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Lignes et géoglyphes de Nasca et de Pampas de Jumana

Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana

Located in the arid Peruvian coastal plain, some 400 km south of Lima, the geoglyphs of Nasca and the pampas of Jumana cover about 450 km2 . These lines, which were scratched on the surface of the ground between 500 B.C. and A.D. 500, are among archaeology's greatest enigmas because of their quantity, nature, size and continuity. The geoglyphs depict living creatures, stylized plants and imaginary beings, as well as geometric figures several kilometres long. They are believed to have had ritual astronomical functions.

Lignes et géoglyphes de Nasca et de Pampas de Jumana

Situés dans la plaine côtière aride du Pérou à quelque 400 km au sud de Lima, les géoglyphes de Nazca et de Pampas de Jumana couvrent environ 450 km2 . Ces lignes, tracées dans le sol entre 500 av. J.-C. et 500 apr. J.-C., soulèvent une des grandes énigmes de l'archéologie en raison de leur quantité, de leur nature, de leur taille et de leur continuité. Certains de ces géoglyphes représentent des créatures vivantes, d'autres des végétaux stylisés ou des êtres fantastiques, d'autres encore des figures géométriques de plusieurs kilomètres de long. On suppose qu'ils auraient eu une fonction rituelle liée à l'astronomie.

الخطوط والنقوش الطبيعية في نازكا وبامباس دو جومانا

تقع النقوش الطبيعية في نازكا وبامباس دو جومانا التي تمتد على 450 كلم مربع تقريبًا في الهضبة الساحليّة الجافة التي تبعد حوالى 400 كلم جنوب ليما. أما هذه الخطوط التي رسمت في الأرض ما بين 500 ق. م. و500 م، فتطرح أحد الألغاز الأكثر غموضًا في علم الآثار نظرًا لعددها وطبيعتها وحجمها واستمرارها. ويمثّل بعض هذه النقوش مخلوقاتٍ حيّةً، أما بعضها الآخر فيمثّل نباتات مزيّنة أو مخلوقات خرافية، وغيرها يمثّل صورًا هندسية تمتدّ على عدة كيلومترات. يرجّح أن يكون لهذه الرسومات دور في العبادة تتعلّق بعلم الفلك.

source: UNESCO/ERI

纳斯卡和朱马纳草原的线条图

纳斯卡和朱马纳大草原在利马以南约400公里,位于秘鲁海岸的干旱草原上,占地约450平方公里。这些线条图大约刻于公元前500年到公元500年之间,就其数量、自然状态、大小以及连续性来说,它们是考古学中最难解开的谜团之一。有些线条图描述了活着的动物、植物,想像的形象,还有数公里长的几何图形。这些物品被认为是用于与天文学有关的宗教仪式。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Линии и геоглифы в районах Наска и Пампас-де-Хумана

Геоглифы Наски и пампы Хумана, расположенные посреди пустынной равнины в приморской части Перу примерно в 400 км к югу от Лимы, занимают площадь около 450 кв. км. Эти линии, выбитые на поверхности земли в период между 500 г. до н.э. и 500 г. н.э., являются одной из величайших археологических загадок. Уникальность этих знаков проявляется в их общем количестве, происхождении, размерах и целостности. Геоглифы представляют собой изображения живых созданий, стилизованных растений и мифических существ, а также геометрические фигуры длиной в несколько километров. Полагают, что они могли выполнять ритуальные астрономические функции.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Líneas y geoglifos de Nazca y Pampas de Jumana

Situados en la árida planicie costera del Perú, a unos 400 kilómetros al sur de Lima, los geoglifos de Nazca y Pampas de Jumana cubren unos 450 km2. Trazadas en el suelo entre los años 500 a.C. y 500 d.C., las líneas plantean uno de los mayores enigmas de la arqueología debido a su número, naturaleza, tamaño y continuidad. Los geoglifos representan criaturas vivas, vegetales estilizados, seres fantásticos y figuras geométricas de varios kilómetros de longitud. Se supone que tuvieron una función ritual vinculada a la astronomía.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ナスカとフマナ平原の地上絵

source: NFUAJ

Lijnen en geogliefen van Nazca en Pampas de Jumana

De geogliefen (tekeningen in of op de aarde) van Nazca en Pampas de Jumana beslaan ongeveer 450 vierkante kilometer. Het gebied ligt in een dorre Peruaanse kustvlakte ongeveer 400 kilometer ten zuiden van Lima. De 'Nazca-lijnen' zijn de meest opvallende groep van geogliefen ter wereld. De lijnen werden tussen 500 voor en 500 na Christus gekrast in het grondoppervlak. Ze behoren tot de meest ondoordringbare raadsels van de archeologie vanwege hun hoeveelheid, aard, omvang en continuïteit. De geogliefen tonen afbeeldingen van levende wezens, gestileerde planten, imaginaire wezens en geometrische figuren van enkele kilometers lang waarvan men denkt dat ze rituele astronomische functies hadden.

Source : unesco.nl

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Lignes et géoglyphes de Nasca et de Pampas de Jumana © Silvan Rehfeld
Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

The Nazca lines and geoglyphs form a unique and magnificent artistic achievement that is unrivalled in its dimensions and diversity anywhere in the prehistoric world. This unique form of land use bears exceptional witness to the culture and beliefs of this region of pre-Hispanic South America.

The Nasca geoglyphs are located in the arid Peruvian coastal plain 400 km south of Lima, and cover 450 km2 , both in the desert and in the low Andean foothills. These are covered with ferruginous sand and gravel which has acquired a dark patina from weathering. Removal of the gravel reveals the underlying lighter coloured strata, which contrasts strongly with the darker gravels.

The 'Nazca Lines', as they are commonly known, are the most outstanding group of geoglyphs anywhere in the world. They are also one of the most impenetrable enigmas of archaeology by virtue of their quantity, nature and size, as well as their continuity. The concentration and juxtaposition of the lines, as well as their cultural continuity, demonstrate that this was an important and long-lasting activity.

Intensive study of the geoglyphs and comparison with other manifestations of contemporary art forms suggests that they can be divided into three chronological phases. The first dates from the Chavín period (500-300 BC) and is characterized by the technique of forming figures by piling stones. This was an important time of cultural developments in the Andean region, with strong influence exerted in the Inca region from the north by the Formative Middle Late Culture. The local development known as Paracas represents the second phase (400-200 BC), again strongly influenced from the north. The town of Paracas adapted its culture skilfully to its severe location and achieved a high level of artistic development.

The third phase, which represents the great majority of the geoglyphs, is the Nazca phase proper (200 BC-AD 500). The Nazca culture derived directly from that of Paracas. The Andean towns developed a powerful religious system which produced, along with Moche on the northern coast of Peru, an outstanding culture represented by its handicrafts (notably pottery) and textiles. Most of the geoglyphs of this period are located close to villages of this culture, such as La Quebrada del Frayle, Cahuachi, Palpa and Ingenio, concentrated in Pampa de Jumana.

Two techniques were used to define the geoglyphs. In the earlier Chavín period they were defined in outline, the gravel being removed and piled inwards, so as to leave the figures in slight relief. For the most part, however, the technique used was the removal of the gravel from the figure, providing a solid figure that contrasts with its surroundings.

In general terms the geoglyphs fall into two categories: the first group (of which about 70 have been identified) are representational, depicting in schematic form a variety of natural forms. Many of these are animals, birds, insects, and other living creatures: examples include the spider, the monkey, the guanay or guano bird, the lizard, the hummingbird, the killer whales, and the largest of all, the pelican (285 m). Stylistically they can be linked closely with motifs on other representational art of the period, such as pottery and textiles. Other figures represent flowers, plants, and trees, deformed or fantastic figures (strange creature with two human hands, one with only four fingers), and objects of everyday life, such as looms and tupus (ornamental clasps). There are very few anthropomorphic figures, for the most part paralleled by the petroglyphs to be found in the more rocky parts of the region and are considered to be early in date.

The second group comprises the lines proper. These generally straight lines criss-cross certain parts of the pampas of the region in all directions. Some are several kilometres in length and form designs of many different geometrical figures - triangles, spirals, rectangles, wavy lines, etc. Others radiate from a central promontory or encircle it, as in the cases of the quipus. Yet another group consists of so-called 'tracks', which appear to have been laid out to accommodate large numbers of people.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Description historique

Une étude intensive des géoglyphes ainsi que la comparaison avec d'autres formes artistiques qui leur sont contemporaines incitent à distinguer trois étapes chronologiques :

La première remonte à la période Chavin (500-300 avant J.C.), elle est caractérisée par la technique qui consistait à empiler des pierres pour former des silhouettes. Ce fut une importante période pour les manifestations culturelles des Andes avec une forte influence exercée dans la région d'Ica par la Culture intermédiaire tardive venue du nord.

La seconde est une forme locale connue sous 1' appellation "Paracas" ( 400-200 avant J. C.), elle est aussi fortement influencée par le nord. La ville de Paracas a soigneusement adapté sa culture aux conditions géographiques difficiles et elle est parvenue à des réalisations artistiques de très haute qualité.

La troisième phase qui concerne la majorité des géoglyphes est la phase de Nazca proprement dite (200 avant J.C. - 500 après J.C.). La culture Nazca est directement dérivée de celle de Paracas. Les villes des Andes ont mis au point un système religieux très puissant qui, tout comme Moche sur la côte nord du Pérou, a donné naissance à une culture exceptionnelle caractérisée par la qualité de son artisanat (surtout la poterie) et ses tissages. La majorité des géoglyphes de cette période sont situés près des villages où se manifestait cette culture comme la Quebrada del Frayle, Cahuachi, Palpa et lngenio, concentrés autour de Pampa de Jumana.

Source : évaluation des Organisations consultatives