion to the List of World Heritage)
Silk Road– is a way of integration, exchange and dialog between East and West which was making a significant contribution to common prosperity of human civilization during almost two thousand years. Integrity of theSilk Roadmeans something more than the aggregate of its component parts.
Beginning its existence from the 2nd century B.C. and till the end of 15th century of A.D. this network of roads starting from Chan’an (modern Xian) and spreading from East Asia toMediterranean to West and South-West and down to Indian subcontinent, was contributing and creating conditions for intercontinental trade.
In its turnover there were cultural and material values of differentnations and countries. Chinese silk was one of the most valuable goods , but also there were many other goods distributed by these roads: precious metals and stones, ceramics, perfumery, incense and spices, goods made of cotton and wool, glass, wine, amber, carpets and thoroughbred horses. This trade, connecting various civilizations, existed during centuries and was supported by system of caravanserais, commercial centers, trading towns and fortresses extending for more than 10 thousand kilometers, which probably makes the most long cultural route in the history of humanity.
However,Silk Roadtransported not only goods.Silk Roadtransported Buddhism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity, Zoroastrism and Manichaeism. Scientific and technological achievements also spread by this route, for example such ones from China: paper, powder, magnetic compass and porcelain, whereas engineering achievements (particularly, bridge construction) and growing of cotton, cultivation of grape vine were spread from Central Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and West. The exchange of medical knowledge and medicine also was happening. The same road went diplomatic missions, establishing international contacts.
Criteria (ii): objects of Silk Road reflect the outstanding interchange of human values;
Criteria (iii): objects ofSilk Roadare the unique example of trade and distribution of cultural traditions at large distances;
Criteria (iv): objects ofSilk Roadare the outstanding example of rural, architectural and technological ensemble which was necessary for support of trade and exchange during almost two thousand of years;
Criteria (v): objects ofSilk Roadare the outstanding evidence of human interaction with the environment;
Criteria (vi): objects ofSilk Roadare directly and significantly connected with historical and vital traditions, beliefs and system of values.