The Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape
Western Cape Department of Cultural Affairs and Sport
Western Cape Province
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Situated withinan area bound by: S34 16 E18 34 ; S33 28 E18 34, S33 16 E 20 19
The Cape Winelands cultural landscape is situated in the extreme south-western corner of the African continent in the immediate vicinity of and adjacent to Cape Town, the capital of the Western Cape Province, one of nine provinces of the Republic of South Africa.
Together with three soil types - granite, shale and sandstone - the mediterranean climate of the Western Cape, influenced by maritime conditions and mountainous terroir, is viticulturally ideal for growing good grapes.
Historic overview of the wine industry in the Cape : The first vines at the Cape were planted in 1655 in the Company Gardens at the foot of Table Mountain to provide the Dutch East India Company (DEIC) fleets with fresh produce, water and wine for their long voyages to the East Indies and Europe. After the small land grants along the Amsel (now the Liesbeeck) River on the slopes of Table Mountain were made to the first 9 Free Burghers in 1657, more vines were planted. Barely two years later, on 2 February 1659, the first wine was produced at the Cape. By 1680 Governor Simon van der Stel planted more than 100,000 vines in the Constantia valley. After the French king Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, some 150 Huguenots and their families came to the Cape and from 1688 were given land grants, primarily in the Upper Berg River valley. These Protestant refugees brought with them the knowledge of viticulture, which helped to promote and advance the prosperity of the Cape. From 1761, Constantia regularly exported red and white wines to Europe.
When the British took control of the Cape in 1795, the wine trade and brandy production boomed and a dramatic rise in wine export occurred during the first half of the 19th century. However, by 1861 Great Britain and France entered into a trade agreement and the subsequent lowered import tariffs on French wine imported into Britain negatively impacted on Cape wine exports. To make things worst, the phylloxera louse (Phylloxera vastatrix) created havoc in the Cape winelands from 1885 after decimating vineyards in Europe.
After the end of the South African War (1899-1902), vineyards were re-established with vines grafted onto imported phylloxera-resistant rootstocks. In 1906, the first South African wine co-operatives were formed in response to the depression in the wine and spirit industry. Regulations for cultivation and prices were established, followed by a quota system to curb over-production. This was followed by the formation of the Ko-operatiewe Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Beperkt (KWV) in 1918. In 1924 an American doctor, Jack Winshaw, and a local farmer began producing natural wine. In 1935 the Stellenbosch Farmers' Wineries was registered as a public company, followed in 1945 by the establishment of the Distillers Corporation. The dawn of a democratic South African society at the end of the 20th century also heralded the abolishment of the over-controlled wine industry and the introduction of black empowerment initiatives.
Development of a Cape vernacular architecture: From the outset, and following the example of the indigenous Khoikhoi and San, the settlers and slaves at the Cape were dependent on the availability of local materials to build shelters. A limited amount of building materials, such as hard timber and floor tiles, were imported from Madagascar, Mauritius (Ille de France), the East Indies and the Netherlands. Stone was quarried and sun-dried bricks were made to build walls. Indigenous trees in the forests on the slopes of the Cape mountains were felled and hand-sawed into beams, rafters, doors and window frames, while the readily-available reeds (restio) of the Cape fynbos was used as thatching material for roofs. The Cape limekilns were stacked with seashells from the beaches or, further into the interior, with local limestone to produce lime for building purposes. Exotic tree species, such as the oak (Quercus rubur), bamboo and poplar, were planted on the farms to supplement the shortage of timber for construction purposes.
Some of the characteristic elements of the Cape vernacular architecture were established during the visit to the Cape in 1685 of a High Commissioner of the DEIC who gave instructions to the then Governor that all new buildings of the Company at the Cape had to be constructed with local stone at least up to window-sill height, had to be plastered and then limewashed to protect it from the notorious Cape winter weather (there was not enough timber available at the Cape to produce hard-baked bricks) and low walls were to be built to connect buildings and structures to create an enclosed farmstead that resembled a Dutch "hofstede". This was the origin of the ring-walled farmsteads and DEIC outposts that dot the Cape landscape. Even the Governor applied these instructions and he added to them the latest mathematical and scientific principles from Europe to personally set out his own estate, Constantia, and at least one outpost of the Company, Vergelegen. It was also here that a wide variety of exotic fruits and vegetables, sourced from all over the globe, were planted as experiments that laid the basis of the commercial agricultural development in South Africa.
By 1692 more land was granted to Free Burghers and freed black slaves. Following the prosperity that the 18th century brought to the Cape, farmsteads, originally simple and basic utilitarian, acquired gables - the earliest dated from the mid 18th century. These gables, both front and back gables as well as end gables, were usually decorated with plaster elements. During the latter part of the 18th century, Cape Town was known as "Little Paris".
From the 1690s until 1815, more than 63,000 slaves and political exiles, originally from the East Indies (approximately 50%), the Far East (less than 1%) slaves from the Coromandel and Malabar coasts of the Indian subcontinent (approximately 25%) and from the rest of Africa, Mauritius and Madagascar (24%) were brought to the Cape. At the same time sailors, soldiers, craftsmen, labourers and Company officials originating from Europe also set foot at the Cape. Many were skilled craftsmen and women and were instrumental in the development, interpretation and the decorations found on the Cape's vernacular architecture, reflecting the cultural diversity of the artisans, the owners and the stylistic influences assembled from Africa, Europe and Asia. Some farmers had teams of slave artisans specialising in crafts related to the building trade, such as plasterers, thatchers, ironmongers and carpenters. Others were talented cabinetmakers or silversmiths who crafted furniture and utensils that filled the homesteads. Only a few of these talents are known by name, in most cases Cape vernacular architecture has the anonymous yet individual signatures of individuals who meticulously worked on the elements that make up the whole - sometimes sophisticated, sometimes naive. The Cape vernacular architecture even triggered a Revival Cape Dutch movement during the 20th century throughout Southern Africa.
Much of the documentation related to both the history of the viticulture, the development of a vernacular architecture and slave history is included in the holdings of the Western Cape Archives, which is included in the VOC Archives inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World.
Land ownership : The majority of properties that have already been identified as significant to the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape is privately owned.
Management structure: The Western Cape government has promulgated regulations in 2002 in terms of the National Heritage Resources Act, Act 25 of 1999, providing for the establishment of a provincial heritage resources authority for the Western Cape, known as Heritage Western Cape. Heritage Western Cape is responsible for the management of heritage resources in the province.
In terms of section 30(5) of the National Heritage Resources Act, all local planning authorities in the Western Cape Province are required to compile an inventory of the heritage resources, which fall within its area of jurisdiction and submit such inventory to Heritage Western Cape for grading.
Furthermore, this inventory of heritage resources must be utilised as an important component in the review zoning scheme of Integrated Development Plans of all planning authorities and municipalities. In doing so, planning authorities are also empowered in terms of section 36(1) of the National Heritage Resources Act to identify heritage areas meeting the criteria set out in the Act.
The Western Cape Provincial Spatial Development Framework was developed to provide spatial development guidance to government, private owners and business in the province. The identification of core areas and buffer zones for the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape is an important step in guiding sustainable development in the proposed core areas and buffer zones, to ensure the conservation of the cultural landscape and to preserve the integrity of the cultural landscapes, suitable cultural tourism management plans and conservation management plans are to be developed to preserve the integrity of the cultural landscape.
Once the core areas and buffer zones have been finalised, a proposed coordinated management structure will be proposed to ensure coordination and compliance with the conservation management plan for the proposed site. This proposed structure will have to take into account the legal mandates of all affected local and district municipalities as well as that of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape.
Conservation management challenges: Vineyards fit into landscapes and, in many cases around the world, actually sculpt these landscapes. Wines and the associated activities, culture and architecture are often linked to the region or the landscape and form the basis of a rich cultural heritage. An unique conservation management challenge facing the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape is the fact that in many locations (the Constantia Valley in Cape Town, the Hottentots-Holland region, Stellenbosch, Franschhoek and Paarl), the proposed areas to be considered for inclusion in the serial nomination would border on or would have, as a backdrop, the Cape Floristic Protected Areas World Heritage site, inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2004. A symbiotic relationship will have to be developed between the proposed cultural landscape areas and the adjoining Cape Floristic Protected Areas that may pose interesting challenges, although examples of how cultural landscapes and natural areas are management do exist elsewhere in the world. In order to proceed with the preparation of the nomination dossier, it has now become necessary to determine the extent of the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape. It is clear that it will straddle the area of jurisdiction of various conservation, planning and tourism authorities. This will required that effective and efficient conservation management plans and tourism development plans are in place for the identified core areas and buffer zones. To ensure that the requirements of the World Heritage Convention, its Operational Guidelines and the World Heritage Committee are met, it would be essential to develop an overarching, integrated conservation management plan for the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape that would form the basis of the management of the proposed cultural landscape and could also apply to the buffer zones that would be identified. The proposed conservation management plan could in future also be incorporated in planning and conservation legislation that are applied by various authorities. As far as the conservation and management of vineyard cultural landscapes are concerned, stakeholder participation and sharing of benefits are considered crucial for the sustainability of cultural landscapes - the people who live and work there are the main actors to ensure the future conservation of the cultural landscape. Tools for landscape and vineyard conservation include urban/rural recovery plans, regional planning and development plans and a conservation programme for natural areas. The delimitation and boundaries of a site should be based on geographical units and historic territories, such as the perimeter of the wine and wine growing areas. If the core area does not fully match the coherent unit, it must be covered by the buffer zone. For buffer zones a continuity in time and space is relevant with certain patterns to be preserved, but also areas where new heritage elements can be elaborated need to be taken into account. Workshops have been held with stakeholders and planning authorities to consult and identify possible core areas and buffer zones in order for them to comprehend the implications and the need for a coordinated conservation management plan that encompass both the identified core areas and the buffer zones. As a cultural landscape, the Cape Winelands cultural alndscape can be considered to be a continuing evolved landscape, a cultural landscape, or a vineyard cultural landscape, that may be subject to change of use and introduction of new techniques. This would be acceptable as long as these changes do not jeopardize any of the World Heritage values for which the site could be nominated.
International conferences, the World Heritage Committee's Global Strategy, and ICOMOS' Comparative Thematic Study on Vineyard Cultural Landscapes: In 1992 the World Heritage Committee adopted three categories of cultural landscapes that are included in the Operational Guidelines for consideration as criteria for the World Heritage List. Cultural landscapes are inscribed on the List on the basis of the cultural heritage criteria. The identification of cultural landscapes focuses on human coexistence with the land and human beings in society, as set out in the Global Strategy. The IUCN and ICOMOS held an Expert Meeting at La Petite Pierre in 1992 in France and Schörfheide/Templin in Germany in 1993 to further discuss matters pertaining to cultural landscapes. In 1994 the World Heritage Committee adopted a Global Strategy for a representative, credible, balanced World Heritage List. It aims to ensure that the List reflects the world's cultural and natural diversity of outstanding universal value. At the World Heritage Global Strategy for Natural and Cultural Heritage Expert Meeting, held in Amsterdam in the Netherlands in 1998, ICOMOS proposed, inter alia, that a study on cultural landscapes in Southern Africa be undertaken under the theme Intellectual Development of the Convention. It was again stressed that cultural landscapes and living cultures are still underrepresented on the World Heritage List. The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS organised three expert meetings in Harare in Zimbabwe (1995), Addis Ababa (1996) and Porto Novo, Benin (1998) to further discuss the conservation of the natural and cultural heritage. Two workshops were also held on cultural landscapes in Africa, one in Bagayomo (1993) and in Harare (1996). In 1999 the World Heritage Centre organised the Regional Thematic Global Strategy meeting in Nairobi to specifically deal with cultural landscapes in Africa. In July 2001, the World Heritage Thematic Expert Meeting on Vineyard Cultural Landscapes took place in Tokai, Hungary. Two previous Regional Thematic Expert Meetings on Cultural Landscapes for the European Region were held (Vienna, Austria 1996 and Bialystok, Poland 1999) and in 2000 the meeting on Cultural Landscapes: Concepts and Implementation, was held in Italy. In 1999 an Expert meeting on Cultural Landscapes of Africa, held in, Kenya, while 1998 saw the Cultural Landscape Expert Meeting, as exemplified by the Wachau, held in Austria. To mark the 30th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, UNESCO, with the support of the Government of Italy organised an International Congress in 2002 to reflect on some of the issues, achievement and challenges of the World Heritage mission. Nine workshops were held, one of which was held in Ferrara on the challenges of conservation in cultural landscapes. An International Symposium, entitled Landscapes of Vines and Wines: Heritage - Implications - Enhancement/Paysages de Vignes et de Vins: Patrimoine - Enjeux - Valorisation were also held at the Abbaye Royale de Fontevraud in the Val de Loire, France in July 2004. Specialists and researchers in various sectors, agronomists, environmentalists and heritage practitioners were invited and a poster exhibition of research and information was held to enrich the contents of the symposium and expose themes that were not dealt with by speakers. In compliance with the Global Strategy and in order for the World Heritage Committee to assess nomination dossiers on vineyard cultural landscapes, ICOMOS was commissioned by the Special Session of the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee held in Budapest, Hungary in October 2000, to undertake a comparative study on vineyard cultural landscapes. The study Les paysages culturels viticoles: Étude Thémeatique sur les Paysages Culturels Viticoles Dans le Cadre de la Convention du Patrimoine Mondial de l'UNESCO, by Regina Durighello and Pierre-Marie Tricaud, was completed in May 2004. The 2nd International Conference of the Alliance of World Heritage Cultural Landscapes, held in Sintra in Portugal from 30th September to 3rd October 2008, paid particular attention to the landscapes of Northern Europe and wine-producing landscapes. The Conference concluded that that wine growing regions develop alongside human activity. It is difficult to establish if it was humankind that adapted to the singularity of the region or if it is the latter that surrendered to mankind's whim of building walls and terraces and thus obtained from them a unique productive activity, which has been ongoing over time. These are evolving landscapes, combining the efforts of humankind and nature. A vineyard cultural landscape must, therefore, be seen as a generous strategic and financial resource and the increase in eco- and agricultural tourism be supported.
2005 Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape Stakeholders meeting: A stakeholders meeting was held in January 2005 at the historic Groot Constantia estate in Cape Town that brought a representative number of professional practitioners, owners of properties in the Cape Winelands, government departments and agencies, conservation authorities and non-governmental organizations together to discuss the future management of the proposed Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape. This stakeholder meeting was presented as a collaboration between UNESCO's World Heritage Centre (Dutch Funds-in-Trust), the Groot Constantia Estate in Cape Town and Heritage Western Cape, the provincial heritage resource authority of the Western Cape Province. An overview of the motivation for the inclusion on the South African Tentative List of potential World Heritage sites was presented. The interaction between the proposed nomination of the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape as a World Heritage cultural landscape and the Provincial Spatial Development Framework, that has since been developed, was reiterated and supported the recommendation that heritage resources should be one of the factors influencing the Spatial Development Framework, both at provincial and at local level. The role of local government in planning and heritage resource management was also highlighted. Town and regional planning and the need to address heritage resource management in planning proposals were underlined. Furthermore, the lack in the provisions in South African legislation to provide adequate and appropriate legal protection to areas that could be identified as cultural landscapes was stressed. Participants were able to identify elements that, collectively, form the Cape Winelands cultural landscape. These include both tangible and intangible elements in the natural as well as cultural environment. Possible strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities were also identified that could impact on the Cape Winelands cultural landscape nomination. A presentation on vineyard cultural landscapes inscribed on the World Heritage List was followed with an analysis of the recommendations of the ICOMOS Expert Vineyard Cultural Landscape Study and a critical discussion on the applicability of these recommendations on a vineyard cultural landscape outside of Europe. A presentation of the activities of the management authority of the Loire Valley in France, also inscribed on the World Heritage List, followed. The Chairperson of the 29th Session of the World Heritage Committee gave the keynote address on the role of heritage in society and specifically in Africa. He elaborated on the plans to place heritage in Africa on the NEPAD agenda and reported on the forthcoming meeting of the 30th Session of the World Heritage Committee in Durban in July 2005. The stakeholders' meeting was concluded by an overview of the current investment in the development and conservation of the existing six World Heritage sites in South Africa. The methodology pertaining to the planning process for a proposed framework for the development of a conservation management plan was set out during the Stakeholders meeting. The criteria applicable for nomination of a cultural site on the World Heritage List and the categories of cultural landscapes provided in the Operational Guidelines were presented. During the breakaway sessions participants were asked to express their opinions about the applicability of these criteria on the proposed nomination of the Cape Winelands cultural landscape. An interesting proposal is the recommendation that criterion (ii) also be considered as a criterion applicable in the case of the proposed Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape nomination. Furthermore, the roles and contributions of slaves and other labourers in the development of the viticulture of the Western Cape were also stressed during the discussions. An annotated bibliography was also compiled.
2007 Stakeholders Meeting on the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape:The purpose of this meeting was to: (a) continue the consultation with national, provincial and local planning authorities, professional bodies, owners of properties, stakeholders in the wine industry and other role-players to develop draft proposals and elicit discussions and recommendations regarding the feasibility of a serial/cluster World Heritage nomination of the most representative areas from a cultural-historical perspective based on the findings of the 2005 Stakeholder meeting outcomes; and (b) engage with already commissioned heritage practitioners/planners and planning authorities in the City of Cape Town regarding the progress made with the identification of heritage resources, especially in the Constantia Valley, and the planning of proposals to identify and demarcate areas of significance that could be considered for inclusion in the Cape Winelands cultural landscape nomination proposal. The keynote addresses presented by Piet van Zyl and Prof Fabio Todeschini provided insight into progress made recently with the further identification of heritage resources and the proposed demarcation of areas of significance in Cape Town, especially in the Constantia, Lower Eerste River and the Lourens River Valleys that, collectively, could possibly form the basis of proposals of core areas of the proposed Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape nomination. The draft Integrated Zoning Scheme of the City of Cape Town would, when completed, be consulted with stakeholders prior to its adoption and implementation. It is expected that the draft would be published for comments towards the latter part of 2008. Given the distribution of possible areas that could be considered included in the proposed nomination dossier of the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape, it was vital that a shared understanding be developed amongst the various stakeholders of the criteria applicable to the nomination of cultural landscapes as set out in the Operational Guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Copies of the criteria, the Operational Guidelines and the World Heritage Convention have been distributed to stakeholders that attended the Workshop. Copies of the framework for the proposed Conservation Management Plan for the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape, developed in 2005, were made available together with other documentation to stakeholders attending the 2007 meeting. Again, it became clear that it was vital to ascertain the suitability of the framework for the proposed Conservation Management Plan during the ongoing consultation with stakeholders, owners and other role-players and to revise it, if and when necessary. The adoption of the Cultural Heritage Strategy by the City of Cape Town in 2005, and the recognition of the unique contribution that cultural landscapes made to a sense of place and identity has been welcomed by all the stakeholders. The Spatial Development Framework of the City of Cape Town, and the related District Spatial Development Plans, will be informed by heritage and environmental audits, including cultural landscapes and other identified heritage resources. This will ensure the development of a Heritage Site Overlay Zone. The data captured in during the Heritage Inventory Project of the City of Cape Town will interact directly on the land use management and building development management tracking systems of the City's GPS information system. This Project will also eventually make it possible to propose conservation areas.
On 30rd and 31st October 2008 a follow-up Stakeholders' meeting will be held in Stellenbosch to consult planning authorities and stakeholders on the identification of possible core areas and buffer zones in the jurisdication area of the Cape Winelands District Municipality.
Budgetary matters: The consultative process funded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) from its Dutch Funds-in-Trust. This funding is conditional that the Cape Winelands Cultural landscape is included in the Tentative List of World Heritage of South Africa.
Site readiness: The preparation of the nomination dossier will progress further as another consultative meeting to identify core areas and buffer zones for the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape is underway in October 2008. At the same time the process will include close consultation with the relevant planning authorities and role-players and stakeholders in the coordination of information required once the compilation of the nomination dossier is undertaken.
Justification de la Valeur Universelle Exceptionelle
The Cape Winelands is an outstanding example of a cultural landscape enriched by influences accumulated from four continents (Africa, Asia and the East Indies, Europe and Northern America), natural elements ideally suited for viticulture and situated in a dramatic environment where a unique vernacular architecture developed. With its vineyards, orchards and fields and farmsteads, cellars, villages and towns, including the oldest city in South Africa nestling on the slopes of the Cape's mountains or on the plains along water courses, the Cape Winelands illustrate the impact of human settlement, slave labour and agricultural activities, and more specifically the production of the Cape wines, since colonialization in the mid 17th century on the natural landscape.
Criterion (ii): The Cape Winelands as a continuing cultural landscape, exhibits an important interchange of human values and retains an active social role in contemporary society associated with the traditional way of life of the wine industry, and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress, as is illustrated in the developments towards the end of the 20th century. At the same time it exhibits significant material evidence in the development of Cape vernacular architecture and the formation and development of a cultural landscape design in the evolution of the economic development thereof over time.
Criterion (iii): The Cape Winelands cultural landscape bears an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition, which is living and evolving. This includes the development of a new indigenous language, i.e. Afrikaans. The Cape Winelands cultural landscape illustrates the impact of human settlement and agricultural activities and more specifically the production of the Cape wines over a period of more than 360 years on the natural landscape.
Criterion (iv): A unique Cape vernacular architecture developed through the contributions from the available building materials, settlement patterns and cultural interaction between people of diverse cultural backgrounds, such as European settlers, slaves from the East Indies and the Indian subcontinent and Africa and indigenous Khoikhoi.
Criterion (v): The Cape Winelands cultural landscape illustrated the evolution of a human society, land-use and settlement over time, under the influence of and in interaction with the physical constraints and opportunities presented by the natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces that were moulded here from four continents.
Déclarations d’authenticité et/ou d’intégrité
The majority of the historic farmsteads, vineyards and settlements that meets the criteria to be included in the cluster nomination are protected as provincial heritage resources or in terms of provisions in terms of national legislation (the National Heritage Resources Act, 1999 (Act 25 of 1999). The Western Cape Provincial Government has also promulgating regulations in terms of Act 25 of 1999 for the establishment of Heritage Western Cape, the provincial heritage resources authority. Heritage Western Cape is responsible for the management of provincial heritage resources in the Western Cape Province.
Integrated management mechanisms will, however, have to be developed with the input from all role-players and local, provincial and national authorities to ensure the conservation of the cultural landscape. Furthermore, in order to preserve the integrity of the cultural landscape, suitable cultural tourism management plans and conservation management plans will have to be developed for the proposed Cape Winelands cultural landscape.
Comparaison avec d’autres biens similaires
In preparing the nomination dossier for the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape, the proposal to nominate the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape as a World Heritage site will be analysed and compared with nomination dossiers, the criteria used and the evaluation reports of ICOMOS and the IUCN when some of the following cultural landscapes had been inscribed on the World Heritage List:
1. Cultural landscapes situated on islands:
The 987-ha site on the volcanic island of Pico, the second largest in Azores archipelago of Portugal, consists of a remarkable pattern of spaced-out, long linear walls running inland from, and parallel to, the rocky shore. The walls were built to protect the thousands of small, contiguous, rectangular, plots (crrais) from wind and salt sea water . Evidence of this viniculture, whose origins date back to the 15th century is manifest in the extraordinary assembly of the fields, in houses and early 19th century manor houses, in wine-cellars, churches and ports. The extraordinarily beautiful man-made landscape of the site is the best remaining area of a once much more widespread practice. The Pico Island landscape reflects a unique response to viniculture on a small volcanic island and one that has been evolving since the arrival of the first settlers in the 15th century. The extraordinarily beautiful man-made landscape of the site is the best remaining area of a once much more widespread practice. Criteria (iii) and (v): The Pico Island landscape reflects a unique response to viniculture on a small volcanic island and one that has been evolving since the arrival of the first settlers in the 15th century. The extraordinarily beautiful man-made landscape of small, stone walled fields is testimony to generations of small-scale farmers who, in a hostile environment, created a sustainable living and much-prized wine (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2004).
The Stari Grad Plain on the Adriatic island of Hvar in Croatia is a cultural landscape that has remained practically intact since it was first colonized by Ionian Greeks from Paros in the 4th century BC. The original agricultural activity of this fertile plain, mainly centering on grapes and olives, has been maintained since Greek times to the present. The site is also a nature reserve. The landscape features ancient stone walls and trims, or small stone shelters, and bears testimony to the ancient geometrical system of land division used by the ancient Greeks, the chora which has remained virtually intact over 24 centuries. The Stari Grad Plain represents a comprehensive system of land use and agricultural colonisation by the Greeks, in the 4th century BC. Its land organisation system, based on geometrical parcels with dry stone wall boundaries (chora), is exemplary. This system was completed from the very first by a rainwater recovery system involving the use of tanks and gutters. The land parcel system set up by the Greek colonisers has been respected over later periods. Agricultural activity in the chora has been uninterrupted for 24 centuries up to the present day, and is mainly based on grapes and olives. The ensemble today constitutes the cultural landscape of a fertile cultivated plain whose territorial organisation is that of the Greek colonisation. Based on criteria (ii), (iii) and (v), the Plain was inscribed on the World Heritage List. The management plan and of the authority in charge of its application should enable the carrying out of a thorough programme of archaeological excavations, the fostering of sustainable agricultural development in the chora and the control of urban and tourism development in the vicinity of the property, with all due care being taken to ensure that its outstanding universal value is respected (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2008).
The Agricultural Landscape of the southern part of the island Öland in the Baltic Sea (Sweden) is dominated by a vast limestone plateau. Human beings have lived here for some five thousand years and adapted their way of life to the physical constraints of the island. As a consequence, the landscape is unique, with abundant evidence of continuous human settlement from prehistoric times to the present day. Inscribed based on criterion (iv) and (v), the landscape of Southern Öland takes its contemporary form from its long cultural history, adapting to the physical constraints of the geology and topography and is an outstanding example of human settlement, making the optimum use of diverse landscape types on a single island (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000).
The St Kilda volcanic archipelago, with its spectacular landscapes, is situated off the coast of the Hebrides of the United Kingdom, comprises the islands of Hirta, Dun, Soay and Boreray. It has some of the highest cliffs in Europe, which have large colonies of rare and endangered species of birds, especially puffins and gannets. The archipelago, uninhabited since 1930, bears the evidence of more than 2,000 years of human occupation in the extreme conditions prevalent in the Hebrides. Human vestiges include built structures and field systems, the cleits and the traditional Highland stone houses. The cultural landscape of St. Kilda is an outstanding example of land use resulting from a type of subsistence economy based on the products of birds, cultivating land and keeping sheep. The cultural landscape reflects age-old traditions and land uses, which have become vulnerable to change particularly after the departure of the islanders. They feature the vulnerable remains of a subsistence economy based on the products of birds, agriculture and sheep farming. St Kilda was inscribed on the basis of cultural criteria (iii) and (v) (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2005).
An interesting comparison could be made between the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape and the proposed Curaçao Cultural Landscape Plantation System in the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean. Peter Stuyvesant, as the West India Company governor of the island, divided the countryside up into estates that were leased on long-lease grants to settlers after the West India Company withdrew from agrarian activities on the island. The Dutch settlers, dependent on slave labour to help cultivate their land holdings, constructed extensive farmsteads, known as landhuizen, on these properties. As was the case at the Cape, these landhuizen were sought-after possessions for retired merchants and Company officials. More than 80 of these landhuizen dating from the 17th and 18th century, dot the island today. An International Expert Meeting under the auspices of the Curaçao authorities and UNESCO's World Heritage Centre was held in Curaçao in April 2006 on the proposed Curaçao Cultural Landscape Plantation System. During the meeting, a presentation of the Cape Winelands Cultural Landscape was made as a comparative analysis and it was extraordinary to see the parallel commonalities that were found, rather than differences. These included the Dutch influence in architecture and planning, especially in gable design, lay-out and detail finishes such as plaster and woodwork, military fortifications and defences, comparisons between the slave history of the Caribbean (from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean) to Brazil and from there on to the Caribbean and the United States of America and the slave history of South Africa (across the Indian Ocean from the East Indies and other parts of Asia and Africa) and the significant role that slave labour played in the development of agriculture and commerce, the comparisons between the influence of the Dutch East India Company at the Cape compared with that of the West India Company in the Caribbean and South America, settlement patterns and most interesting, the development of new languages (Papiamento in Curaçao, which is still the vernacular language that is used, and Afrikaans at the Cape). Yet each cultural landscape also has its own unique features.
The nomination dossier on the Wine Villages and Terraces of Cyprus was presented to the 28th Session of the World Heritage Committee in 2004, but the site was not inscribed on the World Heritage List.
2. Cultural landscapes situated along the coast or adjacent to lakes:
The Fertö/Neusiedlersee area in the Burgenland region of Austria and the adjacent Hungary has been the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia. This is graphically demonstrated by its varied landscape, the result of an evolutionary symbiosis between human activity and the physical environment. The remarkable rural architecture of the villages surrounding the lake and several 18th- and 19th-century palaces adds to the area's considerable cultural interest. It was inscribed on the World Heritage List on the basis of criterion (v): The Fertö-Neusiedler Lake has been the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia, and this is graphically demonstrated by its varied landscape, the result of an evolutionary and symbiotic process of human interaction with the physical environment (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2001)
The Costiera Almafitana in Italy is an area of great physical beauty and natural diversity. It has been intensively settled by human communities since the early Middle Ages. There are a number of towns such as Amalfi and Ravello with architectural and artistic works of great significance. The rural areas show the versatility of the inhabitants in adapting their use of the land to the diverse nature of the terrain, which ranges from terraced vineyards and orchards on the lower slopes to wide upland pastures. The Costiera Amalfitana was inscribed on the basis of criteria (ii), (iv) and (v), considering that the Costiera Amalfitana is an outstanding example of a Mediterranean landscape, with exceptional cultural and natural scenic values resulting from its dramatic topography and historical evolution (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1997).
The Ligurian coast in Italy between Cinque Terre and Portovenere is a cultural landscape of great scenic and cultural value and includes the islands of Palmara, Tino and Tinetto. The layout and disposition of the small towns and the shaping of the surrounding landscape, overcoming the disadvantages of a steep, uneven terrain, encapsulate the continuous history of human settlement in this region over the past millennium. Portovenere, Cinque Terre and the islands of Plamara, Tino and Tinetto were inscribed on the World Heritage List on the basis of criteria (ii), (iv) and (v), considering that the eastern Ligurian Riviera between Cinque Terre and Portovenere is a cultural site of outstanding value, representing the harmonious interaction between people and nature to produce a landscape of exceptional scenic quality that illustrates a traditional way of life that has existed for a thousand years and continues to play an important socio-economic role in the life of the community (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1997).
The Lavaux Vineyard Landscape in Switzerland is a thriving cultural landscape that demonstrates in a highly visible way its evolution and development over almost a millennia, through the well preserved landscape and buildings, and also the continuation and adaptation of longstanding cultural traditions, specific to its locality. It also illustrates very graphically the story of patronage, control and protection of this highly valued wine growing area, all of which contributed substantially to the development of Lausanne and its region and played a significant role in the history of the geo-cultural region; and, has prompted, in response to its vulnerability next to fast-growing settlements, exceptional popular protection. The Lavaux Vineyard Landscape was incribed on the basis of critera (iii), (iv) and (v). The nominated boundaries include all the elements of the wine growing process, and the extent of the traditional wine growing area since at least the 12th century. The terraces are in continuous use and well maintained. They have evolved over several centuries to their present form; there is now agreement that change needs to be tempered by respect for local traditions. The state of conservation of the villages, individual buildings, roads and footpaths, and vineyard plots within the nominated area is high. A Management Plan has been approved for the property. It provides an analysis of socio-economic data, and a series of management strategies for research and culture, economy, land-use planning and tourism (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2007).
3. Cultural landscapes along rivers and valleys:
Traditional landholders in the Alto Douro Region in Portugal have produced wine for some 2,000 years. Since the 18th century, its main product, port wine, has been world famous for its quality. This long tradition of viticulture has produced a cultural landscape of outstanding beauty that reflects its technological, social and economic evolution. Criteria: (iii) The Alto Douro region has been producing wine for nearly 2,000 years and its landscape has been moulded by human activities, (iv) the components of the Alto Douro landscape are representative of the full range of activities associated with winemaking - terraces, quintas (wine-producing farm complexes), villages, chapels and roads, and (v) The Alto Douro landscape is an outstanding example of the traditional European wine-producing region, reflecting the evolution of this human activity over time (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2001).
The Wachau Cultural Landscape is situated along a stretch of the Danube Valley of Austria between Melk and Krems and has a high visual landscape quality. It preserves intact and visible many traces, in terms of architecture, urban design and agricultural use, principally for the cultivation of vines, of its continuous and organic evolution since prehistoric times. It is an outstanding example of a riverine landscape bordered by mountains in which material evidence of its long historical evolution (the stone sculpture Venus of Willendorf, c. 15,000 - 10,000 BC was found here) has survived to a remarkable degree. The architecture, the human settlements and the agricultural use of the land in the Wachau vividly illustrate a basically medieval landscape, which has evolved organically and harmoniously over time (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000).
The Loire Valley between Chalonnes and Sully-sur-Loire in France is an outstanding cultural landscape of great beauty, containing historic towns and villages, great architectural monuments (the châteaux), and cultivated lands formed by many centuries of interaction between their population and the physical environment, primarily the river Loire itself. The Loire Valley was inscribed in terms of criterion (i) as being noteworthy for the quality of its architectural heritage, in its historic towns such as Blois, Chinon, Orléans, Saumur, and Tours, but in particular in its world-famous châteauxs, such as the Château de Chambord, criterion (ii) as the Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape along a major river which bears witness to an interchange of human values and to a harmonious development of interactions between human beings and their environment over two millennia and criterion (iv) as the landscape of the Loire Valley, and more particularly its many cultural monuments, illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design. The Chateau and Estate of Chambord, which was previously inscribed on the World Heritage List, is part of the Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000).
The 65km-stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley in Germany, with its castles, historic towns and vineyards, graphically illustrates the long history of human involvement with a dramatic and varied natural landscape. It is intimately associated with history and legend and for centuries has exercised a powerful influence on writers, artists and composers. It was inscribed on the basis of the following criteria: Criterion (ii) As one of the most important transport routes in Europe, the Middle Rhine Valley has for two millennia facilitated the exchange of culture between the Mediterranean region and the north. Criterion (iv) The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding organic cultural landscape, the present-day character of which is determined both by its geomorphological and geological setting and by the human interventions, such as settlements, transport infrastructure, and land-use, that it has undergone over two thousand years. Criterion (v) The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding example of an evolving traditional way of life and means of communication in a narrow river valley. The terracing of its steep slopes in particular has shaped the landscape in many ways for more than two millennia. However, this form of land-use is under threat from the socio-economic pressures of the present day (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2002).
4. Regional cultural landscapes:
The Tokai Wine Region Cultural Landscape in Hungary graphically demonstrates the long tradition of wine production in this region of low hills and river valleys. The intricate pattern of vineyards, farms, villages, and small towns, with their historic networks of deep wine cellars, illustrates every facet of the production of the famous Tokai wines, the quality and management of which have been strictly regulated for nearly three centuries. Criteria: (iii) The Tokai wine region represents a distinct viticultural tradition that has existed for at least a thousand years and which has survived intact up to the present, (v) the entire landscape of the Tokai wine region, including both vineyards and long established settlements, vividly illustrates the specialised form of traditional land-use that it represents (inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2002).
The Tokaj Wine Region in the adjacent Slovakia has been added to the Tentative List of the state party. It is a testimony of an unique land-use culture that has been existing for centuries and the related cultural traditions, too. The history of Tokaj Wine Region goes back to the pre-historic time. The first archaeological approval of this tradition is 17 centuries old knife of wine, found in archaeological locality Alamenev in Nizná Mysla. The oldest is the settlement of Vinicky, dated 3000 - 5000 B. C. Centuries-old experience of grape cultivation and viticulture evolved the unique geographical, geological, geomorphologic, hydrological and climatic condition of the Tokaj Wine Region, which is characteristic by the weathered rocks that were produced by a great diversity of volcanic and post volcanic activity. Tokaj is a uniquely located growing area, which is warmer than those situated to further north. The Tokaj wine is made through a unique technology from grapes that are harvested when they are over ripe and when the botrytis sets in. During the long and dry autumn botrytis the noble mold penetrates the flesh of the fruit, where it transforms the aromas.
Viticulture was introduced to the fertile region of Aquitaine in France by the Romans, and intensified in the Middle Ages. The Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion in Aquitaine benefited from its location on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela and many churches, monasteries and hospices were built there from the 11th century onwards. It was granted the special status of a 'jurisdiction' during the period of English rule in the 12th century. It is an exceptional landscape devoted entirely to wine-growing, with many fine historic monuments in its towns and villages. The Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion was inscribed on the basis of the following criteria: Criterion (iii): The Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion is an outstanding example of an historic vineyard landscape that has survived intact and in activity to the present day. Criterion (iv): The intensive cultivation of grapes for wine production in a precisely defined region and the resulting landscape is illustrated in an exceptional way by the historic Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion. When presented to the World Heritage Committee in 1999, the Committee expressed its appreciation for the nomination of the Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion as it represents the cultural landscape typology introduced in 1992, in which the natural environment had been transformed to a landscape of monumental value (inscribe on the World Heritage List in 1999).
The vineyard cultural landscape of Langhe, Roero, Monferrato and Valtellina in Lombardie and Monts-Sacrés du Piémont in Italy has not been inscribed on the World Heritage List, but is included on the Tentative List of Italy.
The Champagne Vineyards and the Vignoble des côtes de Nuits et de Beaune have also been included on the Tentative List of France.
5. Cultural routes:
La Ruta de vino y la cultura en los pueblos mediterraneos, Spain. Not yet inscribed on the World Heritage List, but part of the Tentative List of Spain.
6. Cities, villages and settlements associated with wine:
The Port of the Moon, port city of Bordeaux in south-west France, is inscribed as an inhabited historic city, an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble, created in the age of the Enlightenment, whose values continued up to the first half of the 20th century, with more protected buildings than any other French city except Paris. It is also recognized for its historic role as a place of exchange of cultural values over more than 2,000 years, particularly since the 12th century due to commercial links with Britain and the Low Lands. Urban plans and architectural ensembles of the early 18th century onwards place the city as an outstanding example of innovative classical and neoclassical trends and give it an exceptional urban and architectural unity and coherence. Its urban form represents the success of philosophers who wanted to make towns into melting pots of humanism, universality and culture. Bordeaux, Port of the Moon, is an outstanding example of the exchange of human values over more than two thousand years, due to its role as capital city of a world-famous wine production region and the importance of its port in commerce at regional and international levels. The urban form and architecture of the city are the result of continuous extensions and renovations since Roman times up to the 20th century. Urban plans and architectural ensembles stemming from the early 18th century onwards place the city as an outstanding example of classical and neo-classical trends and give it an exceptional urban and architectural unity and coherence. Inscribed on the basis of criteria (ii) and (iv). The City of Bordeaux has 347 listed buildings, referred to the law of 31 December 1913. The historic town is protected by the "Plan de sauvegarde et de mise en valeur" (PSMV), approved in 1988 and revised in 1998 and 2002. A buffer zone has been established. Management structures for the protection and conservation of the nominated property include the shared responsibilities of national, regional and local governments. Interventions on buildings declared Monuments historiques (classés) must have the support of the Ministry for Culture. Several plans ensure the management and conservation of the property and take into account the following aspects: preserving the historic and heritage character, allowing the controlled evolution of the historic centre, unifying the various planning rules and contributing to the international significance of metropolitan Bordeaux (inscribed in 2007).
Other World Heritage sites that have strong elements of shared heritage that could be used for comparative analyses include Paramaribo in Suriname, the 19th century coffee plantations in the foothills of the Sierra Maestra in Cuba and the 16th century Portuguese settlement of Galle in Sri Lanka.
At the World Heritage Global Strategy for Natural and Cultural Heritage Expert Meeting, held in Amsterdam in the Netherlands in 1998, ICOMOS proposed, inter alia, that a study on cultural landscapes in Southern Africa be undertaken under the theme Intellectual Development of the Convention. It was again stressed that cultural landscapes and living cultures are still underrepresented on the World Heritage List.