Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs
Permanent Delegation of Turkey to UNESCO
Provinces of Konya, Erzurum, Sivas, Kayseri, Kırşehir
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İnce Minareli Madrasah 37°52'22.40"N- 32°29'23.96"E
Karatay Madrasah 37°52'29.91"N- 32°29' 34.27"E
Erzurum Çifte Minareli Madrasah 39°54'20.20"N- 41°16'42.16"E
Yakutiye Madrasah 39°54'23.10"N- 41°16'19.47"E
Buruciye Madrasah 39°44'56.76"N- 37° 0'55.13"E
Sivas Çifte Minareli Madrasah 39°44'54.09"N- 37° 0'50.69"E
Gök Madrasah 39°44'39.53"N- 37° 1'0.81"E
Sahibiye Madrasah 38°43'24.19"N- 35°29'12.66"E
Çifte Madrasah 38°43'26.53"N- 35°29'2.87"E
Cacabey Madrasah 39° 8'42.48"N- 34° 9'41.23"E
Madrasahs were educational institutions that first appeared in Islamic countries. Before madrasahs, mosques were used as schools only outside the hours of worship and the education consisted solely of making students memorise the Koran and giving them religious information. In later times, it was considered inappropriate for mosques, which were used as places of worship, to be simultaneously used as schools, and so hodjas began giving lessons in their homes.
The earliest traces of buildings known as madrasahs date to the 10th century and are found in the Khorasan and Transoxiana. These buildings consisted of rooms lined up around an internal courtyard: an iwan in the middle of each side and student cells located in between. This layout also influenced the plans of madrasahs constructed in Anatolia: a courtyard, iwan, winter dershane and student cells are found in all of the madrasahs constructed in this period that have survived up to the present day. In addition to these architectural elements, some madrasahs also have elements like masjids, türbes, fountains and minarets.
Madrasahs were built by wealthy people and high state officials were not bound to the state; therefore, the state did not meet the expenses for feeding students or other expenses such as employee salaries and the structure’s maintenance and repair work. For this reason, those who had the madrasahs built would devote to their madrasahs a part of their properties that regularly brought in income so that the madrasah’s expenses could be met after their death as well. As a result, each madrasah was a waqf institution.
Lessons were taught by teachers called müderris and in every madrasah, there was one or more muid that helped the students and made them repeat the lessons given by the müderris. Every madrasah had a doorman, a cleaning person, a librarian and a “pointillist” who checked the attendance of the madrasah staff and students and reported absentees to the waqf board of trustees. Education in various fields was given in the madrasahs, which were rated according to the wage of müderris. Between 20 to 40 students were educated in a single madrasah.
Raids on the Byzantine frontier eventually led to the Battle of Manzikert (modern Malazgirt in eastern Turkey) in 1071 and the resulting Seljuk victory opened Anatolia to Turkic settlement. Apart from an earlier brief period of Arab rule in the east, Anatolia was new to Islam, and the Seljuks were thus among the first to cultivate Islamic art and architecture in these lands. As heirs to the Great Seljuks of Iran, the sultans of Rum adopted Perso-Islamic traditions and, for the most part, maintained established designs, materials, and techniques in their buildings. In the arts, continued use of luster- and overglaze-painted tiles, as well as creations in wood and metal, are especially noteworthy.
Anatolian Sejuks Madrasahs, was built in 12th and 13th century. General usage of madrasahs was religious education but in some examples these buildings were used as hospital and observatory. General structural layout of Madrasahs split in two type as open court and covered court. With architectural features and elegant stonework, Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs are noteworthy building group in Turkish-Islamic architecture.
“Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs” comprise some of notable buildings such as İnce Minareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah in Konya; Çifte Madrasah and Sahibiye Madrasah in Kayseri; Buruciye Madrasah, Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Gök Madrasah in Sivas; Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Yakutiye Madrasah in Erzurum; Cacabey Madrasah in Kirşehir.
İnce Minareli Madrasah (Konya)
İnce Minareli Madrasah takes place in west of Alaaddin Hill in the centre of Konya city. Madrasah, covered court and domed, was built in 1260-1265 by Seljuks vizier Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali. The madrasah was built on a rectangular area measuring approximately 23.60 m x 20.30 m. The east part of the north side is adjoined by a single-domed mosque with a two-bayedportico for latecomers. On the south-east corner of this portico is a minaret with two balconies. A portal whose foundations measure approximately 5.50 m x 7.00 m extends outward from the middle of the madrasah’s eastern wall. The rooms of the madrasah are arranged on the north, south and west sides of a domed courtyard. The rooms to the north and south are the students’ cells, on the west side there were two winter classrooms with classroom-iwan in between them. The winter classrooms, the mosque and all the students’ cells except for two on the east side of the north wing, are in ruins. The minaret of the mosque was struck by lightning and collapsed above the first gallery in 1901.
The portal in the centre of the east side differs from other portals of the same period in both its form and its decoration. Built of stone, it is decorated primarily with inscriptions but also with geometric and floral motifs. The two artichoke motifs in the spandrels of the main niche of the portal are interesting. In addition, on the side of the portal are two rosettes in which the architect of the building has placed his name: one has ‘work of Keluk’ (‘amal-I Keluk), the other ‘son of Abdullah’ (bin ‘Abd Allah). Between the pointed-arch entranceway of the portal and the madrasah’s courtyard is an entrance chamber with a cross-vault. The dome over the courtyard of the madrasah is supported by fan-shaped pendentives. Below the dome, whose top section is left open, is a square pool in the centre of the courtyard. While the building’s exterior is built of stone, the interior sections are made of brick.
The decorative work in the madrasah occurs in portal, the courtyard dome and the walls of the rooms facing the courtyard. The portal and the foundations of the minaret are decorated with stone carving using inscriptions and floral and geometric motifs. The geometric decoration on the body of the minaret and on the surface of the dome is achieved with both glazed and unglazed brickwork. The madrasah was converted into a Museum of Stonework in 1956.
Karatay Madrasah (Konya)
Karatay Madrasah was built in 1251-52 by Karatay bin Abdullah, vizier of Seljuk Sultan İzzeddin Keykavus. It was built on a rectangular area measuring approximately 31.50 m x 26.50 m and oriented east to west. All the rooms are arranged around a dome-covered courtyard. The ruined students’s cells on the north and south sides were rebuilt in the 1970s. The winter classroom in the northwest corner, as well as the rooms in the north and south corners of the east wing are in ruins. The entrance to the madrasah is at the south end of the east side. Contrary to custom, the portal is not in the middle of the wall, and its form and decoration differ from other portals of this period.
The courtyard at the centre of the building is covered by a dome. In the centre of the dome, a 5-m wide opening has been left to provide light and air. Below this opening, in the middle of the covered courtyard, is square pool. Centrally placed at the west side of the courtyard is the main classroom (iwan) and to either side of it are single winter classrooms. The iwan has a barrel vault, while the tomb has a dome. The students’ cells situated north and south of the courtyard are also barrel-vaulted.
The east side of the madrasah where the entrance is located is made of cut stone, while the other walls are made of rubble stone. Bricks have been used in the upper sections of the walls, in the dome’s zone of transition and in the vaults. In the madrasah, decoration can be seen to this day on the portal, the walls of the rooms facing the courtyard, the dome of courtyard and the main iwan. The ornament on the portal consists of inscriptions, geometric and floral decoration executed in relief on marble. In addition, above and both sides of the conch, the portal is decorated with interlacing geometric bands of grey and white marble. The decoration with swastika motifs on the panels flanking the portal is interesting. On the walls of the courtyard, its dome and the main iwan there are both decorative tiles and tile mosaic. The traces which remain show that the main iwan and the lower part of the courtyard walls down to floor level were covered with hexagonal turquoise tiles. The tympana of the doorways and windows facing the courtyard, the upper part of walls, the fan-shaped pendentives supporting the courtyard dome, the dome itself and the vault of the iwan have decoration in tile mosaic including inscriptions and floral and geometric motifs. The iwan is also adorned with relief-decorated tiles. The dome of the winter classroom which was converted into a tomb-chamber features unglazed bricks arranged in a herringbone pattern. Madrasah is being used as “Tile Arts Museum” since 1955. The tiles that had been found in Kubadabad Palace Excavations are also being exhibited here.
Sahibiye Madrasah (Kayseri)
Sahibiye Madrasah, takes place in the center of Kayseri city, was built in 1267 by Seljuks vizier Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali. It was built on a rectangular area as open courted madrasah. Madrasah has general features of Anatolian Sejuks Architectural style and its front façade has a caravanserai appearance. Portal locates on the center of east side of building. The ornament on the portal consists of geometric and floral ornaments. This decoration style reflected Anatolian Seljuks’ delicate artistic perception.
Çifte Madrasah (Kayseri)
Çifte Madrasah was built in 1205. Architectural layout composed of two different adjoining buildings. These buildings are similar to each other in terms of architectural but their usage is different. While building in west is an hospital, other part in west is a madrasah for medical science. In Anatolian Seljuks period, there are some examples like two different buildings are put together as one building. For example, “Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi”, inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985, from Anatolian Seljuks Period and it composed of two different buildings as together a mosque and an hospital. Çifte Madrasah is accepted as the first hospital in Anatolia from Turkish-Islamic period. Today madrasah is used as “Anatolian Seljuks Civilization Museum”.
Buruciye Madrasah (Sivas)
Buruciye Madrasah located in Sivas. This madrasah is one of the most important buildings of Anatolian Seljuks era. It was ordered to be built by Muzaffer Bey son of Hibetullah Burucerdi in 1271, in the era of Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev III, one of the Anatolian Seljuk sultans. It was built as a madrasah for scientific studies, this building had been used for long years to teach positive sciences. The architect of the building is unknown. Buruciye Madrasah has a plan scheme based on quadrilateral plan, four iwans and open courtyard. Its courtyard is surrounded by column porches. The madrasah cells are covered by barrel vaults. Thanks to its symmetrical plan scheme, it occupies an important place among the Anatolian Seljuk madrasah.
The stonework is concentrated at the portal. The patterns resemble a lacework. The tile ornaments are seen in the tomb to the left of the entrance iwan. This tomb belongs to Muzaffer Burucerdi who ordered to build this madrasah. The entire tomb is covered by rich tile ornaments.
Among the madrasah with open courtyards, Buruciye Madrasah is one of the best examples, and it has compatible architectural elements. Its architectural integrity is outstanding and also it is possible to express that it is a synthesis of the madrasah with iwan developed in Anatolia during the Seljuks era.
Çifte Minareli Madrasah (Sivas)
It is located in the city square of Sivas. According to the inscription above the portal, the madrasah was built in 1271. Only the east wall of the madrasah originally exists today. According to the results of the research excavations conducted in the 1960s, the madrasah is a monumental building with open courtyard and four iwans. The madrasah has a decorated entrance gate. Above and both sides of the gate, exist two minarets with one balcony, the spires of which have fallen. The face walls of the madrasah are both high and monumental.
Madrasah represents one of the most important stone, brick and tile art works in Anatolia. The stonework decoration on the facade indicates an architectural maturity in terms of ratio as well as the prevalence of an approach refraining from repeating the same figures. This application reveals an understanding of facade, which is livelier, active, and allowing to feel the chiaroscuro more strongly. In addition to the stone, its two minarets ornamented with glazed bricks and tiles have been colored with such mature and satisfying compositions.
Gök Madrasah (Sivas)
Gök Madrasah was built in 1271 by Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali, one of the influential viziers in the reign of Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev III son of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Kılıçarslan IV. It is called by two names: Sahibiye and Gök Madrasah. Sahibiye comes from Sahip Ata, the nickname of the person who ordered the madrasah, while Gök Madrasah refers to its sky-blue tiles.
It has a plan composed of outdoor courtyard, two floors, and four iwans. The upper floor of the madrasah has been used in summer and the lower floor in winter months.
Gök Madrasah is one of the most distinguished and monumental examples of the Seljuk Art, where the integration of architecture and ornamental art can be seen. For its monumental marble crown gate, Gök Madrasah is an important masterpiece reflecting the character of the XIIIth century. An embossed leaf figure is seen on the upper corner stones of the Gök Madrasah of Sivas. The inner part of the leaf is full of animal heads. It is assumed that such ornaments composed of the heads of ram, pig, lion, snake, dragon, and elephant indicate the zodiac signs. The fact that these animals are also included in the Twelve-Animal Turkish Calendar is also important as it indicates that Turks have conserved their culture from the Central Asia in their arts. The tree of life figure, the eagle and the other bird figures have liturgical and symbolic meanings in the Seljuk art, beyond being mere ornaments.
Yakutiye Madrasah (Erzurum)
According to the inscription over the madrasah gate, it was ordered by Cemalettin Hoca Yakut Gazani on behalf of Gazanhan and Bolugan Hatun in the era of the Ilkhanate ruler Sultan Olcayto. Turks' endeavor to decorate Anatolia with architectural works intended for different purposes, which had started immediately after arrival of Turks to Anatolia, has continued, and by maintaining the traditional architectural style of the Seljuk era in Yakutiye Madrasah, a monumental building has been created.
The building is included in the group of madrasah with four iwans and indoor courtyards. The cells are located among the iwans. The balance stricken with the protruding crown gate of the madrasah and two minarets on two corners has been achieved across the building by placing a rotunda opposite to the facade. And this is important as it indicates that the architecture was being performed using scientific methods in the Seljuk Era.
A great attention was also paid to the balance and symmetry in the floral, geometrical figures and symbolic depictions concentrated on the facade. Both the ornaments on the crown gate and cell doors and the tile decorations of the minarets indicate the point reached in art as well as the importance attached to art.
Çifte Minareli Madrasah (Erzurum)
It is an Anatolian Seljuk Period Madrasah. The madrasah is a monumental example of the double-storied madrasah with court and four iwans. The gate in the North side is a complete work of art. You can enter to the court from the gate. The thin and long court is surrounded with pillars. Student’s room are around the court. It is thought that the madrasah was built by Padisah Hatun of Ilhanlis or Hunad Hatun the wife of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat I for long years. For that reason, the other name of the structure is “Hatuniye Madrasah” According to last researches it might be built between 1285 and 1290.
Cacabey Madrasah (Kirşehir)
Cacabey Madrasah is located in Kirşehir province, in the central Anatolia region, and was built in 1272, by Caca Beg during the reign of Anatolian Seljuks Period. Nurettin Caca Beg who gave his name to the madrasah, was Kırsehir Commandent in the period of Anatolian Seljuks Sultan III. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev. Madrasah is a kind of building used for higher education in Islamic world.
Madrasah was built by hewn stone and its plan scheme is square. Courtyard in the centre of building is covered by a dome. With this architectural feature, Cacabey Madrasah is in the group of covered court madrasah in Anatolia.
Madrasah architecture is introverted. Its exterior form has little order, but the interior space is arranged around a rectangular or square court articulated with one to four eyvans. The Anatolian madrasah are divided into two major groups according to the form of their masses. Examples of both groups can be stretched to Central Asia; but although many open-court type madrasah may be found throughout the Islamic world, the enclosed type in which the court is surmounted by a dome developed in Anatolia alone.
This structure was built as madrasah originally but later it was converted into mosque. Its vaulted plan scheme is an advantage for this transform of its architectural design and usage. When it converted into mosque, a minaret was built beside of madrasah. The portal in the north side of building was made two coloured stone. In terms of decoration style and stonework portal as accepted one of the best examples in Turkish Architecture. In the northwest corner of madrasah, takes place a tomb belongs to Caca Beg. Tomb has square plan scheme and was built adjacent to main mass.
Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionelle
Before conquering of Anatolia, during the Great Seljuk Empire era some madrasahs were built such as Nizamiye Madrasah in Baghdad in 1065. Similar to this building, in Merv, Heart, Isfahan, Belh, Basra, Musul and in Taberistan some madrasahs were built. After that Abbasids went on this architectural tradition and they built Mustansırıyye Madrasah in 1224-1233.
After the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071, Great Seljuk Empires conquered east part of Anatolia. When they controlled central and East of Anatolia they built mosques, caravanserais, bathes, tombs and madrasahs. Generally Anatolian Seljuk Madrasahs were built in 12th and 13th centuries.
Anatolian Seljuk Madrasahs have two main plan type. Open court madrasahs and covered court madrasahs. A courtyard, iwan, winter classroom and student cells are found in all of the madrasahs constructed in Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs. In addition to these architectural elements, some madrasahs also have elements like masjids, türbes, fountains and minarets. This architectural plan layout always repeated and developed after Anatolian Seljuks Civilization. General architectural features of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs is unique to Anatolia. Furthermore, artistic perception and stonework of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs, special to Turkish-Islamic architecture in 12th and 13th century in Anatolia.
In addition, form and decoration of the Portal of İnce Minareli Madrasah is unique. Stonework of this portal is unrivalled in its period. It is decorated with inscription bands and floral ornaments. Long and graceful inscription band composed a knot in the middle of façade of portal. This decoration design never repeated in another building from Anatolian Seljuks Period. Furthermore, the court of İnce Minareli Madrasah (Konya), Karatay Madrasah (Konya) and Cacabey Madrasah covered with a dome. Interior surfaces of dome of İnce Minareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah covered with glazed tiles. There are only several madrasahs that have this kind of plan. So this architectural design is unique in Anatolian Seljuks Period.
Criterion (ii): The earliest madrasahs built in Khorasan and Transoxiana in 10th century. These madrasahs were monumental and their main structural element was brick. These buildings consisted of an internal courtyard and student cells around it. This plan has iwan, masjids, türbes, fountains and minarets. Great Seljuk Empire conquered east part of Anatolia after the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071 and they brought their architectural and artistic tradition with them. Architects and craftsmen, come from Khorasan, built new madrasahs in new cities such as Erzurum, Sivas, Konya, Kirşehir, Kayseri and Konya.
Different from Khorasan and Transoxiana, in Anatolia main structural element became stone instead of brick. Main reason of this change was geological characteristics of Anatolia land. Seljuks architects used stone as basic structure element and they used brick only in high parts of buildings like dome and minarets. Anatolian Seljuks brought their architectural tradition to Anatolia but at the same time they adapted the conditions of Anatolia. As a result, they reached a synthesis of different artistic perception.
Criterion (iv): Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs represent interesting period of Turkish-Islamic architecture. Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs have a general architectural plan. In this plan, madrasah has generally an open courtyard, iwan, winter clasroom and student cells. In addition to these, some madrasahs also have architectural elements like masjids, türbes, fountains and minarets. This architectural design is special to Anatolia in 12th and 13th centuries.
Even, this architectural layout has been used after Anatolian Seljuks Empire until 14th century in Anatolia with some little changes. In addition, Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs are noteworthy in terms of their stonework, delicate ornaments, architectural and artistic perception. This delicate artistic style, exceeds over centuries and reaches today. Anatolian Seljuk Madrasahs are outstanding building group in Turkish- Islamic art not only with their usage, but also their architectural and artistic design.
Déclarations d’authenticité et/ou d’intégrité
All properties are protected under the provision of the National Conservation Law numbered 2863. Madrasah buildings are protected, restored and maintained by Directorate General of Foundations. Furthermore, Culture and Tourism Ministry registered these buildings as immovable cultural properties in the following dates:
· İnce Minareli Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1982.
· Karatay Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1982.
· Buruciye Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1977.
· Sivas Çifte Minareli Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1977.
· Gök Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1977.
· Yakutiye Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1976.
· Erzurum Çifte Minareli Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1976.
· Çifte Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1976.
· Sahibiye Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1976.
· Cacabey Madrasah was registered as immovable cultural properties with the decision of Superior Council for Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1991.
Some of the rooms of the Ince Minareli Madrasah are no longer extant. However, an idea of its original plan can be gleaned from the surviving portion as well as from early 20th century photographs. The outside buttresses which support the iwan’s west and south walls are known to have been built when Avlunyalı Ferid Pasha was governor of Konya in 1899, after the winter classrooms had collapsed. The winter classrooms, the mosque and all the students’ cells except for two on the east side of the north wing, are in ruins. The minaret of the mosque was struck by lightning and collapsed above the first gallery in 1901. The entrances to the students’ cells, which no longer survive, are walled off.
The winter students’ cells of Karatay Madrasah on the north and south sides were rebuilt in the 1970s. The winter classroom in the northwest corner, as well as the rooms in the north and south corners of the east wing are in ruins. The classroom to the north of the iwan is in ruins, while the other one was converted into a tomb for Celaleddin Karatay, who built the madrasah. The rooms on the entrance side of the madrasah are ruined.
In Çifte Minareli Madrasah in Sivas, only the east entrance wall part has survived today. Rest of building is ruined. Today can be seen architectural plan of building according to ruined part.
Buruciye Madrasah is in very good condition today. After the restoration works in building, students’s cells are used as shops and café today.
Yakutiye Madrasah is in quite good condition and now restoration process is going on.
Cacabey Madrasah is well conditioned. Madrasah was restored several times in 1950s and 1960s by Diectorate General of Foundation. The last restoration program was held in 2006 by Kayseri Regional Directorate of Foundation. Building is used as mosque today.
Erzurum Çifte Minareli Madrasah, Çifte Madrasah and Sahibiye Madrasah in Kayseri are well protected buildings. Çifte Madrasah is used as “Anatolian Seljuks Civilization Museum” today.
Comparaison avec d’autres biens similaires
When we compare Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs to similar properties, we can see architectural plan and ornament of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs are unique to Anatolia.
For example Ulugbek Madrasah in Bukhara, inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1993, is a monumental building. Different from Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs, Ulugbek Madrasah has bigger architectural plan. Its portal is high and monumental. Main structural element of Ulugbey Madrasah is brick. But Anatolian Seljuks Madrasah have a combination of stone and brick in terms of architectural design. Similar to Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs, here exist minarets on both sides of portal. But in Çifte Minareli Madrasah in Sivas and Çifte Minareli Madrasah in Erzurum, minarets stand directly on portal. In Ulugbek Madrasah, minarets are separate from portal and stands on ground. All exterior of Ulugbey Madrasah covered with glazed tiles. But in Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs glazed tiles can be seen only interior of buildings such as InceMinareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah in Konya. In Ulugbey Madrasah minarets covered with glazed tiles similar to Yakutiye Madrasah, Çifte Minareli Madrasah in Sivas, InceMinareli Madrasah and Çifte Minareli Madrasah in Erzurum. When we compare Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs to Ulugbey Madrasah, it is clear that Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs have smaller architectural plans. At the same time, Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs have special stonework especially on portals.
Other similar property to Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs is “Historic Town of Samarkand” in Uzbekistan. Samarkand region inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage list in 2001. The major monuments include Registan Mosque, Shakhi-Zinda compound and madrasahs originally built in mud brick and covered with decorated ceramic tiles. When we compare decorations to Anatolian Seljuk Period, here glazed tile decoration is more detailed and delicated. All surfaces of exterior of buildings covered with ceramic tiles. In Anatolia, architects and craftsmen used glazed tile outside of madrasah buildings but limited area such as minarets and portals.
Madrasah and Mosque of Sultan Hasan is located in Citadel Square of Cairo, Egypt. This building was built in 1364-51 and influenced by Seljuk architecture. The building is made from stone and consists of a central open courtyard in the middle of which is an ablutions fountain. The courtyard is surrounded by four iwans which constitute the mosque proper. In each corner of the building, is a madrasah, each of which specialised in teaching one of four schools of Muslim religious jurisprudence. The madrasah were accessed through doors located in the corners of the four iwans. Each madrasah consisted of a central courtyard, in the middle of which a fountain and an iwan stood, as well as three floors which included student residential quarters. The building was influenced by the phenomenon of building madrasahs, where the goal was to teach religion according to the Sunni schools of law. Such madrasahs prevailed particularly during the Seljuk period, of which the Madrasah of Nur al-Din Mahmud Damascus is another example.
The Madrasah Amiriya is located in Rada, Yemen. It was built by the last sultan of the Tahirid Dynasty at the beginning of sixteenth century. It is very big and monumental building. Madrasah has an open courtyard. With this feature it is similar to Anatolian Seljuk Madrasahs. But in terms of general architectural plan it is totally different. Different from Anatolian Seljuk Madrasahs, The Madrasah Amiriya has two floors and it has six domes. The Madrasah Amiriya inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in 2002.
If we compare stonework of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs to “Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi”, inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985, it is clear to state that stonework of Madrasahs and Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi are similar in terms of artistic style. Because Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi was built in Anatolian Seljuk period in 13th century too. So it is normal to observe same artistic and architectural style of Anatolian Seljuks period in this building. It is possible to call as “Baroque” of stonework of portals in Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi. But stonework in portals of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs is accepted more moderate and limited. In addition Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi composed of two different buildings as together a mosque and a hospital. This architectural feature is similar to Çifte Madrasah in Kayseri. Furthermore, in Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi was not used any glazed brick or tile. In this subject Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi separates from general Anatolian Seljuks architectural design.