The Secretariat of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Heritage Centre do not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information or documentation provided by the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to the Secretariat of UNESCO or to the World Heritage Centre.
The publication of any such advice, opinion, statement or other information documentation on the World Heritage Centre’s website and/or on working documents also does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNESCO or of the World Heritage Centre concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.
Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party
Sanatorium Zonnestraal ('Sunray' Sanatorium) was founded as an aftercare colony to prepare TB patients for their return to society. The sanatorium complex comprises a main building, two pavilions, workshops and servants' quarters. The complex was designed by the architect Jan Duiker between 1926 and 1931. It was intended to last only as long as necessary to eliminate tuberculosis, an estimated 30 years. This was also reflected in the choice of building materials.
The sanatorium was in operation from 1928 to 1950. In 1957 it was converted into a general hospital, and since then has had a number of annexes added to it.
The design's main focus was on functionality. The idea was to create a building that would give patients plenty of fresh air and light.
With only limited resources, Jan Duiker designed an outstanding complex. Zonnestraal has been recognised as one of the icons of the functionalist architectural movement 'Nieuwe Bouwen'. Zonnestraal is included in DOCOMOMO's list of the top 100 architectural monuments of the 20th century.
Criterion i: Zonnestraal was intended as a temporary facility, and so was built along minimalist lines. With only limited means at his disposal, the architect designed a building that has international iconic status.
Criterion ii: Zonnestraal was one of the first initiatives of the Dutch Diamond Workers' Union and is a monument to social and cultural innovation.
Criterion iv: Zonnestraal transcends the ideological and aesthetic character of the 'Nieuwe Bouwen' school of architecture. The complex combines features testifying to Dutch social and political history, and to the technology and medical science of its day.
A start was made on the restoration of the complex in 1995. The aim is to return to Duiker's original design. The restoration is being carried out in line with World Heritage criteria and where possible, use is made of original materials.
Zonnestraal inspired the construction of various other sanatoria, including the Paimio sanatorium in Finland and the Roc des Fiz sanatorium in France. The temporary intentions prompting the design and the minimalist use of building materials make Zonnestraal highly unusual.