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Historic Center of Qoqon

Date de soumission : 18/01/2008
Critères: (ii)
Catégorie : Culturel
Soumis par :
National Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan for UNESCO
Etat, province ou région :
Ferghana Region
Coordonnées N40 35 E71
Ref.: 5291
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Description

Qoqon - is one of the cultural centers of Ancient East. It is located in the western part of Ferghana valley in the lower stream of Sokh. Historical Center of Qoqon consisting of following cultural objects: Komol-Kozi Madrasah, Dahman Shahon, Madarihon Madrasah, Norbutabiy Madrasah, Gishtlik Mosque, apartment houses. The most ancient data about Qoqon date back to the II century B.C. and belong to the Chinese traveller Chzhan Tszjan, who has characterized it as a large and developed city of the valley. Data of Qoqon presented in the works of the Arabian historians and geographers in the X-XII cc., al-Istakhri, Ibn Khav Qala, Al-Makdisi and in other sources. The city that described by ancient authors is still functioning in this place now. There were 52 madrasahs, many mosques, caravanserais, bazaars, baths and other public constructions at the beginning of the last century in the city. The most worthy attention are fine and unique by their beauty and architectural shape of buildings - a residence of governors Qoqon Khanate - Urda, Norbutabiy Madrasah, Djamiy mosque, Kamol Kozi Madrasah, Dasturkhonchi, Sohibzod Kazrat, Zingbardor and many others, have been realized talent and skill of residents of Ferghana valley, which are admired all people. Qoqon has preserved its historical structure. It consists of old and new parts. One of the most remarkable constructions is Urda - palace of Qoqon Khanate governors. The palace occupies an area of 4 hectares of the extended form and represents a multi yard composition. The front entrance is designed by the portal, turned to the east, leads a wide ramp. Above the entrance in ktoba of the main portal, there is an inscription "Arki oliy - Said Mukhammad Khudoyorkhan" (High chambers of Said Mukhammad Khudoyorkhan).

The complicated plan of the palace containing more than hundred premises, which have closed the area of 65х138 m. The front door and a residential zone were functionally marked out. In the first part of palace, there was the smart courtyard with ayvan by the perimeter, hall for receptions, exchequer and mosque with the separate courtyard. In the central have been constructed small hall for the reception, groups of premises for khan and economic courtyard with warehouses.

In architectural design of facades and interiors of the building were reflected thrift and traditions of the national architecture. The special attention has given to the main facade, Darvozahona (gate) and front hall. Other premises were modest enough. In the center of the east facade was erected portal, flanked by towers with the decorative lanterns, underline main entrance. Madrasah Komol-Kozi has been built in the middle of XIX century, to the west Madrasah Djami and was the supreme Muslim educational institution including an audience (darskhona), small premises (hudjra) and mosque - ayvan. As a whole, they make building with domestic composition.

The special attention is deserved to the entrance part (darvazahana), marked out by the decoratively trimmed portal with flanked cylindrical towers on the corners with coming to the end of dome lanterns. Behind the portal was erected a two-tiered building served as educational room, the top part of which was overlapped by tetrahedral dome. Balcony of darskhona (classroom), directed to the main facade, is original peak above an entrance in the square courtyard (20 х 20), build up with hudjras and mosque. The mosque represents itself as a four-columned, opened to the east ayvan with trabeation. Interiors are trimmed ganch, and external walls have been laid out from the baked brick without plaster. In the southern part of Qoqon is located Madrasah of Miyon Khazrat, constructed in XVIII century. It is a complicate three-domestic complex by its a plan: two court yard are located on an axis the east-west, the third adjoins them from the south. The front entrance to the Madrasah is arranged from the western side of the southern courtyard, it is marked out by the portal-dome darvazahana with the wooden gate with carving. On perimeter of the southern courtyard (32 х 26) are constructed inhabited hudjras, only in the southern part is erected multicolumn square plan mosque with the flat trabeation. Here, in the southeast corner was preserved a short minaret.

Other courtyards also surrounded with hudjras. In the east part Madrasah has erected ayvan (removed in nowadays), and educational room is constructed in the western part. Here it is possible to observe various constructive kinds of overlapping: arches, domes and flat trabeations. Facades of Madrasahs are imposed by an ordinary bricklaying. It is remarkable, that in this Madrasah studied known Uzbek poet Muhammad Amin Khodja -Muqimiy. Among numerous constructions, the certain attention deserves necropolises of Dahman-shahon and Моdarihon. Both constructions were found in XIX century and contain characteristic features of the Ferghana memorial architecture.

In Ferghana valley have received development the compound architecturally-spatial memorial complexes called «khazira». A core of such complex is the esteemed burial place allocated by fencing and erected near the memorial mosque-ziyaratkhona. Khazira is one of those techniques in medieval architecture history where has been reflected the influence of Islam and architecture forms. Khazira Dahman-Shahon (the gravestone of shahs) represents a family tomb of Qoqon governors. Its architecturally-spatial composition consists of smart portal-dome entrance (9,4х11,7), lead to the courtyard with burial places, and two-columned mosque-ayvan. Carved entrance doors, paintings of the interiors and plafonds of the mosque make decorative furniture of the complex.

In Khazira Modarikhan (mother of khan) were buried women, representatives of khan's dynasties. It was kept only the entrance portal-dome building from the complex with the sizes on the sides 7,5 х 7,5 m, with two faceted towers, which flanked the corners of the main facade. As distinct from Dahmon-shahon, there are proportions which are more graceful and considerably smart decor of portal here, where mosaic tiled geometrical figure is combined with majolica gentle, fine vegetative ornament and ganch stalactite filling of lancet niche. On the right on the portal, architect has left in one of the hexahedral tiles under glaze the date of the construction 1241 khidjra (1825). An interior of the dome is originally furnished that decorates spirally-ridge of ganch figure.

The category of earlier architectural constructions of Qoqon concerns the Madrasah of Norbuta-biya (XVIII century), constructed on the area of Chorsu. Here listeners received the highest spiritual education. Madrasah represents a one-storey building of the symmetric domestic composition by the form of the rectangular (52х79) with cylindrical towers at the corners. A square courtyard (38х38) with the oblique corners built up vaulted inhabited hudjras. The front entrance marked out with the portal, focused to the north. By the sides from it has constructed the mosque with the dome on the crossed arches and cylindrical drum that is cut by twelve lancet windows, and darskhana.

The brick building is completely deprived decorative furniture. The laying of the facade is naked and interiors shine white ganch plasters. The hall of the mosque with stalactite under domes  eaves and stellar filling of mihrab looks more beautiful than darskhana. Front doors have decorated with simple geometrical figure that the superficial carved vegetative ornament fills internal space.

The form of the portal and volumetric-spatial construction of Madrasah remind similar monuments of Bukhara (Madrasah Kukaldosh, Abdulaziskhon, Mir-Arab). Probably, Bukhara masters took part in the construction of Qoqon Madrasah, and Bukhara school of architects was reflected on this Madrasah. The latest architectural monument of Qoqon is mosque Gishtlik (brick). It constructed at the beginning of the XX century by local masters for parishioners of its quarter-guzar (city center).

The symmetric building consists of various area of the hall and ayvan (7,8х18,4), oriented to the east. On an axis of symmetry on the western winter room walls and ayvan are mihrab niches in the form of lancet deepening. 12 wooden columns installed in two ranks support flat ceiling of the summer part. Joist ceiling is laid out from vassa - semi-cylindrical poles laid by the convex part downwards that enriches the plastic view of the overlapping. In the construction of overlapping halls, has affected the influence of Russian engineers, the system of wooden rafters with false ceiling, excluding traditional intermediate support here is used.

Special value on the monument is represented with decorative furnish of the mosque. Transition from trunks of columns to figured bolsters is carried out through original wooden flat triangles with the through openwork ornament. Plafonds of the ceiling were covered only worked ornament of vegetative motives in which red and green colors are prevail. The laconic plan and original decor put mosque Gishtlik in the line of the best monuments of Qoqon architecture. The building after restoration has used on an initial function. The quarter mosque of Mulkabad constructed in 1332 hidjra (1913) is originally intertwined in the housing estate. Frontal raised ayvan and magnificent painting of eaves marked out it among surrounding buildings and underline former public destination. Symmetric in the plan mosque with flat ceilings consists of various sizes by the area of the winter hall and ayvan, attached with the east part. Convolvulus and flowers are masterfully entered in the geometrical frame on the green background of the ceiling, testifies to fine feeling of the artist that finished an interior. Originally planed construction and decor of interiors in the apartment house of Ayubbay, house Alimjan-khoji, the house Qozi (judge) Abdurakhman, the house of Qazi Saidkhan. The simplicity of the plan made in local traditions, and original decorative elements allow referring these houses to uncommon creations of the Ferghana architects.

The valuable historical and cultural issues represent the monuments of the cultural heritage located in European part of the city. They are: building of the Russian-Asia bank, house of Vadyaev, apartment house of Potelyahov, houses of brothers Simhaev, private residence of brothers Mandalak and others.

Déclarations d’authenticité et/ou d’intégrité

The given monuments of Ancient Qoqon reflect the influence, rendered by the changing of common to all mankind values on the stage of its historical development in the Middle Age time, and starting of European urbanization of Central Asia at the same time has being preserved the national tradition of architecture and town-planning.

Comparaison avec d’autres biens similaires

Almost all big cities are developed similarly to them in Uzbekistan: Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Termiz and Kogon