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Silk Roads Sites in Tajikistan

Date de soumission : 15/01/2013
Critères: (iii)(iv)(v)(vi)
Catégorie : Culturel
Soumis par :
National Commission for UNESCO Republic of Tajikistan
Ref.: 5790
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Les noms des biens figurent dans la langue dans laquelle les Etats parties les ont soumis.

Description

 

 

 

 

Object

Name

 

Country

(province, region)

 

Area (ha)

Geography (width/longitude) or coordination of the center (approximately)

1

Ancient Penjikent

Penjikent town

23

N39°29'13", E67°37'10"

2

Ancient town Bunjikat

Shahristan district

20

N39°54’58.47”

E69°0’26.55”

3

Hissar Castle

Hisor district

20

N38°29’01.42”

E68°35’37.00”

4

Buddhist monastery Ajina-Tepa

Vakhsh district

1,3

N37°51’51.58”

E68°56’30.65”

5

Takhti-Sangin

Kobodiyon district

5

N37°35’23.17”

E68°7’12.06”

 

6

Khoja-Mashad

Shaartuz district

1,5

N37°13’12.64”

E68°8’53.12”

7

Ancient Town Khulbuk

Vose district

16

N37°46’39.32”

E69°33’24.75”

8

Yamtuch

Ishkashim district

36,5

N36°43’38.59”

E71°36’38.90”

 

1. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Ancient Penjikent

Brief description of the object-component:

The town of Ancient Penjikent consists of an arch with three belts of fortifications, shakhristan, enclosed by a fortress wall and a necropolis. It belongs to the V - VIII cc. AD. The palace complex had a stateroom, amenity and residential buildings. A large throne hall (250 m2) and three almost equally sized halls belonged to the stateroom. The central part of shakhristan was occupied by two temples with a similar layout. Its main part is an extensive residential area with shops, stalls etc. The two-and three-storied houses made of mud brick and pakhsi were located inside of the city. There were ground-building burial vaults - nauses with ossuary graves, also known as burial in the hum, the graves in the city cemetery. In 722 the town was captured and burned by the Arabs. The outstanding feature of the Ancient Penjikent is its monumental art - wall painting, volume and relief sculpture of wood and clay.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The studies of the site have been conducted from 1938. The site is considered as the cultural heritage of national importance. The staff of Penjikent historical and cultural conservancy under The Science Academy of the Republic of Tajikistan, (established in 14/04/1974) is responsible for the protection of the site. The total area of the site is 23 hectares.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The Penjikent arch looks like Varkhash arch in plans.
The clearest feature of the ancient town Penjikent is its monumental art, which is preserved better to a greater extent than in other monuments of Central Asia. The variety of subjects Penjikent painting surpasses all that is known in other monuments. It is characterized by ornamental, brightness, special beauty canon, ethnography of details transmission.

2. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Ancient Town Bunjikat 

Brief description of the object-component:

Bunjikat City (remains of the ancient town Kalai Kahkaha I, II, III), the capital of Ustrushana existed in the VII - X cc. AD. It consisted of an arch, shakhristan, rabad. The palace with an area of 38 x 47 m included a stateroom with a throne sunroom (17, 65 x 11, 77 m), a small reception room (9, 65 x 9, 50 m), a temple, armory, a residential tower donjon, residential, utility rooms, whole system of connections with corridors. The arch with palace of the ruler was additionally strengthened with corner towers and gates. The walls of the palace were covered with multicolored paintings (scenes of household, battles, etc.). The wooden architectural details of interior were decorated with carvings (geometric, floral ornaments, subject compositions, depicting people, animals, birds, etc.). The eastern half of shakhristan was a system of urban development (religious, craft-shopping, residential centers), and the western part was a military-defense complex. They are surrounded by strong walls with high towers, two gates, the northern as the main entrance and the western. The rabad included trade and craft centers. A necropolis was situated not far from the city.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The studies were conducted from 1955 to 1962, and from 1965 to 1972.
The site is considered as the cultural heritage of national importance. The local government authorities are responsible for the protection of the site. The total area of the site is 20 hectares.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The formation of the early feudal city proceeded in the mainstream development of Central Asian urban planning and architecture. The individual features of the ancient town building art appeared in the proportions and the relative position of city parts and used the surrounding natural landscape for urban development, monumentality, as for the group of unique individual buildings.
The palace stands with the lack of a vault cover; the roof is mainly in arch. The residential development of Bunjikat consisted of one-storied houses, while the majority of the urban body of Bunjikat was two-storied houses.

3. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Hissar Castle

Brief description of the object-component:

Hissar Castle functioned from XIV to early XX cc. According to the written sources, Timur's arsenal located in Hissar and there was the residence of one of the powerful Turkic-Mongol princes. In a later period of the there was the palace of Hissar bek. The Castle consists of four parts: arch-citadels (4250 m2), with the input of Darvoza-Khon, Shuturkhona-"Camel's house" (12 ha), Askar-Khona "Military barracks" (6,5 ha). The total area of the castle at the foot of the outer perimeter walls is 15 ha. Each part has been circled in a single defensive wall or had additional facilities such as towers. The height of the arch is 80 m. Gate Arch located in the southern facade of the castle, was erected in XVIII c. in place of destroyed gates in XIV - XVII cc. The remains were found near the new gates. The input structure is a high portal structure with a width of 4,5 m and height of 16 m, by round towers flanked in both sides. The top of the tower neck was completed with cupolas equipped with loopholes and there was a guardhouse at its bottom.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The site is considered as a cultural heritage of national importance. The staff of Hissar historical and cultural conservancy (established in 14/04/1979) is responsible for the protection of the site. The total area of the site is 20 hectares.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The close analogue of Hissar Castle are many Central Asian arks with gateways in Bukhara, Merv, Khujand, and etc.
There are some certain differences in the architectural composition of the entrance gates, including their cylindrical towers, which significantly protrude from the plane of the walls so that looks attached in massive high wall with the entrance arch. They involve a small part of the wall - at least ¼ of its perimeter 

4. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Buddhist monastery Ajina-Tepe

Brief description of the object-component:

Buddhist monastery Ajina-Tepe functioned in VII-VIII cc. AD. Its area is 100 x 50 m. It has a typical clear compositional scheme. Two parts of the complex, the monastery and the temple is constructed with composition scheme of 4 iwan and courtyard. The volume of the stupa (14 x 14 m) stands in the center of the temple part of the courtyard, surrounded by a number of rooms for religious purposes. The compositional center of the half monastery is a square courtyard, around which are grouped monastic cells, a hall, and a holy place. The rooms of both halves are richly decorated with paintings and sculptures. Many fragments of sculptures of the Buddha were found here. Most valuable discovery is a 12-meter high clay sculpture of Buddha in nirvana position.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The conservation work on Ajina-Tepe were carried out under the auspices UNESCO in 2005 - 2008. The site is considered as the cultural heritage of national importance. The caretaker who is appointed and paid by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan is responsible for the protection of the site. Also a variety of conservation measures are held by local government authorities. The total area of the site is 1.3 ha.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The approach of dividing the monastery into two functionally different, but similar in size and internal organization of the parts has been adopted in Buddhist monastery Fayaz-Tepe, which was built in the early AD at Termez.
In III - V cc. AD the two-part Buddhist monasteries, divided by the monastery and temple (erected in the center of the stupa courtyard) were built in the northern part of Afghanistan - in the Bagh-Gai, San-Khao and Kunduz. Despite to the general similarities of Ajina-Tepe with these sacral complexes, it exceed their strict proportionality and the interconnectedness of all parts, with rational clearly decisions and very clear ideas in design and development of several innovative techniques and forms (eg: the application of unloading-axillary vaulting)

5. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Takhti Sangin

Brief description of the object-component:

The ancient town Takhti Sangin consists of a fortified ark (165 x 235 m) and the adjacent from north and south parts in 500 m. In the western half of the central part is situated the building - "Oxus Temple". There is "White Room" (12 x 12 m), which is covered by two internal and external corridor rows from the south, west and north parts. It was built from 111 BC to III-IV AC. There was a portico in front of it. The local types of Hellenistic chancels were installed in these facilities. The remains of houses were found in the southern part of the ark, and two necropolises were in the northern part. The special attention should be given to the space, which was called "ateshtakhi" - the repository of eternal fire. More than 8 000 dedicatory gifts, weapons, works of art in bronze, ivory, gold and silver coins dating from IV c. BC to III c. AD were found in botross and favisses of the temple vaults.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The studies of the site have been conducted from 1976 (with changes). The site is considered as a cultural heritage site of national importance. The frontier post of National Security Committee and the local government authorities are responsible for the protection of the site. The total area of the site is 5 hectares.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

It is necessary to characterize Oxus Temple by comparing it with fire temples of Susa, Kuhi-Khwaja and Persepolis in architectural and archaeological context. Moreover it is typologically closest with other churches with a statue of the deity (Ai-Khanum, Dilberjin) by its architectural composition and operating time.
There are some differences, too. So, two found ateshtakhis at Takhti-Sangin clearly indicate the fire cult and the cult of the king's fire, when as the modern Zoroastrians always have one main fire altar in their temples.
So far, no discovery is known which interface with things and coins of Oxus Treasure.

6. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Madrasa Khoja Mashad

Brief description of the object-component:

Madrasa Khoja Mashad was built in IX - XII cc. The layout composition consists of a rectangular courtyard of 40 x 31 m size, with a number of rooms (hujras) in the east and west sides. There are two cupola hall and aivan with flanked flowers yard (guldasta) between them in the southern part. The northern part of the site is the same as the southern one, but in the smaller sizes. The vaulted aivans with the same 4-meter spans are placed on the axes. The south (main) facade was built of baked bricks, the others - three parts of the site are from the raw bricks and pakhsy.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The total area of the site is 1,5 ha. Both sides of it are surrounded by tombs and dwellings of the population. Since 1972, the site was taken to the registration and protection. The caretaker who is appointed and paid by Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan is responsible for the protection of the site since 1982. The protection zone meets all regulatory requirements. Nowadays the restoration and repair works are holding by financial support of the U.S. Embassy in Tajikistan for its preservation and conservation. Khoja Mashad is considered as one of the important tourist sites in the Republic of Tajikistan.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The direct analogy to the composition principle is the architectural ensemble of X - XI cc, Sultan Saodat in Termez. There are some similarities in methods of construction - laying bricks in "Christmas tree" shape, design type of arches, and cupolas. Also the similarity in interior composition and character of vaulted cupolas design was found in mausoleum of Baba Rushnoi in northern Afghanistan. The architectural, decorative and ornamental techniques of the southern facade Khoja Mashad have a direct analogy to the mosque Talkhatan Baba, caravanserai Dai-Khatin, mausoleum Muhammad-ibn-Zayd, the mausoleum of Khoja Nakhshran #1 in Regar.
Khoja Mashad is one of the oldest madrasa, which included even more ancient mausoleum of IX c. The unique design of an arch of Khoja Mashad is the combination of wedge-edged laying and cut laying and the direct analogies of that is not found. The origin of the triple frieze crowning the eastern facade of the building is not clarified and this also has no analogy. This can be attributed to a wide circular aperture at the height of the cupolas of the eastern and western buildings, too.

7. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Ancient Town Khulbuk

Brief description of the object-component:

The palace complex and the residence of the Khuttalya rulers existed in the IX - XII cc. Its area is 300 x 50 - 650 x 10 - 15 m and compositionally divided into three equal parts by 50 m: the large central courtyard with the entrance on the west and the two separated by this court complex of buildings, which the southern is officially representative and the northern is residential. The entrance structure is a traditional portal-peshtak with carved terracotta. The castle surrounded by fortress walls built of pakhsy and faced with baked bricks. Two-storied plinth was located along the foot of the wall, and the wall is strengthened with conical or rectangular retaining turrets. The round towers were built at the corners of the complex.
The rooms of the palace is richly decorated with unique patterns carved ganch (mixture of gypsum and clay) and painting.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The studies were conducted from 1957 to 1994 with changes. The staff of Khulbuk historical and cultural conservation (established in 2002) is responsible for the site protection. The site is considered as the cultural heritage of national importance. The total area of the site is 16 ha.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

There are all techniques and forms of representative and residential Central Asian architecture of XI - XII cc. Thus, the classical system of palace and avian differs from systems in the palaces of Amman, Okheydir, Quseir Amra, Khorezm Palace, etc. only in the details and particulars.
But some are considered as unique forms and methods of architecture, such as the application of 6-anglular brick forms. There are direct analogies in the Middle East art of the relief ganch borders with images of running one after another animals: roosters or pheasants, carnivorous feline, dogs, foxes, hares and etc.

8. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Yamchun Castle

Brief description of the object-component:

Yamchun Castle is a form of a triangle in plan. The length of the lower base is 470 m, the longest side is the north-east part with 775 m of length. The castle is dated from II-I cc. BC to V-VII cc. AD; X-XI cc. AD. The citadel is also in the triangle form by its plan. The wall surrounding the citadel is fortified with 9 round towers by plan with slotted loopholes. The rooms are located inside by the perimeters of walls; they are mostly rectangular and subsquare in the plan. The fortress platform number 1 is (trapezoidal in plan and the distance north-south is 450 m.) is located below the ark. Its walls strengthened by 22 round towers by plan with slotted loopholes. The platform number 2 (subrectangular in forms) is adjacent to the platform number 1 in the south-east. It is surrounded by wall with towers and there is a structure, consisting of two circular towers placed at a distance of 15 m from each other, in its south-western section. The building materials consist of stone with clay mortar for the base of walls and towers, in some places laying of mud bricks (40-45 x 25-20 x 10 - 13 cm, 35-39 x 25-39 x 10 cm), the result of repairing.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property

The studies of the site were conducted from 1960 to 1962 and from 1976 (with changes). The site is considered a cultural heritage of national importance. The local government authorities are responsible for the protection of the site. The total area of the site is 36,5 hectares.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected

The construction methods of fortification systems have many similarities with other castles in Central Asia: in Merv, New Nisa, Yangi-Parsan and etc., as well as abroad - in Afghanistan, the castle Dilberjin.
However, the direct analogies Yamchun Castle are not found and it remains unique due to the use of terrain, surrounding a natural landscape of mountainous area of Ishkashim district the construction of the castle, its relative position of parts, size

Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionelle

The Silk Roads are routes of integration, exchange and dialogue between East and West that have contributed greatly to the common prosperity of humankind for almost 2 millennia. The whole of the route is more than the sum of its constituent parts. Flourishing in particular between the 2nd century BC and the end of 16th century AD, this network of routes, started initially from Chang'an (present-day Xi'an)and ultimately stretching from East Asia to the Mediterranean in the west, and down into the Indian subcontinent, facilitated and generated a two-way intercontinental trade in a dazzling array of trading goods. Of these, Chinese silk was among the most valuable, but it included materials such as precious metals and stones, ceramics, perfumes, ornamental woods, and spices in return for cotton and wool textiles, glass, wine, amber, carpets and the celebrated horses. This trade connected various civilizations, which persisted over centuries and was sustained by a system of caravanserais, commercial settlements, trade cities and forts along its entire length of more than 10,000 km, which makes it arguably the longest cultural route in the history of humanity. But much more than trading goods was transported over the network of Silk Roads. Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, Nestorian, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeanism were spread over the Silk Roads, Scientific and technological developments were also diffused by these routes, for example from China, paper, printing, gunpowder, cast iron, the crossbow, the magnetic compass, and porcelain, whilst engineering developments (particularly bridge building), the cultivation and working of cotton, tapestry weaving, calendrial sciences, vine cultivation, as well as certain glazing and metal working techniques spread from Central Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and the west. There was also a substantial two-way exchange of medical knowledge and medicines, as well as of what are now seen as universal fruit and other food crops. As such, the Silk Roads generated outstanding manifestations of global significance in the realms of economy, society, culture and the environment. The types of monuments, sites and cultural landscapes found along the Silk Roads can be categorized under: 1) Infrastructure (facilitating trade and transportation); 2) Production (of trading goods); and 3) Outcomes ( such as cities, art, knowledge as a result of contact and exchange).

 The property includes outstanding examples of types of heritage under these categories. Attributes include: Topographical and natural features; Urban patterns and architectural designs; Socio-economic development; Political events; Religious and spiritual values; Achievements in science and technology; Achievements in the arts (sculpture, painting, carving, etc.); Intangible heritage.

 Under Category 1 Infrastructure, the sites among others, comprise of caravanserais and inns; military posts, garrison stations and fortifications; bridges; irrigation systems; natural and cultural landmarks. Under Category 2 Production the sites reflect mining, metal working, manufacturing and handicrafts, and other industrial and production sites. Under Category 3 Outcomes the sites include trade cities, urban centres and settlements; religious, spiritual and ceremonial sites (including shrines, caves, tombs, sites of pilgrimage); and places of associations with political events, transfer of ideas, language, music, dance, poetry, etc.(ii) as the Silk Roads property exhibits preeminent interchanges of human values.

Criteria (iii): the Silk Roads property is an outstanding example of the trade and dissemination of cultural traditions over long-distances;

Criteria (iv): the Silk Roads property contains an outstanding example of urban, architectural and technological ensembles that was necessary to sustain this trade and exchange over almost two millennia;

Criteria (v): the Silk Roads property bears an exceptional testimony to human interactions with the environment;

Criteria (vi): the Silk Roads property is directly and tangibly associated with historic and living traditions, beliefs and value systems.