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Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ñan

Date de soumission : 20/07/2010
Catégorie : Culturel
Soumis par :
Delegacion permanante de la Republica Argentina ante la UNESCO
Etat, province ou région :
Argentina
Ref.: 5546
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Les noms des biens figurent dans la langue dans laquelle les Etats parties les ont soumis.

Description

 

Section

Province

Sub Section

Initial points

Santa Ana - Valle Colorado

Jujuy

Quebrada Grande- Las Escaleras

S  23 2151,6

W 64 58 37,80

  Santa Rosa de Tastil- Potrero de Payogasta

Salta

Complejo Arqueológico Santa Rosa de Tastil -Potrero de Payogasta

S 24 27 7,75

W65 57 35,88

Los Graneros de la Poma- Potrero de Payogasta

Salta

Graneros-Potrero de Payogasta

S 24 50 15

W 66 9 36,53

Complejo Ceremonial Volcán Llullaillaco

Salta

Complejo Arqueológico Volcán Llullaillaco

S 24 41 54,74

W 68 30 41,72

Complejo Arqueológico La Ciudacita

Tucumán

Complejo Arqueológico La Ciudacita

S 27 9 35,82

W 66 0 56,70

Pucará del Aconquija

Catamarca

Sitio del Bajo del Pucará - Pucará del Aconquija

S 27 42 8,60

W 66 0 23,40

Corrales- Las Pircas

La Rioja

 

Corrales- Las Pircas

S 28 49 7,20

W 67 38 49,80

Angualasto-Colangüil

San Juan

Angualasto-Colangüil

S 29 59 6,1

W 69 16 4,5

Llano de los Leones

San Juan

Llano de los Leones

S 29 5 32,59

W 69 20 32,95

Ciénaga de Yalguaráz- Puente del Inca

Mendoza

Ciénaga de Yalguaráz-San Alberto

S 32 04 47,1

W 69 21 36,9

Ranchillos

S 32 35 52,1

W 69 28 2

Tambillitos

S32 44 41,6

W 69 34 55,7

Puente del Inca

S 32 49 35,8

W 69 54 39,7

Coordinates:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. General Description:

Qhapaq Ñan, the Andean road system, is a cultural itinerary that constitutes a unique physical accomplishment of the utmost importance to the history of humanity and of the continent of South America.

The construction of Qhapaq Ñan gave rise to an extraordinary road network, planned  and laid as a permanent tract through one of the world's most broken and extreme geographical terrains, where the world's greatest biological diversity, coupled with great cultural diversity, is to be found. The roads were used by armies, whole population groups that often amounted to more than 40,000 persons and a large number of llama caravans, transporting goods and raw materials.

In addition to the distance covered by that extensive road system, the sheer scale and the quality of the road, built to link the snow-capped mountain range of the Andes, at an altitude of more than 6,000 metres high, to the coast, running through hot rainforests, fertile valleys and absolute deserts, are most outstanding.

All territories were linked to the trunk road along the mountain range of the Andes.  Towns, villages and rural areas were thus integrated into a single road grid. There are outstanding examples of the road administration, architectural and engineering technology used in finding solutions to myriad problems posed by the difficult terrain and in adapting to its variable andscape by means of bridges, stairs, ditches and cobblestone paving. This all conduced, under a specific maintenance programme, to the continuity, safety and sanitation of Qhapaq Ñan. Similarly, travel was facilitated by signposts, stores and staging and supply posts (wayside inns) all along the road.

When, in the sixteenth century, the Spanish reached Tawantinsuyu, a very large political entity in the Andes, they found a territory linked together by a communication system that was nearly 6,000 km long and had some 26,000 km of feeder roads. The road network was the outcome of a political project implemented by the Cusco Incas and linking towns and centres of production and worship together under an economic, social and cultural programme in the service of the State.

The Europeans compared Qhapaq Ñan with the Roman road network, pointing out that, in their opinion, the Andean road technology was even more advanced than that used in  Europe at the time.

The central thrust of the Incas' policy, initiated in the sixth century and recorded in millennia of pre-Hispanic Andean history, was expressed to the fullest in terms of territorial spread and maximum linkages among cultures in the fifteenth century. The exceptional feature of this great engineering feat is that its legacy is still physically, functionally and symbolically relevant to Andean peoples today.

The States of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru have now made this living heritage the focus of a transnational integration project, thus undertaking to safeguard this outstanding feature of the common cultural heritage of Andean America, a unique legacy to the world.

2. Contribution from Argentina to Outstanding Universal Value of the Serial international nomination:

The sections of the Qhapaq Ñan nominated by Argentina and the associated sites are tangible evidence of multicultural and multi-ecological integration unprecedented in world history, including the logistical challenges involved (extraction and storage of agricultural, pastoral and mining resources, mobilization of the workforce, supply of roads traversing vast deserts), exceptional military and cultural command of political boundaries and a religious tradition unique in the world, which worshipped the mountains, performing rituals and sacrifices in temples built on numerous summits higher than 5,000 meters.

 

Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionelle

Criterion (i)

The outstanding aspects of this road network are the routes and building techniques used to cover one of the planet's most complex mountain systems.

The construction of this network represents the synthesis of cultural development in South America. The Qhapaq Ñan Andean Road and some of the pre-Hispanic sites inscribed have been located and admired since the sixteenth century by many chroniclers, explorers and travellers who traversed this major engineering work of the pre-Inca and Inca eras.

Criterion (ii)

The features and archaeological evidence of the Andean Road network reflect a dynamic exchange of values, the use of architectural elements and political structures existing in the pre-Inca and Inca eras, such as the maintenance of strategic lines related to production and land occupancy in different altitude tiers, through the use of an agricultural system known as "vertical control".

Criterion (iii)

The Inca stood amidst this panorama, their most notable achievement perhaps being that of having discovered the specificities of each of these peoples and applying a very strict system of organization enabling the exchange of social, political and economic values among them in the pre-Inca and Inca eras.

Criterion (iv)

The road network has characteristic features in its different architectural elements, in terms of its walls, roads, steps, roadside ditches, sewage pipes, drains, etc., with construction methods that vary adapting to progression and region. To this must be added the construction of a State infrastructure with standardized architectural elements for the control, protection and management of the area and use of the products of the mountains, coast and Amazonia. The archaeological sites selected portray this magnificent infrastructure: administrative and political centres, resting places (inns), cairns, chasquiwasis (resting places for messengers), military fortresses used in wars caused by the expansion of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu), silos, ushnus (ceremonial platforms), earth mounds and petroglyphs, with a diverse landscape associated with natural elements: mountains, lakes, jungles and flora and fauna showing how populations coexisted with their natural environment.

Criterion (v)

The road system reflects the interrelation of communities with their geographical and natural environment such as mountains, lakes and water. The altitude of the network ranges from 28 metres to 6,700 metres spanning plateaux, mountain ranges and valleys. The road and architectural infrastructure works maintain a relationship with the surrounding landscape such as water resources, mountains, lakes, etc. The topography of the network is very uneven. Similarly, interregional use via mountain passes determines its relationship and the exchange of products and the use of resources of the three zones (coast, mountains, Amazonia) as well as regional exchange with the other suyos (areas).

Criterion (vi)

It connects living communities which still use the Road and keep it in their memory. Through language and oral tradition, it lives on as part of their world view and it is indirectly associated with ancestral traditions and techniques passed on from generation to generation. The respect and appropriate use of the different elements of nature: hills, water, animals and plants, create a world which nourishes part of their knowledge and wisdom in their desire to establish harmony, a balance between human beings and the natural environment.

Déclarations d’authenticité et/ou d’intégrité

Authenticity: Due to its unique historical evolution, this cultural itinerary has retained a level of authenticity in its integral natural and societal features that are outstanding in the Andean region. Resulting from a continental scale of cultural interaction between man and environment in some of the most extreme geographies of the planet, it has preserved its spatial and physical structure to an exceptionally high degree. Today cultural traditions allow the communication system to continue being functional in terms of exchange of production, symbolic practises and the persistence of Andean cosmovision.

Integrity: The property appropriately retains all the archaeological elements linked to the evidence of formation and development of the Inca Empire and all the anthropological capital that continues today serving as an articulation mechanism that still retains the significance and function of the communication system.

Comparaison avec d’autres biens similaires

The Scientific Committee met in Paris in April 2006 to develop the basis of the comparative study for the nomination. The World Heritage Centre invited academic experts on the Ancient routes of communication in the Ancient Empires: international experts from Maya studies; Roman Empire main roads; the trade routes of the Tigris and Euphrates basin; the Silk route; Indus river communication trails and Greek maritime itineraries all attended the meeting reflected, with the Andean specialists, upon the categories of analysis to be fulfilled for a comprehensive comparative study. This meeting took advantage of the opening ceremony of the exhibition: From Chavin to the Incas, held at the Petit Palais in Paris.  The World Heritage Centre established a productive collaboration with the directorship of the Museum as well as with the Peruvian Authorities for the presentation of the Qhapaq Ñan project at the exhibition; a promising juncture for improving the multidisciplinary approach in Andean studies. One chapter of the Catalogue of the exhibition has been devoted to the Qhapaq Ñan project.

Protection: A Legal Affairs Committee was set up to coordinate efforts to establish an international legal framework to preserve the OUV of the cultural itinerary. A political Declaration is currently under preparation to ensure the collective commitment between the six countries. The nomination process has developed a conservation and management plan in full coherence with the international agreement.

A Scientific Committee composed of renowned scholars in anthropology, archaeology and ethno-history, as well as national experts selected by their respective countries and the World Heritage Centre was established in April 2005. The purpose of this Committee was to define the outstanding universal value of the Main Andean Road. The Scientific Committee held its first meeting in Quito, Ecuador in April 2005. The Scientific Committee believes that the Qhapaq Ñan is one of the ancient world's greatest human achievements and, to this day, it serves as a link between ancestral and contemporary heritage in Andean America.

A second meeting of the Scientific Committee (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, 2006) sought to develop the basis of the comparative study for the nomination. Academic experts on the ancient routes of communication in the Ancient Empires: international experts on Maya studies, Roman Empire main roads, the trade routes of the Tigris and Euphrates Basin, the Silk Route, Indus River communication trails and Greek maritime itineraries, all attended the meeting and reflected, with the Andean specialists, upon the categories of analysis to be fulfilled or a comprehensive comparative study