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Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae

Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae

This famous temple to the god of healing and the sun was built towards the middle of the 5th century B.C. in the lonely heights of the Arcadian mountains. The temple, which has the oldest Corinthian capital yet found, combines the Archaic style and the serenity of the Doric style with some daring architectural features.

Temple d'Apollon Épikourios à Bassae

Ce célèbre temple du dieu solaire et guérisseur fut construit vers le milieu du Ve siècle av. J.-C. dans la solitude des montagnes arcadiennes. Le mélange de l'archaïsme et de la sérénité du style dorique avec certaines audaces architecturales est caractéristique de cet édifice où se trouve le plus ancien chapiteau corinthien conservé.

معبد أبولون إبيكورويوس في موقع باساي

شُيِّد هذا المعبد الشهير لإله الشمس الشافي في منتصف القرن الخامس قبل الميلاد في عزلة الجبال والتلال. ويشكّل مزيج تقليد القديم وصفاء الفن الدوريّ ببعض غرائبه الهندسية ميزةَ هذا البناء حيث يوجد أقدم تاج عمود كورنثي تمّ الحفاظ عليه.

source: UNESCO/ERI

巴赛的阿波罗•伊壁鸠鲁神庙

这座著名的神庙是为康复之神和太阳神而建的,修于公元前5世纪中期,坐落在荒无人烟的阿卡迪亚群山之间。神庙有人类迄今为止发现的最古老的科林斯式柱头,建筑风格大胆,结合了早期希腊风格和明朗的陶立克(Doric)风格。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Храм Аполлона Эпикурейского в Бассах

Этот известный храм бога солнца и здоровья был построен к середине V в. до н.э. в пустынных горах Аркадии. Храм, в котором были обнаружены старейшие коринфские капители, сочетает архаику и чистоту дорического стиля со смелыми архитектурными новациями.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Templo de Apolo Epicuro en Bassae

Este célebre templo dedicado al dios del sol y la medicina fue construido a mediados del siglo V en una altura solitaria de las montañas de Arcadia. La mezcla del estilo arcaico con la serenidad del estilo dórico y algunas audacias arquitectónicas son las características más notables de este monumento que posee, además, el capitel corintio más antiguo de los descubiertos hasta la fecha.

source: UNESCO/ERI

バッサイのアポロ・エピクリオス神殿 

source: NFUAJ

Tempel van Apollo Epicurius in Bassae

Deze beroemde tempel van de god van de geneeskunde en de zon werd tegen het midden van de 5e eeuw voor Christus gebouwd in de eenzame hoogten van het Arcadisch gebergte. De tempel combineert de archaïsche stijl (gekenmerkt door onder meer een langwerpig oppervlak,een uitzonderlijke verhouding van vijftien kolommen aan de lange zijde en zes aan de voorgevel, en een noord-zuid plaatsing) met enkele gedurfde architecturale elementen (het gebruik van Ionische en Corinthische zuilen voor een Dorisch gebouw, de variatie in materialen en het originele ontwerp van de cella en het adyton). Het heiligdom behoort tot de eerste generatie post-Parthenon gebouwen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae © UNESCO
Long Description

Isolated as it is in a conserved environment, the Temple of Bassae is an outstanding example of a Hellenic votive sanctuary in a rural setting. It represents a unique artistic achievement, remarkable for its archaic features (elongated surface, an exceptional proportion of 15 columns on the longer side and 6 columns on the facade, and a north-south exposure), and for its daring innovations (the use of Ionic and Corinthian orders for a Doric edifice, the variety of materials used, and the originality of the layout of the cella and the adyton).

The Temple was dedicated by the inhabitants of Philagia to Apollo Epicurius, the god-healer who had come to their aid when they were beset by the plague. Its ruins rise majestically to 1,130 m high in the mountainous region of Arcadia in the heart of the Peloponnese, near Andritsaina. Built in the second half of the 5th century BC (c. 420-410 BC?), it belongs to the first generation of post-Parthenonian edifices. Pausanias admired its beauty and harmony and, moreover, attributed it to the architect Ictinos, although contemporary archaeologists have been unable to provide confirmation.

With its elongated dimensions (39.87 m by 16.13 m), the peripteral structure is built mainly in grey limestone of local origin. The outer colonnade of the hexastyle temple respects an extremely strict Doric order (the metopes are not sculptured). Inside, however, fine-quality sculpturing blends with a more sophisticated architectural style. The front of the pronaos and the opisthodomos, with two in antis columns, restate the Doric order. In the cella, however, a series of embedded Ionic columns stand against low support walls. On the southern side, where an adyton is located, the last two Ionic columns standing in the cella at the far end of the oblique walls flank one Corinthian column which stands alone in the centre of the temple. The decoration is notable, particularly by virtue of the different materials used: the walls and the bases and tambours of the columns are limestone, and the Ionic capitals and the Corinthian capital are in Doliana marble, as are the sculptured metopes of the exterior frieze of the cella, the plates of the Ionic frieze which runs along the inside of the sanctuary, the guttae, the roof supports and the roofing tiles.

The capital of the central column of the Temple of Bassae is the most ancient conserved Corinthian capital, and as such the temple may be considered a model for all 'Corinthian' monuments of Greek, Roman and subsequent civilizations.

Being located away from the city, the temple long remained undiscovered. A French architect came upon it accidentally in 1765 and brought it to the attention of the academic world. The first archaeological investigation in 1812 was profitable but at the same time prejudicial for the integrity of the site. The discovery of the Ionic frieze's 22 sculptured plates ultimately divested the site of these remarkable sculptures, which were acquired in 1814 by order of the future King George IV of England and transferred to the British Museum along with the Corinthian capital. Deprived of decorations of exceptional quality (a Centauromachy and an Amazonomachy), the Temple of Bassae was carefully restored in 1902, but in 1965 the critical state of the monument called for renewed renovation.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC