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Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom

Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom

The site includes archaeological remains of three cities and 40 tombs: Wunu Mountain City, Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City, 14 tombs are imperial, 26 of nobles. All belong to the Koguryo culture, named after the dynasty that ruled over parts of northern China and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula from 277 BC to AD 668. Wunu Mountain City is only partly excavated. Guonei City, within the modern city of Ji’an, played the role of a ‘supporting capital’ after the main Koguryo capital moved to Pyongyang. Wandu Mountain City, one of the capitals of the Koguryo Kingdom, contains many vestiges including a large palace and 37 tombs. Some of the tombs show great ingenuity in their elaborate ceilings, designed to roof wide spaces without columns and carry the heavy load of a stone or earth tumulus (mound), which was placed above them.

Capitales et tombes de l’ancien royaume de Koguryo

Ce site comprend les vestiges archéologiques de 3 villes et 40 tombeaux : la ville de montagne de Wunu, la ville de Guonei et la ville de montagne de Wandu, 14 tombeaux impériaux et 26 tombeaux de nobles. Tous appartiennent à la culture koguryo qui doit son nom à la dynastie qui régna sur une partie de la Chine septentrionale et sur la moitié septentrionale de la péninsule coréenne entre 277 av. J.-C. et 668 apr. J.-C. La ville de montagne de Wunu n’a été que partiellement dégagée par les fouilles. La ville de Guonei, située sur le territoire de la ville moderne de Ji-an, joua le rôle de capitale secondaire après le transfert de la capitale principale de Koguryo à Pyongyang. La ville de montagne de Wandu, l’une des capitales du royaume de Koguryo, contient de nombreux vestiges dont un vaste palais et 37 tombeaux. Certains tombeaux renferment des plafonds à l’architecture savante, conçus pour coiffer de vastes espaces sans colonnes et supporter la lourde dalle de pierre ou le tertre qui les surmontait.

عواصم مملكة كوغوريو القديمة وقبورها

يتضمّن هذا الموقع آثار 3 مدن و40 مقبرة، وهي مدينة وونو الجبلية، مدينة غووناي ومدينة واندو الجبلية، و14 قبراً إمبراطورياً و26 مقبرة نبلاء. وينتمي جميعها إلى ثقافة كوغوريو التي يُنسب اسمها إلى السلالة التي حكمت جزءاً من الصين الشماليّة والنصف الشمالي لشبه الجزيرة الكوريّة بين عامي 277 ق.م و668 ب.م. ولم تكشف أعمال التنقيب سوى عن جزء من مدينة وونو الجبلية. أمّا مدينة غووناي الواقعة على أرض مدينة جيان الحديثة، فأدّت دور العاصمة الثانوية بعد نقل العاصمة الأساسيّة من كوغوريو إلى بيونغ يانغ. ومدينة واندو الجبلية وهي إحدى عواصم مملكة كوغوريو تتضمن آثاراً عديدةً ومنها قصر شاسع و37 مقبرة. لبعض المقابر سقف ذات هندسة مبتكرة ولقد صُممت لتغطي المساحات الشاسعة الخالية من الأعمدة ولسند الأرض الصخريّة أو الجثوة التي تعلوها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

高句丽王城、王陵及贵族墓葬

此遗址包括3座王城和40座墓葬的考古遗迹:五女山城、国内城、丸都山城,14座王陵及26座贵族墓葬。这些都属于高句丽文化,从公元前37年到公元668年,高句丽王朝一直统治中国北部地区和朝鲜半岛的北部,这里的文化因此而得名。五女山城是唯一部分挖掘的王城。国内城位于今天的集安市内,在高句丽迁都平壤之后,与其他王城相互依附共为都城。丸都山城是高句丽王朝的都城之一,城内有许多遗迹,其中包括一座雄伟的宫殿和37座墓葬。一些墓葬的顶部设计精巧,无需支柱就可支撑宽敞的墓室,还能承载置于其上的石冢或土冢。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Столичные города и гробницы древнего царства Когурё

В объект наследия включены руины трех древних горных городов (Уну, Гуонэй и Ваньду) и 40 гробниц императоров и знати. Все эти памятники относятся к культуре Когурё, названной так по имени династии, правившей на территории части северного Китая и северной половины Корейского полуострова с 37 г. до н.э до 668 г. н.э.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Capitales y tumbas del antiguo reino Koguryo

Este sitio comprende los vestigios arqueológicos de tres ciudades –Monte Wunu, Guonei y Monte Wandu– y de 40 tumbas, en las que fueron enterrados 14 soberanos y 26 nobles. Todos estos vestigios pertenecen a la cultura koguryo, que recibe su nombre de la dinastí­a que reinó desde 277 a.C. hasta 668 d.C. en una parte del norte de China y en la mitad septentrional de la Pení­nsula de Corea. Las excavaciones de la ciudad del Monte Wunu sólo se han efectuado en parte. La ciudad de Guonei, cuyos restos se hallan en el perí­metro de la moderna ciudad de Ji“™an, desempeñó la función de capital secundaria, después de que los Koguryo desplazasen su capital principal a Pyongyang. Otra de las capitales del reino de los Koguryo, la ciudad del Monte Wandu, posee numerosos vestigios, entre los que figuran un vasto palacio y 37 tumbas. Algunos de estos mausoleos poseen techumbres muy perfeccionadas que se concibieron para cubrir espacios amplios sin necesidad de recurrir a columnas, y también para soportar el enorme peso de la piedra o del montí­culo de tierra (túmulo) que se poní­an encima.

source: UNESCO/ERI

古代高句麗王国の首都と古墳群
中国東北部から朝鮮半島北半部にかけて、紀元前1世紀後半から紀元後668年まで栄えた高句麗王国時代の遺跡群。3都市に40の古墳群があり、五女山城・国内城・丸都山城のほか、14の王陵と26の貴族墓からなる。近代都市・集安に位置する国内城は、高句麗の首都が平壌に移った後も、重要な都市としてあり続けた。また、高句麗王国の首都の一つだった丸都山城の内外には、広大な宮殿や37の墳墓などさまざまな遺跡が残る。墳墓には、天井部分を広くするため、柱を使わずに重量のある石を載せた精巧な天井もある。五女山城は、まだ一部しか発掘が行われていない。

source: NFUAJ

Hoofdsteden en tombes van het oude Koguryo koninkrijk

Dit gebied omvat de archeologische overblijfselen van drie steden – Wunushan, Guonei en Wandushan – en 40 tombes, waarvan 14 keizerlijke graven en 26 graven van edelen. Ze behoren allemaal tot de Koguryo cultuur, genoemd naar de dynastie die heerste over delen van Noord-China en het noordelijk deel van de Koreaanse schiereilanden van 277 voor Christus tot 668 na Christus. Wunushan is slechts gedeeltelijk opgegraven. Guonei – gelegen in de moderne stad Ji'an – was een soort reservehoofdstad, nadat de hoofdstad Koguryo verhuisde naar Pyongyang. Wandushan was een van de hoofdsteden van het Koguryo koninkrijk, hiervan resteren vele vestingwerken, inclusief een groot paleis en 37 graven.

Source: unesco.nl

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Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located in northeast China, the Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom dating from the 1st century BCE to the 7th century CE comprise archaeological remains of three cities and 40 tombs: Wunu Mountain City in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province; Guonei City, Wandu Mountain City, and the 40 tombs in Ji’an municipality, Jilin Province.

The Koguryo kingdom was a regional power and ethnic group from the year 37BCE until the kingdom moved its capital to Pyonyang in 427CE.Wunu Mountain City, Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City served as capitals of Koguryo during the early and middle period of the Kingdom. Wunu Mountain City was built in 37BCE as the first capital of the Koguryo regime. Surrounded by a defensive wall with three gates which was partly built in stone and in other places exploited the cliff face, the city included a palace, military camp, watch tower, houses and warehouses.  Guonei City, now surrounded by the city of Ji’an, was built on the plain with a stone-built defensive wall and had separate palace and residential zones. Wandu Mountain City, the only Koguryo mountain city capital whose general layout was planned with the large palace as its core, created a mountain city that perfectly combined the Koguryo culture with the natural environment. Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City were the economic, political and cultural centers of the Koguryo for hundreds of years. Guonei City was destroyed in the year 197 CE when the Koguryo were defeated by another power. Wandu Mountain City was built in 209 CE. Both cities were damaged in wars and rebuilt several times, serving alternately as the capital. Guonei City played the role of a supporting capital after the main Koguryo capital moved to Pyongyang; it is one of the few plains city sites with stone city walls still standing.

The tombs of kings and nobles of the ancient Koguryo Kingdom are distributed in the Donggou Ancient Tombs Area of Wandu Mountain City. The 12 imperial tombs take a stepped pyramid form constructed of stone. The burial chambers within were roofed with clay tiles. The tombs of the nobles have stone chambers covered with earth mounds and are decorated with wall paintings, depicting scenes of daily life, sports, hunting, nature, gods, fairies, and dragons. The stele of King Haotaiwang dating from 414CE, tells the story of the founding of the Koguryo kingdom.

The capital cities and tombs are exceptional testimony to the vanished Koguryo civilisation. The layout and construction of the capital cities influenced the city planning and building of later cultures. The tomb paintings represent a rare artistic expression in medieval North-east Asia and together with the stele and inscriptions show the impact of Chinese culture on the Koguryo.

Criterion (i): The tombs represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius in their wall paintings and structures.

Criterion (ii): The Capital Cities of the Koguryo Kingdom are an early example of mountain cities, later imitated by neighbouring cultures. The tombs, particularly the important stele and a long inscription in one of the tombs, show the impact of Chinese culture on the Koguryo (who did not develop their own writing). The paintings in the tombs, while showing artistic skills and specific style, are also an example for strong impact from other cultures.

Criterion (iii): The Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom represent exceptional testimony to the vanished Koguryo civilization.

Criterion (iv): The system of capital cities represented by Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City also influenced the construction of later capitals built by the Koguryo regime; the Koguryo tombs provide outstanding examples of the evolution of piled-stone and earthen tomb construction.

Criterion (v): The capital cities of the Koguryo Kingdom represent a perfect blending of human creation and nature whether with the rocks or with forests and rivers.

Integrity

The Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom contain all the essential elements and relevant archaeological materials expressing the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The 43 heritage sites retain their original distribution, and the original fabric is fundamentally unimpaired.

Authenticity

The core area and buffer zone authentically reflect the historical setting and development of the property. Besides the partial damage of Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City caused by wars in history, there is no serious man-made damage to the rest of the heritage sites.

Protection and management requirements

The property area and buffer zone have been delimited around all sites. The property is protected by the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics; the Measures of Liaoning Province for the Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics; the Rules on the Protection and Management of Wunu Mountain City and the Master Plan for the Protection of Wunu Mountain City. The issued laws, regulations and the Conservation Plan for the Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom have developed specific conservation and management rules to cope with the pressure of tourism and city development on each heritage site. Meanwhile, appropriate conservation and management measures have been set for heritage maintenance, ecological control of the setting, and land utilization. These laws and regulations provide the policy guarantee and law enforcement mechanism for heritage conservation, and lay the foundation for heritage conservation and management.

From now on, improvement of the setting and heritage protection goals will be implemented step by step in accordance with the current framework of protection and management. Heritage presentation will be enriched pursuant to the progress of archaeological discovery, and the planned ecological protection program of the property will be carried out simultaneously.