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Frontiers of the Roman Empire (WHS FRE)

Date de soumission : 09/04/2015
Critères: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Catégorie : Culturel
Soumis par :
Permanent Delegation of Serbia to UNESCO
Ref.: 6060
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Description

West end near Neštin

 

East end near Rakovica

45°13'21.07"N 19°25'45.11"E

 

44°12'58.01"N 22°39'53.10"E

Banoštor (Malata Bononia) Beočin Municipality

45°12'47.54"N 19°38'07.04"E

Begeč (Castellum Onagrinum), Novi Sad

Municipality

45°13'53.81"N 19°37'50.68"E

Čerević, Beočin Municipality

45°12'28.34"N 19°39'56.82"E

Dumbovo, Beočin Municipality

45°12'19.04"N 19°45'59.18"E

Petrovaradin (Cusum), Petrovaradin Municipality

45°15'18.30"N  19°51'39.06"E

Čortanovci (Ad Herculае), Inđija Municipality

45°10'06.84"N 20°00'44.41"E

Slankamen (Acumincum), Inđija Municipality

45°08'42.47"N 20°15'15.57"E

Surduk (Rittium), Stara Pazova Municipality

45°04'18.07"N 20°19'49.35"E

Zemun (Taurunum), City of Belgrade, Zemun Municipality

44°50'53.91"N 20°24'35.14"E

Beogradska tvrđava (Singidunum), City of Belgrade, Stari Grad Municipality

44°49'15.61"N 20°27'14.36"E

Višnjica (Ad Octavum), City of Belgrade

Palilula Municipality

44°40'33.76"N 20°34'05.71"E

Ritopek (Tricornium), City of Belgrade, Grocka Municipality

44°44'21.42"N 20°39'04.55"E

Seone (Aureus Mons), Smederevo Municipality

44°39'08.81''N 20°49'26.54''Е

Dubravica, Orašje (Margum), Smederevo Municipality

44°42'22.65"N 21°2'46.67"E

Stari Kostolac (Viminacium) City of Požarevac, Kostolac Municipality

44°44'11.51"N 21°12'56.95"E

Ram (Lederataе), Veliko Gradište Municipality

44°49'0.59"N 21°20'22.51"E

Sapaja, Banatska Palanka, Bela Crkva Municipality

44°49'30.67"N 21°20'15.35"E

Golubac (Cuppae), Golubac Municipality

44°38'58.57"N 21°38'11.48"E

Golubac, Tvrđava, Golubac Municipality

44°39'6.13"N 21°37'40.21"E

Livadica, Golubac Municipality

44°39'33.70"N 21°41'17.19"E

Brnjica, Golubac Municipality

44°39'21.17"N 21°45'53.58"E

Čezava (Novae), Golubac Municipality

44°38'57.94"N 21°56'17.09"E

Turski potok, Golubac Municipality

44°38'05.38"N 21°56'27.82"E

Dobra–Zidinac, Golubac Municipality

44°37'48.31"N 21°57'37.59"E

Saldum (Cantabaza), Golubac Municipality

44°38'29.17"N  21°54'30.61"E

Bosman (Ad Scorfulas), Golubac Municipality

44°37'55.84"N 21°58'46.57"E

Gospođin Vir, Golubac Municipality

44°34'55.79"N 22°01'13.31"E

Pesača, Golubac Municipality

44°34'26.07"N 22°01'08.77"E

Velike livadice Boljetin, Majdanpek Municipality

44°33'36.62"N 22°01'28.89"E

Male livadice Boljetin, Majdanpek Municipality

44°33'30.19"N 22°01'33.10"E

Boljetin – Gradac na Lepeni (Smorna), Majdanpek Municipality

44°32'33.74"N 22° 2'1.74"E

Ravna, Majdanpek Municipality

44°30'23.60"N 22°03'07.73"E

Ribnica, Donji Milanovac, Majdanpek Municipality

44°28'01.41"N 22°07'32.48"E

Donji Milanovac, Veliki Gradac (Taliata), Majdanpek Municipality

44°28'0.88"N 22°10'12.83"E

Porečka reka, Majdanpek Municipality

44°26'42.99"N 22°10'24.58"E

Miroč (Gerulata), Majdanpek Municipality

44°28'54.61"N 22°14'48.98"E

Veliko Golubinje, Kladovo Municipality

44°30'16.22"N   22°12'12.32"E

Malo Golubinje, Kladovo Municipality

44°31'49.61"N 22°13'13.85"E

Pecka bara, Kladovo Municipality

44°37'50.08"N 22°17'24.79"E

Hajdučka vodenica, Kladovo Municipality

44°38'18.37"N 22°18'12.76"E

Trajanova tabla (Tabula Traiana) Kladovo Municipality

44°39′17″N 22°18′29″E

Tekija (Transdierna) Kladovo Municipality

44°41'1.39"N 22°24'27.81"E

Sip, Kladovo Municipality

44°41'20.08"N 22°29'29.70"E

Karataš (Diana Zanes), Kladovo Municipality

44°39'13.23"N 22°32'39.61"E

Donje Butorke, Kladovo Municipality

44°37'10.14"N 22°35'46.96"E

Kladovo, Kladovo Municipality

44°37'00.06"N 22°36'08.36"E

Kostol (Pontes), Kladovo Municipality

44°36'50.61"N 22°40'4.53"E

Rtkovo, Glamija, Kladovo Municipality

44°32'29.24"N 22°45'27.45"E

Vajuga, Kladovo Municipality

44°33'3.70"N 22°38'45.55"E

Milutinovac, Kladovo Municipality

44°33'01.64"N 22°34'26.84"E

Ljubičevac, Kladovo Municipality

44°28'55.07"N 22°31'57.55"E

Brza Palanka (Egeta), Kladovo Municipality

44°27'48.29"N 22°26'50.25"E

Ušće slatinske reke, Kladovo Municipality

44°25'47.97"N 22°28'11.50"E

Mihajlovac (Clevora), Municipality Negotin

44°24'43.54"N 22°29'25.86"E

Mora Vagei, Negotin Municipality

44°21'51.23"N 22°30'28.88"E

Borđej, Negotin Municipality

44°19'03.83"N 22°32'42.54"E

Kusjak, Negotin Municipality

44°18'06.60"N 22°33'26.48"E

Prahovo (Aquae) Negotin Municipality

44°17'43.26"N 22°35'26.53"E

Radujevac, Negotin Municipality

44°15'16.06"N  22°40'43.76"E

Rakovica (Dorticum), Negotin Municipality

44°12'58.01"N 22°39'53.10"E

The Danube section of Serbia is 588 km long (20.3 % of the entire length). For the first 137 km the river is a frontier between Croatia and Serbia. Croatia holds the right and Serbia the left river bank. In this section, the Roman frontier remains on the Croatian bank of the Danube. The Serbian Frontier section is therefore 450 km (16 %) long from the Croatian border to the one with Bulgaria.

The Serbian Limes Section starts at Neštin, close to the Croatian border, and ends at Rakovica (Dorticum), close to the one with Bulgaria. In a wider context this stretch of the border is part of the Danube Frontier which starts close to the fort of Reining in Bavaria, where the Upper German Raetian Frontier ends, and leads for more than 2,800 kilometres all the way down to the Black Sea.

Establishment of the frontier starts in the first decades of the 1st century AD. The Pannonia Province was founded between 20 and 50 AD and Moesia probably in 14-15 AD. The Danube remained the frontier of the Roman Empire until the invasion of the Slavic tribes at the beginning of the 7th century (602 AD).

The primary building phase can be dated to the period of Emperor Trajan. The second large reorganization was in the period on Diocletian and Constantine. The final restoration of the frontier and the last rebuilding of its fortifications were conducted in the period of Justinian I (527–565).

For little less than 550 years this fortification system was the outer borderline of the Roman Empire, protecting it from the tribes from the North.

The defensive system of the frontier consisted of a chain of fortifications along the Danube River right/south bank. The Danube itself was the primary line of defence. The Second lines were several river fleets (classis Pannonica and classis Histrica). These were attached to the main strongholds along the frontier. The army units supported the fleets whenever it was possible. The river was, as still is, a major communication route for both the military and civilian transport and supply. The frontier road was built by the Roman legions themselves.

The organization of the limes was highly influenced by the natural land configuration. The Limes road linked the individual military installations and other ancillary facilities. Quite often along a natural border, the frontier road runs well behind the course of the river, dictated by the terrain. The watch-towers and fortlets and sometimes forts, were connected to the supra-regional frontier road with the smaller ones. Besides the fortresses, forts and fortlets, there were civil settlements and cemeteries. The legionary forts (Singidunum and Viminacium) were located in a flat open area of central Serbia, suitable for large scale military operations. In the Iron Gates, the terrain narrows the area along the river to the level that the road had to be cut into the rock or be built over the river itself. This was a region that was garrisoned only by smaller units up to the rank of cohorts. Downstream from Kladovo, the valley widens up again and bigger auxiliary forts are located on strategic points.

The river crossings were of strategic importance for any kind of military operations or potential trade with the barbarians. One of the crossings was by the Singidunum and Taurunum at the confluence of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The second strategic crossing was by the Lederata fort (present day Ram) over Sapaja Island. The best known crossing was the Trajan’s bridge near Kladovo at Kostol (Pontes fort – the “Bridge”).

Navigation along the river was of the utmost strategic importance. The river boats enabled fast transport of troops and goods, continuous supply of units and provided the first line of defence when confronting barbarian intrusions. The ports were established in Taurunum, Singidunum, Margum, Viminacium, Diana, Aquae and Egeta.

Banoštor (Malata Bononia) Beočin Municipality

Banoštor stands at a favourable geographical and strategic position, in the north part of mountain Fruška Gora, sloping down to the right bank of the Danube. It is assumed that a military fortification Malata Bonnonia was there, housing I cohort Camparonum, as well as the parts of the V legion Iovia.

Around the present day Orthodox church, in the elevated part of the village where the fort once stood, several structures have been investigated in part (the bathhouse, the aqueduct) as well as brick built tombs. Several Roman coins were also found, dated to the 4th century, as well as the bricks with seals of the VI legion Herculia and II cohort Alpinorum.

Begeč (Castellum Onagrinum), Novi Sad Municipality     

Archaeological excavations of the site known as “Kuva”, conducted from 1967 to 1975, uncovered a Roman military fortification – castellum Onagrinum. The remains of the tower with the semi-circular foundations have been explored. The northern rampart has also been determined. Massive footing slabs by the Danube bank indicate the existence if a pier. The fortification was erected in the 4th century, as indicated by the Roman coins and pottery, found opposite to the fortification Malata Bonnonia, on the left bank of the Danube.

Čerević, Beočin Municipality      

Reconnaissance conducted in 1963 at the “Gradac” hill, (half-way between villages of Banoštor and Čerević), uncovered a fortification made from crushed stone and bricks bound with hydraulic mortar. The fortification is surrounded by smaller trenches. It is recognized as a military camp situated along the Bonnonia–Sirmium road, built in the 1st century at the earliest. It is certain that the camp existed in the 4th century, securing the rear of the Roman frontier. The II cohort Equitata was stationed in the fortification in the 1st century.

Dumbovo, Beočin Municipality 

The speculum of a rectangular shape was built of ashlars and rubble stone – it protected the residents of the villa and prevented the enemy from passing through the valley into the interior of the province. Archaeological excavations were conducted from 1972 to 1974.

Petrovaradin (Cusum), Petrovaradin Municipality            

The medieval fortress of Petrovaradin was erected at the place of the Cusum Roman military fortress, at a high rock rising above the Danube right bank. At the foot of the Petrovaradin Tower a native settlement with early roman import was recorded. Rescue archaeological excavations of the plateau of the Upper Tower conducted in 2001 and 2002 established that parts of the walls of the ancient fort followed the prehistoric earthen ramparts. A rampart tower with a gateway stood above the Danube bank. It has been established that in the space between today’s buildings, known as Long and Simple Barracks, there was a long wooden portico, covered with roof tiles. The portico was destroyed by fire in the late 4th century. The roof tiles bore seals of several Pannonian brickyards.  

Čortanovci (Ad Herculае), Inđija Municipality     

The Late Roman fortification stands in the area of the village Čortanovci, on the Danube right bank, in Mihaljevačka forest, on the “Prosjanice” site. Trench excavations conducted in 1956 and in 1961–1962 at the south-eastern part of the fortification, recorded a circular tower 13 m in diameter with walls 1.20 m thick, preserved to the height of about 3 m. The tower was built of stone with several courses of brick. The objects indicate that the fort was erected in the 4th century. The ancient name of the fortification is unknown – it might have been Ad Herculae or Castra Herculae.

Slankamen (Acumincum), Inđija Municipality     

The remains of a medieval city dominate the plateau of a protruding loess outcrop on the very bank of the Danube, at the “Gradina” site. Systematic excavations from 1955 to 1957 established that medieval walls extended from the Roman walls, following their direction. Two phases of the Roman settlement were established: an early Roman settlement formed at the time of Flavius and a fortified Roman settlement with massive walls bound with mortar, most often accompanied by finds dated to the 4th century. The position and the finds indicate that the Roman settlement Acuminicum stood here and that Cuneus equitum Constantium and Equites sagittarii were posted in it.

Surduk (Rittium), Stara Pazova Municipality        

At the elevated bank of the Danube, at the “Gradina” site reconnaissance and minor trenching in 1955 uncovered the remains of an early Roman settlement with imperial coins dated to the 1st century, as well as the remains of a military camp and brick built tombs dated to the 2nd–4th centuries. Here, at the military stronghold Rittium Equites Dalmatae and II cohort Asturum were stationed.

Zemun (Taurunum), City of Belgrade, Zemun Municipality           

The remains of a Roman fort were established at “Gardoš” and on the bank of the Danube. Smaller units of the VII legion Claudia were posted in the fort; a military port and the home base of the Pannonian fleet Classis Flavia Pannonica were on the river bank.

Beogradska tvrđava (Singidunum), City of Belgrade, Stari Grad Municipality        

The site where modern Belgrade lies was very important for the defence of the Roman Empire after it established its frontier on the Danube in the 1st century AD. There are indications that legions IV Scythica and V Macedonica were periodically stationed at Singidunum as early as the first half of the 1st century. With the military and administrative consolidation in the area of the Danube frontier, Singidunum became the base of Legion IV Flavia, maintained there until the end of Roman rule.

The remains of a Roman military camp of the Legion IV Flavia were discovered and partially investigated during the years of excavation in the Belgrade Fortress area. Its ramparts, the oldest vestige of any fortification on the site were poorly preserved. As a result, little is known about the earliest phase of the Roman fortifications. It has been ascertained, however, that the military camp was located in the Upper Town area and in a section of Kalemegdan Park adjacent to Pariska Street. It was rectangular in plan (560 m long by 330–380 m wide), the walled enclosure covering an area of 20 ha. In addition to this main hilltop fort, the riverside was defended by another two ramparts running down the Danube facing slope. Singidunum as the frontier stronghold reached its peak in the 2nd and the 3rd centuries.

Višnjica (Ad Octavum), City of Belgrade, Palilula Municipality      

The Ad Octavum fortification is a Byzantine fortress built in the 6th century by Emperor Justinian. It is rectangular, cca 180 x 100 meters, surrounded by massive bulwarks 5 meters thick and built in flagstone from the local quarry. Numerous fragments of ceramics, brick, tiles, and the hardly perceptible outlines of walls inside the bulwark suggest the existence of residential houses of the fortifications. The fortification was located on the eighth mile from Singidunum.

Ritopek (Tricornium), City of Belgrade, Grocka Municipality         

The remains of the Castra Tricornia have been observed at the entrance to the village, in the place where a cemetery was formed in recent times, on a high hill in the vicinity of the Danube bank. In the Ritopek area, numerous objects have been found dating from the 1st – 4th centuries period, evidence of a small settlement that was formed along the fortification and the cemetery.

Seone (Aureus Mons), Smederevo Municipality               

Aureus Mons is a Roman fortress and a settlement that used to be in the Seona area. Roughly it can be dated to a period between the 1st and the 4th centuries. The fortress is mentioned by a Roman historian Eutropius who wrote that the emperor Probus (276–282) let the soldiers to grow vine in the Aureus Mons area. The archaeological investigations published in 1963 designated the remains of a Roman fortification, dimensions of 150 x 130 paces, on the Seona stream left bank, directly before its Danube confluence.

Dubravica, Orašje (Margum), Smederevo Municipality  

Margum is located on the Morava River right bank, near its Danube confluence. The “Orašje” site holds the remains of a Roman fortification. Archaeological excavations were conducted between 1947 and 1949 on a limited area and three phases were established in the 1st – 4th centuries period. The sources mention that there was a fleet and that a settlement was formed around the fortification. A part of the Danube fleet was at Margum – Classis Stradensis et Germensis.

Stari Kostolac (Viminacium) City of Požarevac, Kostolac Municipality       

Viminacium was the most important city in the Moesia Superior province. It was the capital, administrative, religious, and military and trade centre. The area covered by this ancient Roman city and military encampment (over 450 hectares of the wider city region and 220 hectares of the urban area) presently lies under cultivated arable land, with objects and fragments from the Roman era strewn throughout its furrows.

Historical sources say that Viminacium was a significant military stronghold where the Roman legion Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis was stationed. An important military centre and a Roman provincial capital, Viminacium, was built on a territory belonging to the Celtic tribe Scordisci. It owed its size and significance to the rich hinterland in the Mlava River Valley, as well as to its exceptionally favourable geographical position, both within the defence system of the Empire's northern borders and as a crossroad for road, river and trade networks. In the late 19th and early 20th century, M. Valtrović and M. Vasić conducted excavations on the right banks of the Mlava River, at the Čair site, revealing the encampment's rectangular base, 442 x 385 meters, as well as a large civilian settlement not far from its western rampart.

Ram (Lederataе), Veliko Gradište Municipality  

The biggest in history and the most important fort in the wider Ram area is located on a dominant plateau “Grad”, 1 km away to the east from today’s settlement, and was shielded with a stone cliff from the north, and two streams cutting from the west and east. Today visible stone foundation remains of the up to 3 m thick rampart and a rectangular fort of 140 m х 200 m dimensions, with 11 semi-circular towers and a main entrance on its south side are most commonly identified as Lederatae. As an additional protection an outside rampart was built and a trench dug in the space between.

The original fort was built during the 1st century AD in the period of the Roman occupation of the Danube area, maintaining the military border – limes – along the Danube. It was particularly significant at the beginning of the 2nd century when Trajan waged war against the Dacians since it is considered that exactly on this place the majority of the military troops were transferred into the Dacian territory. The crossing safety was additionally enforced by building a fortification on Sapaja and on the opposite Banat river bank.

Sapaja, Banatska Palanka, Bela Crkva Municipality           

The “Sapaja” site once was on the river island immediately in front of Stara Palanka, a hamlet of the Banatska Palanka village. Systematic excavations conducted from 1967 to 1970, revealed a Roman and a medieval fortification. A rectangular fortification (92.5 x 92 x 93 x 93 m) was found, with four rectangular corner towers and a middle tower on the interior side of the eastern and the western ramparts. The main, and possibly the only gateway (porta praetoria), stood in the middle of the southern rampart opening towards the Danube. On the basis of architectural and movable objects, the following phases were established: the late Imperial period fortification with strong Sarmatian presence (3rd–4th centuries); the Hunnish invasion at the beginning of the 5th century; the renovation and the extension of the fortification in the 4th century and the late medieval layer (14th–16th century).

In the course of the construction of the Đerdap Hydroelectric Power Plant, the left bank of the Danube changed its configuration and the island was submerged.

Golubac (Cuppae), Golubac Municipality              

On a natural hill, rising over the Danube bank, with the Golubac settlement in between, there are massive remains of the Roman fortification walls. No archaeological excavations have been conducted. Numerous finds testify to a settlement and a cemetery.

Golubac, Tvrđava, Golubac Municipality               

The mediaeval fortress of Golubac rises over a part of a Roman road which is in this section cut into a rock. The remains of the road could also be seen at the foot of the fortress. Some 200 m to the southeast from the fortress there are remains of a building with massive walls.

Livadica, Golubac Municipality   

On the Danube river bank, by the Ridanj stream shore (the Livadica stream) 6 km downstream towards the east and away from Golubac town, there are remains of a smaller Roman fort. It represented a part of the fortified military border – limes, which was stretching along the Danube. In the time of the Đerdap PP construction the site was partially explored. On that occasion the foundation remains were discovered. They were of irregular square ground plan. Its north rampart was completely destroyed by the Danube river flow, while the south rampart was 29 m long, the east one was 17 m long, and the west one was 25 m long. It was in use in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, supported by the pottery and other movable objects discovered during the research.

Brnjica, Golubac Municipality     

In the Brnjica river valley, at about 500 to 700 m away from its Danube confluence, the remains of the Roman partition walls (enclosures) were discovered in two places. The site was partially explored in 1970 at the time of the Đerdap PP construction. A wall 1.2 m thick and 6.5m long was discovered along with another one 31 m long and 1.5 m thick. They were built from crushed stone and mud mortar. In the system of the Roman military construction on the Danube, such walls had a role of a partition to disable the enemy soldiers from easy entrance through important strategic points.

Čezava (Novae), Golubac Municipality  

In the “Gradac” area where a torrential river Čezava flows into the Danube, by its left bank, there are the remains of a Roman military fort which was a part of a Roman fortified military border on the Danube. With some dilemmas it is most commonly identified as the Novae military camp, which is mentioned in a few historical sources. Archaeological research was made in the period between 1965 and 1970, but the entire site hasn’t been explored. The research results show that life on those sites can be divided into seven periods. All of them lasted in the time span from the first half of 1st century AD, when the first wooden fort was built, and until the 4th century when in the period of king Justinian (527–565) extensive restorations of a big number of military strongholds were carried out. The fort suffered numerous modifications during the cited period, but its base kept its square form of 140 х 120 m dimensions, with rounded corners and 14 towers which were altering their appearance and only to some extent changed their position.

Due to the Đerdap PP construction the level of the Danube increased, so that the fort was mostly submerged.

Turski potok, Golubac Municipality         

On a gentle slope by the right river bank of the Turkish stream, at its confluence into the Danube, there are the remains of a smaller Roman fort almost of a square plan. The fort dimensions are 16 х 23 m, and ramparts are up to 2 m thick. In the system of the Roman fortified border on the Danube, the fort had a function of an outpost for the fort Čezava nearby.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Dobra – Zidinac, Golubac Municipality   

On the Zidinac stream west bank, near its Danube confluence, a small fortress has been investigated – speculum, of a square ground plan, dimensions 17.5 x 17.5 m. Upon the investigations results it has been established that the tower was erected in the 3rd century, on a place that was the best strategic point of controlling the Roman road. The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Saldum (Cantabaza), Golubac Municipality          

The Saldum site in the village of Dobra at the mouth of the Kožica brook was covered with waters of the accumulation lake after the construction of the Đerdap I Hydroelectric Power Plant. It was systematically investigated for four years in 1969–1970. The objective of the archaeological investigations at Saldum was the exploration of the area enclosed within the ramparts of the Early Byzantine fortification so the data concerning the complete area of this site in all its phases remained unknown to the investigators. It was possible to distinguish five horizons of life at Saldum, from the 1st to the end of the 6th century.

Bosman (Ad Scorfulas), Golubac Municipality     

Bosman fort remains are located at the beginning of the “Upper Gorge” about 1.5 km away from Gospođin Vir rock where plaques of kings Tiberius, Claudius and Domitian carved in rocks testify to the road cut through the gorge. Before the performed archaeological excavations it was assumed that this had been a Roman stop Ad Scrofulas, but the 1968-1969 research show that the fort was built in an early Byzantine period, in the period of Justinian’s great restorations (527–565).

It had a peculiar triangular ground plan with circular towers on the corners and a gate in the east rampart. The northeast tower, closest to the Danube was washed away. The triangular plan was imposed on the architects by the natural conditions, so they obeyed them to the fullest during the building period. The fort was destroyed at the very end of the 6th century and has not been restored again.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Gospođin Vir, Golubac Municipality        

On the Gospođin Vir site there are the remains of a Roman road and a watch tower, and in the vicinity, in the area of Manastir there is a medieval church with a cemetery and a settlement; there is also a site with a prehistoric settlement. Together they make a wider unit which shows a long life activity span on this very cramped space between the Danube the rocky river bank.

The evidence of the Roman road construction through the gorge are the plaques of kings Tiberius, Claudius and Domitian carved in the rocks. By the road there used to be a sentry box attached to the rock, so that it had only three stone walls and two small rooms inside. Base dimensions were 10.9 х 4.5 х 4.95m. It was built by the end of the 1st and the beginning of the 2nd century and was used in the 4th century too. The basic function of this watch tower was to control the road and observe the opposite bank.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Pesača, Golubac Municipality    

The Roman tower attached to the defensive wall enclosing a larger area around it. The archaeological material originates from the 2nd century, fortification elements originate from the middle of the 3rd and throughout the 4th century AD. The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Velike livadice Boljetin, Majdanpek Municipality              

On the “Gradac” site, the remains of a fortification of dimensions 40 m x 40 m have been archaeologically investigated. It was built in the early 2nd century and was never restored. 

Male livadice Boljetin, Majdanpek Municipality 

Here are the remains of a watch tower – speculum, dimensions 20 m x 17.5 m. Based upon the construction technique it is established that the structure was built in the 1st century and was never restored. The walls are built of stone blocks with rounded corners.

Boljetin – Gradac na Lepeni (Smorna), Majdanpek Municipality

The Smorna fortress started to be built in the 1st century and was completed in the 6th century. The investigations of the site established all the construction stages, from an earthen fort dating from the period when the road was built, period of Emperor Tiberius, to its restoration in the period of emperor Justinian. A well-documented stratification of the fort facilitates research of the Limes continuity in this section of the Danube River. The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Ravna (Campsa), Majdanpek Municipality           

The Campsa fortification was investigated in the 1967–1970 period. It was built at the turn of the 3rd century. All the fortification elements were found (the ramparts, the tower, the gates) and a great part of its interior. The fortress dimensions are 40 m x 40 m. In the 4th century, at their corners, the ramparts were reinforced with strong towers of various shapes and orientations. After a thorough restoration in the emperor Justinian period, the fortification was destroyed in the late 6th century. The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Ribnica, Donji Milanovac, Majdanpek Municipality           

The site was located at the mouth of the Ribnica stream into the Danube, 2.5 km upstream from Donji Milanovac. A lot of Roman material was found on the site, but fortification has not been defined so far. A mediaeval cemetery destroyed most of the ancient layers.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Donji Milanovac, Veliki Gradac (Taliata), Majdanpek Municipality             

There is a large rectangular fortification, 134 m x 126 m dimensions. It is positioned by the Paprenica stream, 2 km upstream from the mouth of the Porečka reka. It was established in the 1st century AD. A military diploma was discovered dating from 75 AD mentioning a cohort I Raetorum. It was rebuilt and strengthen in the 3rd century. In the Late Antiquity there was a garrison of Auxilium Taliatense and Milites Exploratores. It was destroyed in the Hunnish invasion in 443 AD and was rebuilt in the 6th century and abandoned after the invasion of the Slavic tribes at the beginning of the 7th century. Excavations in 1958–1966 revealed defensive walls, several building phases including both inner and outer towers. Today it is submerged in the Danube. Several buildings were found in the interior, but still only a small portion of the fortification has been excavated.

This was one of the largest and most important Roman fortifications in the Iron Gate area. A civilian settlement was confirmed in the vicinity of the fortification.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Porečka reka, Majdanpek Municipality 

It was a supply and distribution centre for the Roman army in the Iron Gates. The Porečka river confluence was closed by a strong defensive wall blocking the way inland along the river. Behind the wall on the right bank, attached to it, was a small fortification (60 m x 60 m). Two granaries held enough provision to supply small outposts along the river. These were positioned outside the fortification but behind the defensive wall. A Roman bath was also excavated in this complex.

Today the complex is submerged, but during periods of drought, parts of the fort and the tower become visible.

Miroč (Gerulata), Majdanpek Municipality          

The Gerulata fortress is located high above the Danube, on a vantage spot from which it was possible to control all the movements along the Roman road on the right bank and the conditions on the left bank. The remains of the massive ramparts are hidden in the shrubbery. The terrain configuration indicates that it may have been a structure of about 100 m x 100 m dimensions. No archaeological investigations have been conducted.

Veliko Golubinje, Kladovo Municipality 

Archaeological investigations revealed a small watch tower of a square ground plan. It was built in the mid-3rd century.

Malo Golubinje, Kladovo Municipality   

It is a small rectangular fortification with outer round towers. The defensive towers, walls and access stairs are very well preserved. The site was partially excavated in 1968–1969. It was built in the mid-3rd century.

Pecka bara, Kladovo Municipality             

The investigations established the remains of a small Roman fortress. The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Hajdučka vodenica, Kladovo Municipality             

A Roman military outpost was built in the centre of a fan-shaped plateau on the high bank, opposite the mouth of the Mraconia river (Romania). At this site, on the right Serbian bank of the Danube, well-preserved early Byzantine fort structures were discovered. Their dimensions are 70 m x 50 m, with solid, strong ramparts, about 3.2 m thick, extremely well preserved from 4 to 7 metres in height, with round towers on corners and one polygonal tower. The remains of a late Antiquity square tower (burgus) were found in the centre of the fortress. The size of the early Byzantine fortress was doubled by adding a fortified annex towards the edge of the plateau.

Part of the fort was submerged after the Đerdap I PP construction. A large portion of the site is still visible on the shore of the accumulation lake.

Trajanova tabla (Tabula Traiana) Kladovo Municipality    

Roads are the most common Roman infrastructure, characteristic to all parts of the Empire. But those within the Iron Gates Gorge differ significantly. Because of the narrow gorge and steep cliffs there was no space to build a regular road. So the legionnaires had to cut the road into the rock itself and to widen it by constructing a walking path supported by wooden consoles hanging above the river. This undertaking lasted for several decades, starting from 32–33 AD under Emperor Tiberius, with massive works and reconstruction under Domitian and finally completed under Emperor Trajan in preparations for the Dacian Wars.

This road was essential for communication, supply and transport between fortifications and settlements along the frontier.

Trajan’s Tablet – Latin inscription:

IMP CAESAR DIVI NERVAE F

NERVA TRAIANVS AUG GERM

PONTIF MAXIMVS TRIB POT IIII

PATER PATRIAE COS III

MONTIBVS EXCISI. ANCO..BVS

SVBLATIS VIA..E.

Tekija (Transdierna) Kladovo Municipality            

This was twin military complex with a mirror situation on the left bank of Danube in Romania (Roman Dierna). Archaeological remains exist on both sides of Tekija stream dating from 1st–6th century AD. They protected river crossing that existed here in antiquity. Fort on the right bank had rhomboid plan 32 x 25 m. Majority of the site is below modern settlement Tekija and complex of River navigation management. Special situation on this fort was existence of double defensive wall. Fortifications existed on both banks of stream in different periods of Roman domination. They were destroyed during late IV century and do not exist after Hun invasion of 443 AD.

The entire site is submerged due to the Đerdap PP construction and a heightened water level.

Sip, Kladovo Municipality             

There is a small auxiliary fort, rectangular in shape 29 m x31 m with rectangular corner towers. It protected the entrance zone to the Trajan’s canal. It is of poor state of preservation. It was located to the west from the mouth of the Kačajna River into the Danube.

Karataš (Diana Zanes), Kladovo Municipality       

The Diana Fort, also known as the Diana Cataracts Station (Statio Cataractarum Dianae) was built in 100–101 AD. This fort protected the entrance to the canal that was dug in order to avoid cataracts in the main river course. These cataracts obstructed navigation along the Danube. In preparation for the Dacian Wars, Emperor Trajan dug this canal and the event was celebrated on the Imperial Tablet found near the fort itself.

The Diana Fortress, as well as Pontes, is one of the archetypal Roman fortresses. With an area of over 3 hectare, it was certainly one of the largest auxiliary fortresses/camps on the Roman borders.

The Diana Fortress is one of the best explored fortresses on the Roman frontier in the Upper Moesia. Together with Pontes, it has the status of a monument of an outstanding value in the Republic of Serbia because of its historical importance and preservation. The wider area of the fortress has been included in the preservation process.

According to the archaeological data, it was found that the military garrison of Diane was composed of combined troops, infantry units, cavalry (and fleet), detachments of Roman Moesian legions – V Macedonica, VII Claudia, IIII Flavia, XIII Gemina. Also, the presence of the auxiliary troops, VI Thracum and V Gallorum, has been confirmed in descriptions.

Donje Butorke, Kladovo Municipality     

There is a small auxiliary fort of a rectangular in shape, 57 m x 58 m dimensions, with round corner towers. It was located 500 m to the west from the Turkish fort of Fetislam. Originally, it was a watchtower (18 m x 19 m) with a defensive wall built later on to reinforce its defensive potential. The site existed throughout Antiquity. This auxiliary fort consists of an earlier small fortification – tower based on the tetra pylon within a small defensive wall, and a latter larger rectangular fortification with round corner towers. It is the same type as the ones in Ljubičevac, Milutinovac, Hajdučka vodenica, and Rtkovo.

Kladovo, Kladovo Municipality  

An ancient fortification was incorporated into a Turkish fort at the west side of the Kladovo town. It was rectangular in shape with corner towers. It is well preserved, easily accessible with a lot of possibilities for presentation.

Kostol (Pontes), Kladovo Municipality   

Castellum Pontes, next to the Trajan's bridge, lies on a high bank of the Danube, opposite the Romanian Drobeta / Turnu Severin fortress. It was named after the Romanian fortress – Transdrobeta.

Although it was reconstructed over the centuries, it retained its original shape, characteristic of the auxiliary Roman fortifications of the Trajan's period. They were square fortresses with rounded corners and square towers on the inside of the stone walls, on corners and at the gates. The North Gate – porta praetoria and the South Gate – porta decumana, were placed in a central position of the rampart. The interior was also divided by an axis, according to the rules of the time, with the headquarters building – principium, in the centre of the intersection of the two main streets.

The north and east ramparts were discovered and conserved completely over the course of the previous works, as well as most parts of the west and south ramparts, all four gates, towers (16 out of 18?), parts of the headquarters building / principia, workshops, warehouses, and late Roman structures. After being considerably damaged during the 2nd century, all parts of the fortress were reconstructed during the Severus dynasty at the beginning of the 3rd century, as well as in the later periods. The fortress, like the Roman Empire and its frontiers in general, suffered great destructions in conflicts with the Goths and the Huns in the 4th and the 5th centuries AD.

Rtkovo, Glamija, Kladovo Municipality   

This auxiliary fort consists of an earlier small fortification – tower based on the tetra pylon within a small defensive wall, and later larger rectangular fortification with round corner towers. This is the same type of fort as in Ljubičevac, Milutinovac, Hajdučka vodenica, Donje Butorke.

Vajuga, Kladovo Municipality     

There is an auxiliary rectangular fort with round corner towers. Drawings are known from the 19th century.

Milutinovac, Kladovo Municipality           

This is an auxiliary rectangular fortification with round corner towers. It main phase belongs to the period of the 6th century.

Ljubičevac, Kladovo Municipality              

This auxiliary fort consists of earlier small fortification – tower is based on the tetra pylon within a small defensive wall, and later larger rectangular fortification with round corner towers. This is the same type of fort as in Rtkovo, Milutinovac, Hajdučka vodenica, Donje Butorke.

Brza Palanka (Egeta), Kladovo Municipality          

The Egeta belongs to some of the most important sites along the frontier. There were three fortifications of different shapes and from different periods of the empire. During the 2nd century it was a base of the Cohort I Cretum. In Late Antiquity it was confirmed as a base for the Danube fleet, but also there was a garrison of Legio XIII Gemina and cuneus equitum sagittariorum. In the vicinity large civilian settlement was documented but flooded by the Danube constantly from the 19th century. The Egeta was established in the late 1st century and continued to exist until the 6th century with several phases and many changes in the organization of both the military and the civilian sector.

This was one of the few naval bases that have been confirmed along our section of the frontier. It had its own defensive system connected to one of the forts.

Ušće slatinske reke, Kladovo Municipality            

The fort was built in the late 3rd century when the Dacia province was abandoned. It was erected on top of a Roman settlement and a cemetery from the 1st century AD. It is a large rectangular fortification with round corner towers.

Mihajlovac (Clevora), Negotin Municipality         

A small auxiliary fort at Mihajlovac was located on the Blato site, to the north of a modern times village. It consists of a watchtower and a defensive wall surrounding it (burgus type). The best preserved layers are dated to the 4th century. A large part of the fort was destroyed when the local road was built.

Mora Vagei, Negotin Municipality           

A small auxiliary fort is located on the bank of the Kamenički potok (Kamenica stream) near a water mill from a later period. Very good state of preservation. It consists of a watchtower and a defensive wall surrounding it (burgus type). The fortification existed from the 1st – 6th centuries AD with at least three construction and destruction phases. Excavations collected a lot of data on the organization and architecture of this small frontier post.

Borđej, Negotin Municipality     

This is a small auxiliary fortification that consists of a large watchtower – tetra pylon, protected by two defensive walls. The tower was 19.6 m x 19.6 m in size and an outer wall was 36 m x 36 m. There were no corner towers like ones on other sites – Rtkovo, Milutinovac, Donje Butorke or Hajdučka Vodenica. It can be dated to the late 3rd and the early 4th century.

Kusjak, Negotin Municipality     

Remains of a Roman port. The ancient remains partially destroyed when the Đerdap II PP was built.

Prahovo (Aquae) Negotin Municipality 

One of the most important sites downstream from the Iron Gate. The site was confirmed as a river port.

Radujevac, Negotin Municipality              

A small fortification that protected the road and access to a bridge over the Timok river. F. Kanitz left a drawing of the fortification in the late 19th century.

Rakovica (Dorticum), Negotin Municipality          

Located on both banks of the Timok river, near the confluence with the Danube. Marked on the map of Ptolemy, and confirmed as a fort of a cavalry detachment in the late 3rd century.

Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionnelle

The Serbian section of the Danube Limes would form an extension to the existing World Heritage property the “Frontiers of the Roman Empire” (ref. no. 430ter), which at present consists of the Hadrian's Wall, the Antonine Wall (UK) and the Upper German Raetian Limes (Germany).

The proposed Site would encompass all the known, still existing and scheduled fortresses, forts and watch-towers between Neštin and Rakovica along the Danube, as mentioned, and all the additional features will be included according to the Koblenz Declaration of the Bratislava Group including the civil towns and settlements and cemeteries adjacent to the military fortifications (list of sites enclosed in the Annex). The river itself and the temporary fortifications beyond the borderline will not be part of this World Heritage proposal.

Criterion (ii): The frontiers as a whole reflect the development of the Roman military architecture and the impact of the frontier on the growth of transport routes and urbanisation.

Criterion (iii): The Roman frontier is the largest monument of the Roman Empire, one of the world’s greatest preindustrial empires. The physical remains of the Limes, forts, watchtowers, settlements and the hinterland dependent upon the frontier reflect the complexities of the Roman culture but also its unifying factors across Europe and the Mediterranean world.

Unlike the Roman monuments already inscribed, the FRE’s constructions are evidence from the edges of the Empire and reflect the adoption of and resistance to the Roman culture by its subject peoples. The frontier was not an impregnable barrier: rather it controlled and allowed the movement of peoples within the military units, amongst civilians and merchants, thus allowing the Roman culture to be transmitted around the region and for it to absorb influences from outside of its borders.

Criterion (iv): The Frontier reflects the power and might of the Roman Empire and the spread of classical culture and Romanisation which shaped much of the subsequent development of Europe, the Near and Middle East and North Africa.

Déclarations d’authenticité et/ou d’intégrité

Integrity

The Limes Road was documented in several zones. It was best documented during the rescue excavations in the Iron Gate gorge. The second zone of the frontier road was documented in the area east of Viminacium. A part of the fortifications lay under modern settlements (Singidunum, Cuppae). The value of the Serbian frontier section is that the majority of the fortifications are in the open areas without any latter architecture phases (Margum, Viminacium, Lederata, Taliata, Hajdučka Vodenica, Boljetin, Diana, Pontes, Egeta, Aquae).

Over the last 2000 years the river has often changed its course over longer distances. Because of these changes and floods some sites on the lower grounds were partly or completely destroyed by water. In the 19th century the Danube River underwent extensive management measures, which did not help to preserve the monuments. But quite a lot of them were detected and investigated as part of those activities. Another threat is the water power stations with their dams and reservoirs. When power stations were built in Serbia during the 1980s, a long stretch of the Roman frontier, e.g. forts, fortlets, watch-towers and the road through the Iron Gate were submerged and are not visible any longer.

Authenticity

Fieldworks carried out for more than 100 years, and even more research activities and rescue excavations, especially during the last 40 years, have disturbed and even partly destroyed the Roman remains in nearly all of the proposed World Heritage sites. Many excavations have demonstrated that the remains of the Limes monuments have survived remarkably well. There are still many invisible, undisturbed and uncovered elements of the property in most of the Limes sites. The visible parts are kept in good condition, cared for by the local or regional authorities and are scheduled under the Federal Monument Protection Act. Some of the very few reconstructions, mainly in Viminacium, will be included in the buffer zone.

The inscribed component parts have a high level of authenticity and those nominated in the future will also all be selected for their high authenticity. Each of the component parts inscribed to date has been extensively studied and researched and its authenticity has been verified. This will continue to be the case for any new components. The materials and substances of underground archaeological remains are well-preserved as are the upstanding and visible ones.

Comparaison avec d’autres biens similaires

The Serbian section of the Roman frontier is part of the river frontier along the Danube which stretches from Bavaria to Romania and the Black Sea, protecting the Roman Empire from the tribes from the North. Eight countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania, share this system. Although the proper Latin name of this type of frontier is ripa, a better known and more commonly used word limes is the one for the nomination of this section in Serbia.

Beside the Danube, there are more river frontiers such as the Rhine river frontier in Western Europe and the Euphrates frontier in the Near East. There are major structural differences in river frontiers compared to the land ones. A part of the very essence of a land frontier system is that an artificial barrier with its structural details (walls, palisades, rampart/ditches) forms a continuous line in the landscape and provides the necessary link between individual monuments (watch-towers, fortlets, forts). This can be demonstrated through and seen in the already existing parts of the World Heritage property: Hadrian’s Wall, the Antonine Wall or the Upper German Raetian Limes. The relationship between the individual frontier elements is clearly visible.

All river frontiers such as the Danube Limes lack these most obvious connecting element(s). Although the rivers form a linear obstacle, which connects the individual monuments, the frontier line and the linearity of the fortification system itself is less easy to define and present. The forts along the Rhine and the Danube river frontiers are between 10 km to 30 km apart, and inter-visibility often does not exist.

A distinctive feature of the rivers Rhine and Danube frontiers are chains of watch-towers along one side of the river course and bridgehead fortifications. Watch-towers, the intermediate elements in the archaeological landscape, are not so easy to detect along the river frontiers. Those of the earlier Roman Empire were mainly made of timber. The Late Roman watch-towers are easier to discern because of their massive stone construction. More than 200 watch-towers, mostly stone ones, are recorded along the Danube banks, most of them in Hungary, forming a very tight defence system. It can be assumed that similar systems existed on the other Danube frontier sections too.

There are several points where bridgeheads are clearly established in order to trade or secure the river crossings. In the times of war these were used to secure a beachhead for an invasion to an enemy territory. In times of peace they were used to provide landing infrastructure at crossings or to secure both sides of bridges. These natural pairs of fortifications were often named in pairs like Dierna and Transdierna, Drobeta and Transdrobeta (Pontes), Margum and Contramargum. Some of these bridgeheads are located in Dacia (present day Romania).

Although there are no clearly identified bridgehead fortifications in Austria, there are such sites known for example in Iža in Slovakia. Most of them were constructed when Roman politics caused advances of the army into a Barbarian territory. In the late Roman times more bridgeheads such as Contra Aquincum (Budapest) in Hungary were established to control, and more so to protect the crossing points and the traffic on the river itself. Such military installations were heavily fortified and some of them survived quite well on the left side of the Danube in Hungary, Serbia and Romania.