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Andijon is the biggest historical and cultural centre in Central Asia. It is one of the ancient cities located in the busiest crossroad of the Great Silk Road. Andijon had a significant role in economic and cultural relations of Bactria, Sogd, Shosh with China (Southern Turkestan). As the other countries of Central Asia, Andijon also consist of "Old" and "New" part of the city. Many of historical sites are located in the old part of the city. Since 30-40 years of the past millennia, these sites are researched. In particular, many materials on medieval building of the city were collected. Till the present citadel and site of ancient settlement of the city were defined and carried out archaeological researches. Total area of the citadel is 9 hectares, site of ancient settlement is located in the North of the citadel and its territory is 100 hectares. In the place of the medieval citadel is located "Ark ichi" ("Inner side" of the citadel) quarter.According to the Chinese manuscripts more than 70 large and small cities were in Ferghana Valley in the I-II centuries B.C. Location of the cities like Ershi (Mingtepa), Yuchen (outskirts of Uzgan), and later Khumin (Quva) near Andijon is acknowledged by the archaeologists. Undoubtedly, that one of the mentioned city in the Chinese chronicles is Andijon. Further medieval cultural layers were marked in Chordona, Qoshtepa, Ark ichi, Shakhriston. According to the sources, since X century, the city was mentioned as "Andukon" for the first time. In the first quarter of the XIII century Andijon was the capital of the Ferghana. Later, according to the Bobur's written sources Ark of Andijon was considered by its size in the third position after Samarkand and Kesh. Since that period Andijon had own mint.
Andijon has been developing for 25 centuries in one certain place. All these were proved by archeological findings. The quarter "Ark ichi" and is monuments (mosques and Ethnographic craft exhibitions) have been preserved its initial condition. 3-5 meters deep of the present densely populated of area of the old city has been revealed cultural layers. Old part of Andijon and its historical monuments remind specific museum under the open sky. More than 100 artisans work in the "Khunarmandchilik" (handicraft) centre. In this ethnographic territory more than 30 craftsmen are preserved their craft.
Historical part of Andijon could be compared with cities and settlement of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Kashgar, Yorkent, Yangisar in China; Oratepa in Tajikistan and Ozgan in Kyrgizstan. All these cities have preserved cultural ethnographic craft zones.