The Secretariat of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Heritage Centre do not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information or documentation provided by the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to the Secretariat of UNESCO or to the World Heritage Centre.
The publication of any such advice, opinion, statement or other information documentation on the World Heritage Centre’s website and/or on working documents also does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNESCO or of the World Heritage Centre concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.
Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party
The fortifications which are the subject of this proposal are located in regions of Spain which border neighbouring countries, i.e. Portugal and France.
The bulwarked border fortifications were planned and built between the end of the 16th century or start of the 17th century and the end of the 18th century. They were constructed as a result of the military conflicts which in some cases, such as that of Portugal, led to the secession of the kingdom. They are characterised by the fact that they include elements which respond to the new defensive needs imposed by the use of artillery, thereby forming exceptional examples of the different conceptual types of defensive constructions: fortified civil cities in the case of Pamplona (Navarra); Jaca (Aragon); Ciudad Rodrigo in Salamanca (Castilla- León); “ForÇa Vella” and Figueras, in Girona (Catalonia); military fortresses in the case of Fuerte de la Concepción en Aldea del Obispo and the castle built on the Christian-Muslim border on the Tajo river, now contained within the Monfragüe Nature Reserve of Extremadura, and the re-use and updating of medieval defence systems which already existed within the territory, as in the case of San Felices de los Gallegos.