The Bolgar historical-architectural complex
Principal management of State Protection Control & Usage of History Monuments and Culture, Tatarstan
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The Bolgar architectural-archaeological complex (380 ha) consists of Bolgar site of ancient settlement (10-15 centuries) - cultural stratum of Volga Bolgaria center - Bolgar city, economic, political and cultural center of Volga Bolgaria, Bolgar ulus (settlement or nomad camp in some parts of Siberia) of Golden Horde within the fortifications in a form of bank and 5.63 km moat encircling its territory in the South. The Bolgar complex area is 380 ha. In the latter half of the 14 - the early 15 century The Bolgar state was repeatedly ruined by the Golden Horde khans, Russian princes and river-pirates. Moscow troops under the command of Prince Fyodor the Pestroy were sent by Vasily the Second against the Bolgars. The Bolgar city was finally destroyed and since that time has never appeared in history and been a sacred place for orthodox Muslim pilgrims. A chronicler recorded about the events in the 16 century: "And Kazan became the capital instead of Bryakhimov Bolgar city". Another man who had been captured over 20 years wrote in "Kazan History" in the middie of the 16 century: "and today the city is empty". There are the remains of monumental brick-stone structures of the latter 13-14 centuries left (the Northern and Eastern Mausoleums, the Black Chamber, the Smaller Minaret and the Khan's Tomb) and the brick-stone ruins of edifices (the Great Mosque, the Red, White and Greek Chambers, the Khan's bath and mausoleums) of public and civic purposes, remained from the former crowded Bolgar city in the period of its prosperity in the latter 13 to first half of the 14 century. At present more than a hundred remains of the ancient structures are known. The ancient city part was found in the North-East of the Bolgar complex, belonged to the Bolgar ages, the 10-11 centuries; the expansion of settling territories was traced; dwelling, trade, architectural and defensive structures were also explored. The city of Bolgar was the capital of the Bolgar state in the 13-14 centuries and some historians consider that in the 10-11 centuries.