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Ancient Termiz includes Qoratepa, Fayaztepa, Zurmala Mortar, Qirq-Qiz, Khakim at-Termiziy, Sultan-Saodat, Kokildor Khonaqo, Djarqurgan Minaret, Kampirtepa. Old Termiz is located in 5 km to the northwest from Termiz, on the right branch of Amudarya River. A total area is 500 hectares consists of four parts, a citadel - Qala, two shakhristans (city) and rabad - the suburb, divided by the fortifications. Capacity of the cultural layers from 2 till 19 m on the citadel. It has arisen in IV - III centuries B.C. The city settlement is formed by the fortress, probably known as Demetriya in III - II centuries B.C. In Kushan period, the large administrative and ideological center of the Northern Bactria was the city of Tarmit with the several Buddhist monasteries - Fayaztepa and Qoratepa. Special blossoming has reached at the IX - X centuries - beginning of XIII century, being the largest trade center-craft of the Northern Toharistan. Mongols destroyed the city in 1220. Partially grows roots in the XVI - XVII centuries. Archeological excavations discovered Buddhist monasteries, palace of Termiz shahs, mosque, buildings of metalworker and potters, walls, economic-inhabited complexes. Necropolis Sultan-Saodat, khonaqo of Kokildor, complex of Qirq-Qiz, the mausoleum Al-Khakim at-Termiziy, Zurmal Mortar, Djarqurgan Minaret, Oq-Ostona Bobo, Kampirtepa are located in the territory of the ancient Termiz.
Buddhist temple complex of Qoratepa erected in the epoch of Kushan to the northwest outskirts of Ancient Termiz in the I-IV centuries B.C. Characteristic features of Qoratepa concludes that majority of temple complexes were included both as overhead and cave constructions. The overhead part consists of open yard, by the perimeter of the located ayvan gallery. In the one part of the facade were situated the passageways, linked the overhead part with the cave. The overhead temple with big mortar has occupied the northern part of Qoratepa. Finds have indicated for the cultural contacts of Termit (Termiz) with other counties of the ancient world. Especially, it has been found the readable inscriptions like "khadevaka vihara", i.e. tsar of the temple and "vihara gulavhara".
The erection of Buddhistic constructions in Termiz and in other South regions of Uzbekistan has been occurred at the flourishing period of Kushan Empire, government of Kanishka and Khuvishka. The expansion of Buddhism was the reason of erection of the various types of Buddhist cultural constructions -underground and overhead, Fayaztepa is overhead temple - sangarama, where the central part formed the yard, surrounded by the gallery, decorated with valuable paintings. Small mortar was a part of the complex, located in the outsides of the temple in the wide yard, once surrounded by the walls on the small podium. The diameter of the mortar is 3 m. The cylindrical body is based on the slightly breasted profiled basing with the contours of attic base. The top-breasted forepart builds up from backed bricks. The connecting-link of the temple complex is the rectangular yard (33x20 m) surrounded from all sides of cult premises with entrance to the yard. Along the walls of the yard were erected ayvans and walls were covered by the paintings. Especially rich premise was erected in front of the mortar. Here was discovered the bottom part of the figure of Buddha. According to the excavation has been revealed the architectural shape of the whole complex, consists of the temple and mortar. The exact date of the monument gives the rich numismatic material - I - IV centuries A.D.
Buddhist monument of Zurmala - rises up to the northeast from the fortress walls of Kushan Termiz. Once here, in the suburb zone, were seemingly the whole complexes of Buddhist constructions, but at the Medieval centuries, this territory was occupied by the fields. Just the main construction - huge mortar, lacking in its facing transmitted the centuries. At present it only the unformed massif, however, excavations showed that the building had the rectangular pedestal, where was erected cylindrical shaped tower monolith with dome shaped coronation. All laying was erected from adobe bricks, pedestal was once faced with white flag stone, and main base of the mortar - backed bricks, dyed with bright-red color. The diameter of the mortar equal to 14,5 m. the total height reached once 16 m. it was crowned pole with "umbrellas of honor". The erection of Zurmala connected with Great Kushan, and its scale much bigger than Fayaztepa mortar. It shows about the outstanding value of this building in Buddhist construction in the territory of Central Asia.
KHAKIM AT-TERMIZIY COMPLEX
Architectural complex of Khakim at-Termiziy composed during many centuries in the southwest from the most ancient city citadel. The stately devotee termizian - sufiy of IX century Al-Khakim at-Termiziy buried here. The small mausoleum has been erected above burial of the sheikh. It represents a square by the form of central construction - chartak, with the dome based on four spacious arches and elementary cantilever-cellular angular pendentives. In the interior of the tomb of the wall and dome are covered with rich carved plaster. Under the dome, pass a wide zone of an inscription kufi. The dome is divided by large and small ornamental patterns. Adjacently with the mausoleum, from the northern side is located a small funeral mosque. From here through the open arch was visible the tomb of Khakim at-Termiziy. The mosque looks like three-dome gallery or as though ayvan, turned by three open arches in the small fenced courtyard (is nowadays overlapped), paved in a fur-tree a brick put on the edge. In the center of the western wall of the mosque is mihrab. Mihrab is reveted with the unbaked brick laid in pairs. The letters of Kufian script are laid out from the bricks. The rests of the carved piece preserved on the walls, with the little different character, than in the mausoleum. The panel designed with cramped stellar girih. Another small mausoleum is erected from the east part of the tomb in XII century. Monumental khanaka erected in the northwest part of ensemble at the beginning of the XV century (1405-1409). It is a square shape, has deep arches on the axes. The spacious dome erected by the typical termizian architecture. This building with simple and strong forms is spacious from the inside and monumentally from outside
Building of Qirq-Qiz means «Forty maidens»; a national rumor connects with legend widely widespread in Central Asia on the girls-amazons living in the strengthened castle. Qirq-Qiz is located in outside of the strengthening earlier medieval of Termez, on the country grounds, in district; that called Shahri Saman in the last century; in the name of which is not casually embodied connection with the dynasty of Samanids. The building has strictly central composition. It is a square form (54х54), cross wisely dismembered on axes by vaulted corridors, which lead to the central square courtyard (11,5х11,5) from which there was an access to the numerous premises. They settled down in two floors in four sectors of the building captured by the narrow vaulted lobbies. The total number of premises of Qirq-Qiz reached fifty - here were rectangular rooms, corridors, and extensive three tristylous hall - probably, a drawing room - mehmonhona (guess room). Corners of the building are flanked hollow round towers. Adobe brick has used as the material of construction. In interiors, Qirq-Qiz amazes a variety of the vaulted systems erected from adobe of brick. Decoration of interiors is not rich by details. The architectural rhythm mainly used in the decoration of window apertures and niches, issued in the form of various figured arched. Combination of old pre-Islamic traditions and new selections caused by inquiries of other epoch is characteristic for Qirq-Qiz. Isolation of the composition remind earlier feudal castles - keshki.
Sulton-Saodat - the large architectural ensemble, is located in territory, where has been developed after mongolian Termiz. Sulton-Saodat is a group of occurring at different time family tombs Termizian Seyidov and cult buildings, which represent original and complete ensemble. Its initial base is made with the southwest part. It includes two mausoleums, which are connected with the deep arch. Researches showed structures of the lump sum and are dated XI century. Interiors of both mausoleums square, but their external dimensions are a little bit different. Development of their main facades is identical: a socle, above it - three arch niches in U-shaped frames, with the arches based on three-quarter columns and a parapet above. The portal of the central arch uniting the mausoleums, towers above the top line of their parapets behind which were raised ledged skufi lancet domes of both tombs. The deep space under the arch served funeral as the mosque. Outside and in interiors in the constructions of ensemble dominated a warm, pink texture backed brick. All other facades have the smooth texture. The interior of the first mausoleum is issued more front with the dismembered arch niches. A brick executes all surfaces of walls. Decoration of the second mausoleum is easier, its walls smooth. Eight pendentives that deduced «in pine» it is similar to the first. In the initial architectural composition, the family tomb Termiz Seyid is represented as pair the mausoleums interconnected opened aside courtyard portal-vaulted ayvan. This composition has served as the typological scheme for the subsequent constructions of ensemble. First buildings appeared in second half of the XV century. In the final composition of Sulton-Saodat is perceived as ensemble of the buildings grouped on the perimeter of very long narrow corridor, with the main relic underlined by the harmonious portal and massive domes in depth.
Kokildor is a monumental construction of the XVI century. According to the its function, it was the mausoleum-khonaqo, with the original plan: widely open the niche of the portal has semi octahedron form; axial pass from it conducts into dahlid - a lobby, it is possible to get in the central room and in two lateral corridors, from here, which unites by two rooms. By form and construction of the main facade - disclosing of the monument «the developed composition» dominates over front and on a cross-section axis. Numerous niches and niche the rectangular and pentahedral plan are entered in the decoration of this facade, the portal arch and interiors. Vaulted systems are original in Kokildor. They represent the decorative arches, domes and semi dome on the combined grid of the pendentives executed from cast ganch. The monument was created as an independent building completed in an architectural ensemble and consequently so proportions of portal are harmonious in it and various development of plafond of rooms and niches.
The minaret represents vertical column shaped construction that has been laid out from backed brick. It is an octahedron in the basis. On the top part of each side are located inscriptions from which was discovered that minaret constructed in 1108-1109 A.D. (502 Muslim calendar) the master architect Ali Muhammad Sarh, under Amir Khuroson's order, subsequently become governor of Khuroson and the known historic figure Sulton Sanjar. Other parts of the facet are decorated by geometrical figure. In an average part of each facets are located semi circle with the shape of bay arch completions. From the level of top of the socle part of the octahedron begins the trunk of the minaret has been laid out in the form of 16 plaits semi circle of the outline, which then comes to the end by lancet small arcs. Above arches passes the wide zone of an inscription framed decorative corbels. From the top level of zone begins the next section from 16 plaits. In the decoration of the plaits was applied the typesetting mosaic techniques from horizontal and vertically set bricks.
The mausoleum is situated on the territory of large and ancient burial ground and built in honour of the Abu-Khu Khuryra considered as associate of Prophet Mohammed. The mausoleum has centric composition , square in plan and oriented to all World's parts. The cubiform construction is flanked by guldasta towers, and crowned by well-proportioned sphere conical dome. Octahedron with arches is decorating dome's ceiling. North-east, north-west and south-west walls of the interior have rather deep lancet bays with two twelvesided columns. The room with grave stone sagana is lightened by hole in sophit of the entrance arch. Façade are decorated by figured brickwork with wide vertical seams. Upper row of brickwork is sloped. Socle, the first ring and two rows of brickwork made from large bricks with 45-50 cm. and 6 cm. from the part. The plan's size from inside is 5,65x5,80m., outside is 9x8,7m.
The monument was suffered some changes in IV centuries. South-east wall was moved, the low parts of other facades were strengthened with a additional layout from large brick. Buttress turrets installed on the corners, except eastern part. Local master Usto Khudayberdy restored partly destroyed dome in XIX century. The building of the monument was restored in2002. The facing of the facade was replaced and the interior of the mausoleum was plastered again.
Kampirtepa is one of the unique ancient sites of the ancient settlement of Central Asia. It discovered during archeological reconnaissance in Оks valley (Amu Darya) in 1972. Originally, it has been established as a fortress, located at the crossing through Оks by the caravan way from Baktria to Sogd. Kampirtepa consists of strengthened and not strengthened parts. As a result of archeological researches is established, that Kampirtepa was known in the history in the antiquity Greek ferry (Pandaheyon, Pardagvi), mentioned Khafizi-Abru. Archeological excavations except for set monetary treasures revealed the monuments of four writings - Greek, Bactrian, Brahma and unknown letter. Among these, an outstanding value has opening the oldest Baktrian manuscripts on the papyrus, dated at the end of the I - beginning II centuries A.D., that makes them in general by the most ancient hand-written texts ever found in Central Asia. According to researches was revealed three historical periods of formation Kampirtepa:
Kampirtepa is a bright example of the development of culture, trade, development of town planning in antique and late antique periods of history of Central Asia.
Numerous monuments and their preserved remains testify that Termiz is the coeval with cities of Akhemenid Iran, the Ancient Greece and Rome. The antique name of the city is Demetreya. Earlier medieval and medieval age monuments until XIX century A.D. show dynamics of the historical development of Termiz during almost 3 millennia. Moreover, the most ancient monuments of Termiz are in the stage of studying, and discovered parts have preserved its authenticity. Considering these circumstances, ancient Termiz should be included in the unique objects of culture.
The given monument is the most unique in the territory of Central Asia. It includes the part of the perfect preserved architecture from the adobe. Except it, this monument was the central on the Great Silk Road in the expansion and development of Buddhism in China and other Eastern countries. Apparently, for the investigating and learning of Buddhism, Chinese messengers several times, monks Chji-Chjan or Chji-Loutstzan-chan, Gunn-Lin visited this monument.
The Epoch of Kushan marked by the developing of the town-planning, artistic and spiritual life in the region. Excavations of Fayaztepa showed that Kushan cities and monuments were centers of cultural values. We see the appearing and intensive development of many branches of artistic culture-architecture, painting, sculpture, ceroplastic, music and others on the example of Fayaztepa. The time of including the south part of Uzbekistan to Kushan Empire was the period of active interaction and mutual enrichment of local artistic culture of India, Iran and Greco-Roman world. The cities of Kushan Empire were large ideological centers. In the suburbs of Kushan Empire were Buddhist temples such as Fayaztepa, temples of Qoratepa and mortars in Ayrim and Dalverzin, worth to the local Bactrian gods. The monument of Fayaztepa came to us in some ruin conditions. At present day, all architectural remains were made full stroke of conservation.
From the historical point of view, Zurmala deserved the highest point. The mortar of Zurmala- the biggest mortar among the known mortars of Central Asia, dated to I -II centuries A.D. and from the spiritually point of view - unlimited. Buddhist Zurmala is preserved until our days in the original form, besides of the lacking top part. The repairing or reconstruction works have not been made on the monument.
KHAKIM AT-TERMIZIY COMPLEX
The complex of constructions at burial of Khakim at-Termiziy represents an interesting example of organic combination of the occurring at different times constructions created in view of already existing buildings, and carries a complete compact architectural organism. The ensemble has inherited the best traditions of architecture of Uzbekistan in the X - XII centuries. Restoration works carried out on the monument. Western facade of the complex was reconstructed, downturn around of all complex is made, are carried out improvements works.
Qirq-Qiz is the large feudal manor of palace type, belongs to a ruling dynasty, after closeness densely populated Termiz kuhendiz (citadel) and shakhristan, it was possible to have a rest among the shady gardens in the summer. Unfortunately, the epoch of the Middle Ages palace constructions were preserved in ruined condition in Uzbekistan. For example, Qirq-Qiz it is possible to present type of palace constructions, dynamics of their development, architecturally-art value.
The ensemble of Sulton-Saodat is an outstanding sample of type of the structure of the architectural ensemble illustrating the important stages of the development of human history. Diversification its architectural composition as though are dissolved due to unity of their compositional scheme, which represents in different variants in all constructions - from the X - XI centuries up to XVII century. The monument was restored. On the main portal facing with epigraph is partially restored. Similar works are executed on the angular columns. In constructions of later time the lost parts of a portal, part of the fallen domes are reported. Improving works are executed. In all other issues, the monument is preserved in the primeval form.
Typologically khonaqo of Kokildor is distinct from modern to it constructions of Bukhara architectural school, but approaches with some buildings of monumental architecture of the XVI century in Balkh. It is natural, Amudarya from the earliest times did not divided, but connected right-bank and left-bank areas of ancient Tokharistan and Termiz with its ferry and quay served as the direct intermediary not only political and trading, but also old historical and cultural relations on the Silk Road. The monument restored in 2002. The waterproofing is executed. The lost parts of walls of facades are restored. Plaster of an interior is restored and accomplishment is executed.
The minaret is the unique and exclusive certificate of cultural tradition which development is traced with X on XIX centuries A.D. Besides, the minaret on the architecturally-art advantages shows expression certain Termiz schools of architecture for the period of the beginning XI - XII centuries.
Centric composition belongs to special "brick " style which was popular at the X - XII centuries in Tedzhen and Murgab territory and Amurdarya river basin district. Arheological receaches are dating this monument to the end of the X century. This monument is the one of preserved monuments of that period.
Ancient site of ancient settlement Kampirtepa is one of the most uncommon sites of ancient settlement of Bactria. According to the excavation a big number of subjects of the material and art culture, rich collection of coins, and as monuments of four most ancient inscriptions are found. Among them, an outstanding value has opened the oldest Bactrian manuscripts. Because of researches, it was possible to reveal planned structure Bactrian cities and dynamics of its development. Finds with the Greek inscriptions testify to residing at this city of the Greek population.
Fayaztepa is not a single monument of Buddhist culture in Uzbekistan. The unique temple complex of Qoratepa locates in 1 km. to the southwest from it. Analogical monuments with the mortars have researched in Ayritam and Dalverzin, Gandahar - India.
The tower of Zurmala in the comparing of the mortars, discovered in Ayrimtam, Qoratepa, Fayaztepa and others, by its size, it is 10 times bigger than same age constructions. Seemingly, it had a special value in the compare with the analogical monuments, erected in Epoch of Great Kushan on the territory of Uzbekistan and contiguous countries.
KHAKIM AT-TERMIZIY COMPLEX
Analogue of the complex are Kusam ibn Abbas Mausoleum in Shokhi-Zinda in Samarkand, Pahlavon Makhmud Complex in Khiva and others.
Minimal conservation works have been made in Qirq-Qiz complex. The monument in a greater part is preserved, but only in ruined condition. The rests of caravanserai in Merv could serve as analogue of Qirq-Qiz. Prototypes of such structures it is possible to see on the rests of ancient locks in Khorezm, for example Guldursun, Qiz-Qala on Suton-Qala in Merv. Qirq-Qiz is one of the rare preserved monuments from the raw in territory of medieval Termiz.
Sulton-Saodat as the type ensemble buildings, concerns to earlier period. Subsequently in Samarkand and in other cities there are similar constructions, as Shakhi-Zinda, the mausoleum Guri-Amir, and with the domestic shape Khazrati-imam in Shakhrisyabz. The Architectural decor especially in brick facing can be compared with well-known Samanids Mausoleum in Bukhara, mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun. It is not excluded, that the Sulton-Saodat has formed the basis for development here medieval Termiz
Typological difference from similar constructions on territories of Uzbekistan and its relation with monuments in Balkh make this object outstanding, reflecting school of architecture of Tokharistan and Balkh.
This minaret similar in techniques of performance - palace of Termiz governors (XI - XII centuries), the mosque in the complex Khakim at-Termiziy (XI - XII centuries) mausoleum Oq-Ostona Bobo in Uzun district of Surkhandarya region, and also mausoleum Zul Kifl on the island of «Orol Payg'ambar» in Amudarya. The minaret was exposed to insignificant conservation works. As a whole on 95 % of minaret was preserved in the primeval shape.
The monument is similar to Sultan Saodat comlex (XI-XII c.) by its decoration and brickwork.
Kampirtepa is the unique city in all Central Asian regions. The port customs city has been constructed by the Alexander Great, and has identified with the most ancient city Alexandria Ocean. It has not enough analogues.