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Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat

Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat

The remote and mountainous landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat bears testimony to the traditional culture of the Hawrami people, an agropastoral Kurdish tribe that has inhabited the region since about 3000 BCE. The property, at the heart of the Zagros Mountains in the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermanshah along the western border of Iran, encompasses two components: the Central-Eastern Valley (Zhaverud and Takht, in Kurdistan Province); and the Western Valley (Lahun, in Kermanshah Province). The mode of human habitation in these two valleys has been adapted over millennia to the rough mountainous environment. Tiered steep-slope planning and architecture, gardening on dry-stone terraces, livestock breeding, and seasonal vertical migration are among the distinctive features of the local culture and life of the semi-nomadic Hawrami people who dwell in lowlands and highlands during different seasons of each year. Their uninterrupted presence in the landscape, which is also characterized by exceptional biodiversity and endemism, is evidenced by stone tools, caves and rock shelters, mounds, remnants of permanent and temporary settlement sites, and workshops, cemeteries, roads, villages, castles, and more. The 12 villages included in the property illustrate the Hawrami people’s evolving responses to the scarcity of productive land in their mountainous environment through the millennia. 

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paysage culturel de Hawraman/Uramanat

Le paysage isolé et montagneux de Hawraman/Uramanat témoigne de la culture traditionnelle de la population hawrami, une tribu agropastorale kurde vivant dans cette région depuis 3000 AEC. Le bien, situé au cœur des monts Zagros dans les provinces du Kurdistan et de Kermanshah le long de la frontière occidentale de l’Iran, est composé de deux éléments : la vallée centrale et orientale (Zhaverud et Takht, dans la province du Kurdistan) et la vallée occidentale (Lahun, dans la province de Kermanshah). Le modèle d’habitat humain dans ces deux vallées a été adapté à un rude environnement montagneux au fil des millénaires. L’aménagement et l’architecture étagés des pentes abruptes, l’horticulture sur des terrasses en pierre sèche, l’élevage et la migration verticale saisonnière comptent parmi les caractéristiques distinctives de la vie et de la culture locales des Hawrami, qui vivent dans les vallées et les hautes terres au cours des différentes saisons chaque année. Leur présence ininterrompue au sein du paysage, qui est également caractérisé par une biodiversité et un endémisme exceptionnel, s’exprime dans les outils de pierre, grottes et abris rocheux, tertres, vestiges de sites d’habitats permanents et temporaires, ainsi que les ateliers, les sites funéraires, les chemins, les villages, les châteaux, etc. Les 12 villages inclus dans le bien illustrent l’évolution des réponses du peuple hawrami à la rareté des terres productives dans leur environnement montagneux au cours des millénaires. 

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

المشهد الثقافي في هورامان/أورامنات

تقف الجبال النائية لهورامان/أورامنات شاهدة على الثقافة التقليدية لسكان هورامان الذين يشكِّلون قبيلة كردية تعتمد على الزراعة والرعي، وقد استوطنت في هذه المنطقة منذ الألف الثالث قبل الميلاد تقريباً. ويوجد هذا الموقع في قلب جبال زاغروس في محافظتَي كردستان وكرمانشاه بمحاذاة الحدود الغربية لإيران، وهو يضمُّ عنصرين: الوادي الأوسط والشرقي (زهافرود وتخت في محافظة كردستان)، والوادي الغربي (لاهون في محافظة كرمانشاه). وقد عدَّل البشر عبر آلاف السنين، مساكنهم في هذين الواديين لكي تتلاءم مع البيئة الجبلية القاسية؛ وتتسم حياة وثقافة سكان هورامان أشباه الرُّحَّل بخصائص مميزة مثل تدريج المنحدرات الحادة والزراعة في مصاطب حجرية وتربية المواشي والارتحال الرأسي الموسمي، إذ ينتقل سكان هذا الموقع للعيش في الوديان والمرتفعات على مدار العام، تبعاً لتغيُّر الفصول. ويدلُّ وجود الأدوات الحجرية والكهوف والمآوي الصخرية والتلال، وبقايا أماكن المستوطنات الدائمة والمؤقتة، والورشات والمقابر والطرقات والقرى والقلاع وغيرها، على وجودهم المستمر في هذا الموقع، الذي يتميَّز أيضاً بتنوعه البيولوجي والتوطن الاستثنائيين. وتشهد القرى الاثنا عشر الموجودة في الموقع على تطور استجابة شعب هورامان لندرة الأراضي الخصبة في بيئتهم الجبلية عبر آلاف السنين.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

豪拉曼/乌拉玛纳特文化景观

处在偏远山区的豪拉曼/乌拉玛纳特景观展现了豪拉曼人的传统文化,这个库尔德农牧部落自公元前3000年以来一直居住在这里。该遗产地位于伊朗西部边陲库尔德斯坦省和克尔曼沙赫省的扎格罗斯山脉腹地,由两部分组成:库尔德斯坦省的山谷中东部(扎韦鲁德和塔赫特)和克尔曼沙赫省的山谷西部 (拉洪)。这里的居民几千年来生活在恶劣的山地环境中,居住方式逐渐与之相适应。半游牧的豪拉曼人随着季节变化在高低和低地之间迁移,梯级陡坡上的规划和建筑、干石梯田上的种植、牲畜养殖和季节性垂直迁徙是当地文化和生活的显著特征。石器、洞穴与岩居、土丘、永久和临时定居点的遗迹、作坊、墓地、古道、村庄、堡垒等等证明了他们从未间断地生活在这片极具生物多样性和地域特性的地区。遗产地中包括的12个村庄体现了豪拉曼人数千年来因应山区生产用地稀缺而采取的措施。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Культурный ландшафт Хавраман / Ураманат

Отдаленный и горный ландшафт Хавраман / Ураманат свидетельствует о традиционной культуре народа хаврами, агроскотоводческого курдского племени, населявшего регион примерно с 3000 г. до н.э. Этот объект, расположенный в самом сердце гор Загрос в провинциях Курдистан и Керманшах вдоль западной границы Ирана, включает два компонента: Центрально-Восточную долину (Жаверуд и Тахт в провинции Курдистан) и Западную долину (Лахун в провинции Керманшах). Образ жизни жителей этих двух долин был адаптирован на протяжении тысячелетий к суровой горной среде. К отличительным особенностям местной культуры и жизни полукочевого народа хаврами, проживающего в низменностях и горных районах в различные сезоны года, относятся многоуровневая планировка и архитектура на крутых склонах, садоводство на террасах из сухого камня, животноводство и сезонная вертикальная миграция. О непрерывном присутствии этого народа на территории ландшафта, который также характеризуется исключительным биоразнообразием и эндемизмом, свидетельствуют каменные орудия, пещеры и скальные укрытия, курганы, остатки постоянных и временных поселений, а также мастерские, кладбища, дороги, деревни, замки, и др. Двенадцать деревень, включенных в состав объекта, иллюстрируют эволюцию ответных мер народа хаврами на нехватку плодородных земель в горной среде на протяжении тысячелетий.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paisaje cultural de Hawraman/Uramanat

El paisaje remoto y montañoso de Hawraman/Uramanat es testimonio de la cultura tradicional del pueblo avromaní, una tribu kurda agropastoril que ha habitado la región desde aproximadamente el año 3000 a.C. El sitio, ubicado en el corazón de los Montes Zagros, en las provincias de Kurdistán y Kermanshah, a lo largo de la frontera occidental de Irán, incluye dos componentes: el valle centro-oriental (Zhaverud y Takht, en la provincia de Kurdistán); y el valle occidental (Lahun, en la provincia de Kermanshah). El modo de habitación humana en ambos valles se ha adaptado a lo largo de milenios al riguroso entorno montañoso. La planificación y la arquitectura en pendiente, el cultivo en terrazas de piedra seca, la cría de ganado y la migración vertical estacional son algunos de los rasgos distintivos de la cultura local y la vida del pueblo seminómada avromaní, que habita en las tierras bajas y altas durante las diferentes estaciones del año. Su presencia ininterrumpida en el paisaje, que también se caracteriza por una biodiversidad y un endemismo excepcionales, queda patente en las herramientas de piedra, las cuevas y los refugios rocosos, los túmulos, los restos de asentamientos permanentes y temporales, y los talleres, cementerios, carreteras, aldeas y castillos, entre otros. Los doce pueblos incluidos en el sitio evidencian la evolución de las respuestas del pueblo avromaní a la escasez de tierras productivas en su entorno montañoso a lo largo de milenios.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

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Hawraman/Uramanat Takht Village in Kurdistan © Hamid Binaei Faa
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat is located at the heart of the Zagros Mountains in the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermanshah along the western border of Iran. It is comprised of two component parts: the Central-Eastern Valley (Zhaverud and Takht, in Kurdistan Province); and the Western Valley (Lahun, in Kermanshah Province). The mode of human habitation in these areas has been adapted over millennia to the rough mountainous environment.

Archaeological findings dating back about 40,000 years, caves and rock shelters, ancient paths and ways along the valleys, motifs and inscriptions, cemeteries, mounds, castles, settlements, and other historical evidence attest to the continuity of life in the Hawraman/Uramanat region from the Paleolithic to the present time and to the endurance of the semi-nomadic lifestyle and agropastoral practices of the area’s inhabitants.

The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat is an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition of the semi-nomadic agropastoral way of life of the Hawrami people, a Kurdish tribe that has resided in the Zagros Mountains for millennia. This outstanding cultural tradition is manifested in the ancestral practices of transhumance, the mode of seasonal living in Havars, steep-slope terraced agriculture, soil and water management, traditional knowledge for planning and constructing steeply terraced villages, and a rich diversity of intangible heritage, all reflecting a harmonious co-existence with nature.

Criterion (iii): The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/ Uramanat bears exceptional testimony to the evolution over millennia of the traditional semi-nomadic agropastoral way of life of the Hawrami people. This cultural tradition is expressed in tangible and intangible elements of the landscape that have persisted up to the present day and continue to be the foundation of the local socio-economic system, including steep-slope terraced villages and gardens, transhumance routes, seasonal dwellings, and the traditional knowledge and practices associated with them. The property provides outstanding living testimony to various traditions that bear witness to a well-organized social, rural, semi-nomadic realm.

Criterion (v): The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat constitutes an outstanding example of human interaction with, and adaptation to, the surrounding environment. In the high Zagros Mountains, a challenging setting where there is little fertile soil, the Hawrami people, through a skillful application of agricultural technology and an enlightened ecological world view, have developed an extraordinary semi-nomadic agropastoral way of life. They have successfully created an efficient, harmonious, and sustainable socio-economic system.

Integrity

The serial property includes all the attributes required to convey its Outstanding Universal Value. Its component parts exemplify the complexity of the cultural, residential, architectural, environmental, and agropastoral aspects that are evidence of the property’s centuries-old traditions. The morphology and architectural fabric of the thirteen villages – which are among the essential attributes of the property – are mostly intact. The historical environment and the natural landscape remain relatively well-preserved, in large part because of the existence of a rural population engaged in farming and animal husbandry activities that have optimal interaction with the challenging environment.

Modern infrastructure, amenities, and building materials in some cases have a negative effect on the historic character of the villages. However, their overall visual and functional impacts are not excessive. The deterioration process is controlled, and in some instances has been reversed. The overall intent is to preserve to the greatest extent possible the dynamic historic functions and vitality of the villages and the cultural landscape.

Authenticity

The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat retains a high degree of authenticity in terms of materials, forms and designs, uses and functions, locations and setting, and spirit and feeling, as well as traditions, customs, and lifestyle. A significant body of resources provides documentary and visual evidence of the importance of Hawraman/Uramanat – and of its culture and traditions more generally – in this region from ancient times.

The authenticity of the morphology and layout of the built fabric in the thirteen villages of the property is preserved. The characteristic organization of the villages and the public space features, such as public rooftops, continue to be dominant.

Most historic buildings have kept their traditional form and design, and these types of forms and designs are usually followed in the infrequent occasions when new houses are constructed. Most buildings retain authentic materials, including in traditional interiors, although in some cases repairs or extensions have been made using modern materials such as concrete blocks, metal doors and windows, and aluminum sheets for roofing.

Traditional dry-stone terracing and water management practices are retained and practiced, as well as seasonal migration to Havars, livestock breeding, and traditional agriculture. The local economy continues to produce an important supply of fresh agricultural produce for Iranian markets. This factor, coupled with sensitive and sustainable tourism management, will play a key role in the long-term conservation of the property.

Protection and management requirements

The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat is registered in the National Monuments List of Iran. Several national acts and bylaws, as well as strategies, support the long-term conservation of the property.

The Cultural Landscape of Hawraman/Uramanat (CLH/U) Base, under the Ministry of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Iran, is tasked with providing support, expertise, and funding for the research and conservation of the property. The Base manages the area in collaboration with the local communities, provides advice and consent on the major developments, regulates and controls permits for buildings and alterations, and provides financial support for conservation. Decision-making is facilitated by a cross-sectoral steering committee composed of local, regional, and national participants and a technical committee established within the CLH/U Base. All local management actions and programmes in the villages are carried out through village councils and village council heads (Dehyar). The Integrated Management and Conservation Plan of the CLH/U Base is a primary tool for the management and conservation of the property.

Activities (1)